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  1. U.V. LIGHT TREATMENT ADVANTAGES:
  2. COLLOIDS:
  3. TYPES OF FILTERS:
  4. MINIMUM CHLORINE REQUIRED DEPENDS ON:
  5. MINIMUM CHLORINE REQUIREMENT IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM:
  6. ALL TREATMENT METHODS DEPENDENT ON:
  7. COMBINED CHLORINE:
  8. WATERSHED PROTECTION:
  9. U.V. LIGHT TREATMENT DISADVANTAGES:
  10. FREE RESIDUAL CHLORINE:
  11. SYNTHETIC POLYMERS:
  12. COAGULATION AND PH:
  13. SLOW SAND FILTERS:
  14. BREAKPOINT CHLORINATION:
  15. CHLORINATION:
  16. SURFACE WATER TREATMENT RULE APPLIES TO:
  17. FLOCCULATION:
  18. ALTERNATIVES TO CHLORINATION:
  19. SEDIMENTATION:
  20. RAPID SAND FILTERS:
  21. DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES SURFACE WATER TREATMENT RULE REQUIRES:
  22. FILTRATION:
  23. COAGULATION:
  24. DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS:
  25. OZONE TREATMENT DISADVANTAGES:
  26. REVERSE OSMOSIS:
  27. OZONE TREATMENT ADVANTAGES:
  28. pH AND CHLORINATION:
  29. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF SURFACE WATER TREATMENT:
  30. FLOC:
  1. a a watertight basin holds a special sand (0.25 to 0.35 mm in size) 30 to 48 inches deep; equipped with loss of head gauge and rate controller. Filtration should take place at a rate of 1 to 4 million gallons per acre per day. Water to be filtered should have low color, low coliform concentration, and low in suspended matter to prevent clogging of the filter. A well-operated plant will remove 98 to 99.5% of coliforms, protozoa, and viruses as well as some organic and inorganic chemicals.
    (Salvato, pp. 390-392)
  2. b provides no lasting residual in treated water (may be offset by adding chlorine or chlorine-ammonia to maintain a chlorine residual); must be generated on site (cannot be stored); very expensive; very corrosive and toxic.
    (Salvato, pg. 420)
  3. c household treatment system usually located under kitchen sink. Pressure is applied to a semi permeable membrane from the concentrated side of the membrane, results in water movement from high concentration to low concentration.
    (356B)
  4. d concentrations of 1.0 to 1.5 mg/L- excellent virucide, effective against amoebic and Giardia cysts, destroys bacteria, humic acid, and phenols; powerful oxidizing agent over wide pH and temperature range; effectively eliminates odor, taste, and color; pre-treatment greatly reduces potential for formation of chlorinated organics (THM); over 3100 times faster and more effective than chlorine disinfection.
    (Salvato, pg. 420)
  5. e (also known as mechanical filter) effective particle size of ~0.35mm. Larger static head (6-10 ft water) with 3 ft sand on bottom. This allows the water to move faster. When the filtering rate slows and the water pressure drops to 5-7 psi, the filter needs to be backwashed (i.e., wash the sand). Water quality is not as good as with the slow sand filter.
    (Salvato, pp. 392-400)
  6. f no added taste or odor issues; usually used as household treatment unit; may be considered microbiologically acceptable when used with chlorination if water supply is always clean, clear, and not subject to chemical or organic pollution.
    (Salvato, pg. 366)
  7. g slow sand, rapid sand, mixed-media, bag, reverse osmosis
    (Study guide)
  8. h disinfectant concentration, contact time, pH, temperature, turbidity.
    (Study guide)
  9. i primary purpose is to remove suspended materials, although microbiological organisms and color are also reduced.
    (Salvato, pg. 390)
  10. j coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, disinfection.
  11. k pH, temperature, turbidity, etc.
    measured by C (mg/L) * t (minutes)
  12. l 3 forms of chlorine:
    1. gaseous- almost pure chlorine (Cl2 + H2O <--> HCl + HOCl <--> OCl- + H+) the HOCl dissociates to OCl- + H+ causing the pH to drop
    2. liquid- sodium hypochlorite (bleach): (NaOCl + H2O <--> Na+ + OCl- <--> H+ HOCl) uses up the H+ in solution causing the pH to increase
    3. solid- calcium hypochlorite (powder/tablets): (Ca(OCl)2 + H2O <--> Ca++ + 2 OCl- <--> H+ HOCl) uses up the H+ causing the pH to increase.
  13. m Removal of specific microbes by 2-, 3-, and 4- logs; monitoring of turbidity, and watershed protection.
  14. n small particles that remain suspended in solution.
    (356B, pg. 27)
  15. o chloramines, chlorine dioxide, iodine, ozone, U.V, heat
    (356B)
  16. p small particles aggregated into larger masses that easily settle out of solution. Tends to be white in color and sticks to particulates.
    (356 B, pg. 27)
  17. q surface and certain ground waters.
  18. r as more chlorine is added to the water, a variety of reactions occur ultimately releasing HCl and nitrogen gas (burning of the chloramines). Any additional chlorine is converted directly into free available chlorine.
    (356B)
  19. s alkalinity and pH (chemical reaction) impact coagulation; therefore, it is sometimes necessary to first add soda ash, hydrated lime, quicklime, or sulfuric acid. Color is best removed at a pH of 6.0 to 6.5.
    (Salvato, pg. 388)
  20. t destabilizing of suspended colloids by adding a coagulant (such as alum).
    (Salvato, pg. 388)
  21. u the most common method of destroying the disease producing organisms that might normally be found in water used for drinking.
    (Salvato, pg. 376)
  22. v not less than 0.2 mg/L in 95% of samples
    (356B, pg. 27)
  23. w includes enactment of rules and regulations and regular periodic surveillance and inspections. These rules and regulations are legal means to control land use that might cause pollution of the water draining off and into the watershed of the water supply source.
    (Salvato, pg. 285)
  24. x formation of floc.
    (356 B, pg. 27)
  25. y the amount of chlorine dosage after which any additional chlorine has a chlorine demand of zero. If the water has a lot of constituents (such as Fe, Mn, NO2), there will be a high chlorine demand and will require a lot of Cl to reach break point.
    (356B, pg. 27)
  26. z gravitational settling (flocculant settles out of solution)
    (356B, pg. 27)
  27. aa interference by turbidity, color, iron, organic matter; no residual protection; not effective against Giardia and Cryptosporidium cysts; viruses are especially resistant.
    (Salvato, pg. 366)
  28. ab the chlorine byproducts can lead to the formation of trihalomethane (THM) which is a carcinogen. This has lead to searching for disinfection alternatives.
    (356B)
  29. ac first forms when chlorine combines with various organics in the water, forming chloro-organics. Next, chlorine combines with ammonia in the water, forming chloramines.
    HOCl + NH3--> NH2Cl (monochloramine)
    HOCl + NH2Cl --> NHCl2 (dichloramine)
    HOCL + NHCl2 --> NCl3 (trichloramine)
    (356B)
  30. ad added with sodium silicate and polyelectrolytes as coagulant aids to improve coagulation and floc strength, usually resulting in less sludge and lower chemical doses.
    (Salvato, pg. 388)