Yoga East Exam (Sonic Yoga NYC) flashcards |

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abstinence; related to connection between self and others/community/etc.

yama

personal observances; related to connection between self and the divine

niyama

literally, "seat;" posture to prepare for meditation; discipline of the body

asana

breath control; cultivation of prana; directs the prana

pranayama

sense withdrawal; mental cleansing, fasting

pratyahara

concentration

dharana

meditation

dhyana

experience of the true self (atman); the big picture; bliss

samadhi

non-violence

ahimsa

truthfulness

satya

non-stealing

asteya

self-restraint (abstinence)

brahmacharya

non-attachment

aparigraha

5 yamas

ahimsa, satya, asteya, brahmacharya, aparigraha

purity and cleanliness

saucha

contentment

santosha

disciplined use of energy; directing energy

tapas

study of self; self-acceptance

svadhyaya

devotion; celebration of Spirit

ishvarapranidhana

5 niyamas

saucha, santosha, tapas, svadhyaya, isvarapranidhana

yoga

to yoke; union; union of mind, body, and spirit

vinyasa

to place or arrange in a special way with the breath

vinyasa krama

krama - "order" or "method." In Vinyasa Krama, postures are organized in a logical sequence. Each posture can be first experienced through the easier vinyasas and the gradually mastered by moving through all the variations. In this way, the body is opened up in a gentle process, achieving deep transformation without force or injury.

karma yoga

yoga of action

bhakti yoga

yoga of heart

jnana yoga

yoga of mind

raja yoga

yoga of physical and mental control

vinyasa principles from ashtanga

linking breath to movement, breath / ujjayi, locks / bhandas, gaze / dhristi

body locks or muscular contractions applied for the retention and channeling of kundulini energy

bhanda(s)

Patanjali

father of yoga

Swami Vivekananda

1893 World's Fair at Parliament of religions

Indra Devi

brought Hatha yoga to America in 40s; studied under Krishnamacharya

Pattabhi Jois

studied under Krisnamacharya

Sri Krishnamacharya

1888-1989; taught viniyoga system of Hatha-Yoga

T.K.V. Desikachar

taught father's (Krishnamacharya) system of yoga

B.K.S. Iyengar

sick in youth, lived with brother in law (Krishnamacharya), wrote "Light on Yoga" 1966, in 1952 friend, violinist Menuhin, introduced to world, use of props

prakriti

matter

purusha

spirit

yoga's origins

originated in India 5,000 + years ago

literally "vision" or "insight;" the gaze (internal and/or external)

Drishti

type of pranayama breathing which develops awareness through drawing air in through both nostrils with the glottis held partially closed. Literally "loud breathing" or "what clears the throat and masters the chest area"

Ujjayi pranayama

8 Limbs of Ashtanga Yoga

(1) Yamas (2) Niyamas (3) Asana (4) Pranayama (5) Pratyahara (6) Dharana (7) Dhyana (8) Samadhi

pratyahara

withdrawal of senses from external objects

5 koshas

Annamaya; Pranamaya; Manomaya; Vijnanamaya; Anandamaya

Pancha Koshas (literal)

pancha: 5, kosha: sheath

annamaya kosha

physical body

pranamaya kosha

energy/emo body

manomaya kosha

lower mental body

vijnanamaya kosha

higher intellectual body

anandamaya kosha

bliss body

sushumna nadi

spinal chord

pingala nadi

male, right, solar, fire, yang

ida nadi

female, left, lunar, water, yin

bija mantra

chakra mantra

muladhara

1st chakra

swadhisthana

2nd chakra

manipura

3rd chakra

anahata

4th chakra

vishuddha

5th chakra

ajna

6th chakra

sahashrara

7th chakra

bija mantras in order

lam, vam, ram, yam, ham, om, silent om

marma points

108 points; energy amplification points, lie along nadis, boost flow of prana

pancha vayus

5 winds: prana, apana, samana, udana, vyana

prana vayu

diaphragm to base of throat; pranic absorption

apana vayu

downward from navel to feet; elimination

samana vayu

navel to diaphragm; digestion

udana vayu

from base of throat to top of head; movement in throat and facial expressions

vyana vayu

all prevading

ujjayi

psychic breathing; 'upward + success'; energy: mind, cold; body, hot

surya bhedana

to strike through solar channel; IN right, OUT left

sitali

cool; through tongue

aitkari

through teeth; cold

bhastrika

rhythmic, increases auric body

simhasana

lion's breath

chandra bhedana

strike through lunar channel; IN left, OUT right: cooling

nadi shodana

alt nostril; IN left, OUT right w/bandha

the bandhas

uddiyana, moola, jalandhara (net, web); maha (all three)

types of meditation

concentrative, tactile, integrative, contemplative, off-mat

ayurveda

science of life

5 elements

earth, wind, water, fire, space

gunas

(qualities of matter in unmanifested universe) tamas, rajas, sattva

tamas guna

inertia, darkness

rajas guna

activity, movement, process of change

sattva guna

purity

doshas

vata, pitta, kapha

ayurvedic healing techniques

diet and nutrition, herbs, massage/marma pt therapy, asana/pranayama, lifestyle changes, mantra, mediation, purification/fasting

god triad

Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva

Yoga Sutras

form theoretical and philosophical basis of Raja Yoga; divided into 4 chapters or books (padas) containing 196 aphorisms

