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14 Multiple choice questions

  1. 1st phase in management, value statements, not scientific, ex. recover populations of cutthroat trout
  2. Generate the knowledge and develop the technical tools needed to sustain fish and wildlife populations as functioning elements of ecological systems
  3. Explicit quantitative model of potential observations, requires mathematical model, ex.
  4. Process of obtaining knowledge about and studying wildlife, management is application of that knowledge
  5. WM managers are custodians of something that exists and is self-renewing, appropriate questions seldom seem obvious (sometimes questions are unknown), functional roles of all components are seldom known (until they are lost), criteria for success and failure are often elusive, manger never in complete control, management is not an exclusively science-based process
  6. How best to achieve goals, testable and verifiable, ex. culling of elk will prevent elimination of willow
  7. Knowledge covering general truths or the operation of general laws especially as obtained and tested through scientific method- observe, hypothesis, experiment
  8. Reasoning that proceeds from specific set of observations to general inference to the whole, collect body of facts about some aspect of nature, look for patterns, draw general conclusions from observations, basis for formulation of theory
  9. Model of how system works expressed in terms of observable quantities, often qualitative and verbal, ex. body weight of black bears changes as we go from the equator to the pole
  10. Reasoning that uses observations or experiments to test hypothesis, begins with a specific hypothesis drawn from theory or patterns in nature, observations made, or experiments conducted, to falsify hypothesis, hypothesis that withstands falsification is used to confirm, or reject the theory being tested, evidence that null is wrong
  11. Predictive explanation for a consistent set of observations including a hypothesized mechanism
  12. ...
  13. Make observations, formulate testable scientific (research) hypotheses based on observations, articulate predictions as quantitative statements of statistical hypotheses to be tested, design and execute valid experiments to test hypothesis, analyze data with appropriate statistical tests, accept or reject statistical hypothesis based on testing, convert statistical conclusion to a biological conclusion
  14. Specific prediction from theory expressed in terms of measurable outcomes, scientific (practical), statistical (formal)