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Agencies, Legislation, and Role of Science flashcards |
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  • Sources of Wildlife Funding

    Federal or state appropriations (government taxes), user pay: license sales, excise taxes, special use stamps, and private sectors

    Federal or State Appropriations

    All federal agencies are tax-based, state mostly isn't (CO doesn't), most federal agencies and about 1/3 of state agencies, CO gets no money from the state revenues, appropriated funds are not always reliable based on the whims of politicians

    User Pay

    License sales, excise tax, stamps

    License Sales

    User pay, state agencies receive more than 50% of their funds, most important source of funding for CO

    Excise Taxes

    User pay, federal aid in wildlife restoration act, Pittman-Robertson (1937)- tax on firearms, taxes on the manufacturing level- 11% tax on sporting arms/ammunition, 1970's implemented on handguns and archery equipment also, distribution is based on land ares, # of licenses, and population, has brought in more than 3.5 billion since 1937

    Excise Taxes from Federal Aid in Sport Fish Restoration Act

    Dingell-Johnson (1950), manufacturing level-10% tax on fishing equipment, in 1984 Wallup-Breaux implemented 3% tax on fishing tackle, motors, etc., distribution based on land/water area, # of fishing licenses, brought in 3.2 billion since 1950

    Pittman-Robertson and Dingell-Johnson

    Excise tax, USFWS receives money and reappropriates it to states in 3:1 match, 75% is excise tax and 25% is state tax, accounts for 40% of USWFS budget-8% of which is kept for admin, 15-25% of state budgets, normally this is a steady source of income, 4.65 billion to date, some political interference

    Duck Stamps

    User Pay, implemented in Co since 1989, protected 19,500 acres of wetland, brought in 6.7 million

    Habitat Stamps

    User Pay, allows access to SWA, must pay $5 with license or 10.25 without license, commemorative one is $1o, brings in around 2.3 million a year

    Private Funding

    NGO's, ducks unlimited, trout unlimited, national audobon society, WWF, IUCN, TNC, private foundations

    Department of Agriculture

    USDA, forest service, aphis, national wildlife research center, national resources conservation service

    Forest Service

    USDA, administers national forests and grasslands an wildlife thereon

    Aphis

    USDA, resolve wildlife conflicts and create a balance that allows people and wildlife to coexist peacefully

    National Wildlife Research Center

    USDA, research arm of wildlife services

    National Resources Conservation Serice

    USDA, assists with habitat development on private and public lands

    Department of Interior

    USFWs, national park service, us geological survey, bureau of land management, bureau of reclamation, bureau of indian affairs

    United States Fish and Wildlife Services

    USDI, conservation of migratory birds, certain mammals, endangered species, sport fishes, negotiates international treaties

    National Park Service

    USDI, conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and the wildlife therein and to provide for the enjoyement of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations

    US Geological Survey

    USDI, provide scientific understanding and technologies to support management and conservation of nation's biological resources

    Bureau of Land Management

    USDI, approximately 55% of all federal lands, supervises multiple uses- wildlife, grazing, resources extraction, recreation, watershed

    Bureau of Reclamation

    USDI, water development and reclamation

    Bureau of Indian Affairs

    USDI, native american lands and resource management

    Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA, administers NEPA, reviews EIS's prepared by other federal agencies, maintains a national filing system for all EIS's, assures that its own actions comply with NEPA, pollution control and monitoring-air, water, hazardous wastes, pesticides, toxic substances, radiation and noise, establishes and enforcing laws

    Department of Commerce

    National Marine Fisheries Service, research and management of marine fish, mammals, and invertebrates, administers ESA for marine species, NOAA (national oceanic and atmospheric administration)

    Department of Defense

    Army Corps, responsible for dredging, steam stabilization on navigable rivers and coastal wetlands, issues dredge and fill permits through Clean Water Act

    Lacey Act

    Prohibited shipment, transport, and commerce of wildlife taken or possessed in violation of state, federal, or foreign laws, eliminated "market hunting", federal permit for importation of exotic wildlife

    Migratory Bird Treaty Act

    US, great Britain, and Canada, Mexico, Japan, USSR, defined migratory birds, prohibited sale of game birds, spring/night shooting abolished, daily bag limits, nongame migratory birds protected, native Americans exempted

    Black Bass Act

    Lacey Act for fishing, prohibited transport or commerce in violation of state and federal laws, protection for black bass, all game fish

    Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act

    Pittman-Robertson

    Federal Aid in Sport Fish Restoration Act

    Dingle-Johnson

    Wilderness ACt

    Defines wilderness, no cars, no roads, conforming activities ok-hunting, fishing, and camping, pre-existing use may continue- mining, reservoirs, livestock, and tree harvest

    Endangered Species Act

    Preserve endangered species in native habitat, take: harm, including habitat modification, critical habitat, section 7-federal agencies must consult with interior about actions that might jeopardize T&E species, recovery teams/plans

    Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species

    CITES, protection for endangered species, import/export procedure, 120+ nations, 675+ species, 3 lists: species endangered by trade, species that may or may not be threatened by trade, species that should be regulated in trade

    National Environmental Policy Act

    Required for federal activities significantly affecting quality of human environment, EA-environmental assessment, FONSI- finding of no significance, EIS- environmental impact statement, purpose of action, environmental impact, alternatives, litigations/consulting firms

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