Sutras Book 1

Samadhi Pada - author describes yoga and then the nature and means of attaining Samadhi (blissful state where yoga is absorbed into the One). Contains verse, "Yogas citta-vritti-nirodhah" ("Yoha is the restraint of mental modification")

Sutras Book 2

Sadhana Pada - author outlines two forms of yoga: Kriya (action) yoga, and Ashtanga (eithfold or eightlimbed) yoga. Sadhana = practice or discipline

Sutras Book 3

Vibhuti Pada - Vibhuti = power or manifestation. Supar-normal powers (siddi) are acquired by the practice of yoga. The tempation of these powers should be avoided and attention should be fixed only on liberation

Sutras Book 4

Kaivalya Pada - Kaivalya = isolation, but as used in the Sutras stands for emancipation, liberation, and is used inchangeably with "moksha" (liberation), which is the goal of Yoga. This book describes the process of liberation and the reality of the transcendental ego

Bhagavad Gita

universal theme: ethical and moral struggles of the human life; the inner battle between good and evil, right and wrong, etc. The BG is a Dharmic scripture that is part of the Hindu epic, Mahabaratha

chakras

part of the subtle body (not physical) that correspond to vital points in the physical body; they are centers of prana (life force or vital energy)

Pranayama - 5 uses

(1) develop heat and cleanse us of toxins; (2) remove avidya (spiritual ignorance); (3) passify/cool nervous system; (4) purify nadis; (5) once toxins are released and spiritual ignorance is removed, shakti/kundalini can move up the spine, and enlightenment can occur

latent/dormant energy that lies at base of spine - once released (through crown of head), individual becomes true self (one with everything)

kundalini

Ujjayi technique

(corners of chest lift; ribcage expands) slows down aging process, releases stress/anxiety; mind-body connexn; lowers bp; pain mgmt; relaxes muscles; creates grace in postures; improves focus; quiets the mind (for meditation). Generates heat

Sitali technique

(inhale through rolled tongue, exhale without sound through nose, tongue retracted) - cooling

Sitkari technique

(inhale through mouth, teeth together; exhale through nose, no noise) - cooling

Simhasana technique

Lion's breath - heating - helps stage fright, relieves anxiety

kumbhaka

periods between when you inhale and exhale

kaphalbati technique

"Skull shining breath" - for advanced practitioners. Rapid forced exhales followed by passive inhales. Generates heat.

Bhastrika technique

"bellows breath" - for advanced practitioners - generates heat. Good for respiratory system, tones ab muscles, improves digestion, drains sinuses

mudras

ways to encapsulate/move energy; moves awareness back to a concept in an encapsulated way

anjali mudra

palms touch at heart; balance

jnana mudra

pointer to thumb palm down, thum & first finger touch ("o") - specific mudra for meditation - integration/connecting/centering

samkalpa mudra

left hand down, holds right on top for union of active/receptive energ - balance, harmony

hasta mudra

palms up in receptivity - grace/acceptance/openness

jaya mudra

palms overhead - victory/strength/affirmation

prana mudra

palms raised - balance, active/opening expression

vira mudra

make fist with thumbs up, solar - energizing, powerful

bhairava mudra

open palms up right rests on left - union with supreme consciousness (mtg of masculine & feminine energy)

aphiya mudra

palm faces out, thumb down - no fear

garuda mudra

link thumbs, spread fingers on heartspace - freedom

ganapati mudra

interlace fingers, pull fists - removes obstacles, empowering

padma mudra

lotus - transformation/evolution

shankara conch mudra

L with L hand, wrap right hand - protection

vata

space & air; mobility; cold, dry, rough; light in weight; irregularity; creative personalities; LUNGS

Pitta

fire & water; hot, sharp, oily, spreading; mobile; active/busy personalities, anger; INTESTINE

Kapha

water & earth; heavy, wet, stable, steady; calm and slow personalities. COLON and HEART/STROKE problems

Prakriti

one's true nature/constitution

Vikruti

nature of dosha imbalance

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