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168 True/False questions

  1. timeThe time data type stores only time information up to 100 nanosecond accuracy. It does not store a time zone offset.

          

  2. the EXCEPT operatorreturns all rows in the results generated by the query on the left-hand side that are not included in the results generated by the query on the right-hand side.

          

  3. Floating-Pointis used when a column references another column in the same table.

          

  4. in an Incremental Backup, what takes place? INCREMENTALonly files that have been changed since the last backup are copied.

          

  5. 1. You would issue a DML statement to set, what?
    2. DML statements do what?
    DDL

          

  6. You define an output parameter by using, which keyword?OUTPUT keyword

          

  7. The SET clause includes what, to be updated? (list two things)to insert a new row in a table.

          

  8. DELETE FROM (does what?)deletes rows in a table

          

  9. The INSERT INTO with SELECT statement is used (when?)to insert a new row in a table.

          

  10. The TRUNCATE TABLE statement does?deletes all rows from the table, but does not log each row deleted.

          

  11. A foreign key (SG)serves as the unique identifier of a specific row and uniquely defines a relationship
    within a database.

          

  12. 1. Can you use a INTO clause with an UPDATE statement?
    2. When can a VALUES clause be used? (list two ways)
    1.INTO clause is not valid for the UPDATE statement.
    2. he INTO clause can be used with a SELECT statement to insert the results into a new table.
    & It is also an optional keyword that can be specified in the syntax of an INSERT statement.

          

  13. 1. A user-defined function must contain which clause AND which statement?
    2. What does the clause do?
    3. what does the statement do?
    OUTPUT keyword

          

  14. If you group users by roles which statement would you use and what would that do?the data from the table is deleted

          

  15. Booleanstores 1 or 0, true or false

          

  16. If a database will contain a large number of records, what should you think about adding, even if it requires more time and effort to do?avoid large index keys for more optimal performance.

          

  17. The command that returns an alphabetical list is:UNION combines the results of two queries (note: must have same number of columns and data types)
    JOIN returns rows when there is at least one column match

          

  18. A cross joinreturns only matched rows from the two tables.

          

  19. Data Typespecify the possible range of values of the set, the operations that can be performed
    on the values, and the way in which the values are stored in memory.

          

  20. Which is a characteristic of a non-clustered index?
    a. contains the actual data pages or records
    b. has keywords and pointers to the data
    c. includes foreign keys
    Takes up more space but allows the use of multiple languages

          

  21. How is a non-clustered index arranged? (SG)ensures that data is consistent, correct, and usable throughout the database.

          

  22. What does the word inclusion mean?The act or state of being included into a group or structure (a larger group). TO INCLUDE SOMEONE!

          

  23. To set up the INSERT to allow the programmer to copy rows from other tables:use the INSERT INTO with a SELECT...FROM clause

          

  24. What is ONE difference between application roles and database roles?Application roles are not granted and revoked like database roles.

          

  25. A paramater name must begin with what?To users and groups

          

  26. What does the ON DELETE NO ACTION option do?creates when-then-else functionality.
    Give an example using the WHEN and THEN?
    (WHEN this condition is met THEN do this.)

          

  27. what does a user account provide?ensures and restricts who can connect and what they can do.

          

  28. Securablesare the server, database, and objects a database contains

          

  29. How does the third normal form (3NF) take normalization a step further than 2NF?INSERT INTO table (columnl, column2) VALUES (val1a, val1b), (val2a, val2b);

          

  30. a self-joinis used when a column references another column in the same table.

          

  31. Normalization-(from study guide)Normalizing to INF requires that you eliminate repeating groups.

          

  32. Replicated services, do? REPLICATED SERVICESre-create a full or incremental reproduction of the database.

          

  33. a differential backup, back ups what? DIFFERENTIALBecause the TRUNCATE TABLE statement does not log each deletion, it is faster and requires fewer locks than the DELETE statement.
    The TRUNCATE TABLE statement requires fewer resources than the DELETE statement.

          

  34. Both the decimal and numeric data types allow you to?
    What is precision?
    DDL

          

  35. A primary key (SG)performs an operation and returns a single value. (a function can't perform any modification on a permanent table)

          

  36. When data is missing from a particular column, if you use the INSERT statement what happens to those column?the INSERT statement uses the default value for the column

          

  37. A table-valued functionselects data and returns the results as a table.

          

  38. A loginis a saved query that creates a virtual table from the result set of the query

          

  39. What is the correct syntax for inserting multiple rows at one time?INSERT INTO table (columnl, column2) VALUES (val1a, val1b), (val2a, val2b);

          

  40. How can a database of addresses be simplified?prevents rows that are referenced through a FOREIGN KEY constraint from being deleted. (Cascade related)

          

  41. To ensure that either both DELETE statements are successful or both fail, you can use what?an explicit transaction.

          

  42. The condition that always results in true is:the or operator and at least one field = true

          

  43. What about an index should you avoid? and why?a single attribute of an entity.

          

  44. The First Normal Form (1NF)----(SG). GENERALsets a few basic rules for a database: eliminate duplicative columns from the same table.

          

  45. What does the CASE statement create?creates when-then-else functionality.
    Give an example using the WHEN and THEN?
    (WHEN this condition is met THEN do this.)

          

  46. Data types are assigned and stored where?A column (is assigned a data type)

          

  47. Boolean logical operators (AND,OR,Truth tables)AND:displays a record if both the first condition and the second condition are true. OR:displays a record if either the first condition or the second conditions are true.
    Truth Tables:show the relationships of the Boolean logical operators.

          

  48. what does Access control do?The act or state of being included into a group or structure (a larger group). TO INCLUDE SOMEONE!

          

  49. What are characteristics of the Unicode data type?creates when-then-else functionality.
    Give an example using the WHEN and THEN?
    (WHEN this condition is met THEN do this.)

          

  50. User-defined functionsare compact segments of user-written SQL code that can accept parameters and return either a value or a table.

          

  51. when a view definition contains a join:DML statements can be performed using the view, but only on a single base table.

          

  52. The CREATE FUNCTION statement is used when?to create a user-defined function. User-defined functions must return a value.

          

  53. 1. In a well-designed relational database table, a column represents what?
    2. The entity is represented how?
    1. a column represents a single entity attribute.
    2. The entity is represented with a table, and its attributes are represented by columns within the table.

          

  54. A login is a what?A login is a server-level object that is used to grant the ability to establish a connection with an instance of SQL Server.

          

  55. JOINmoney data type stores data with the accuracy of four decimal points. It Requires 8 bytes of storage. The money data type supports values between -922,337,203,685,477.5808 and 922,337,203,685,477.5807.

          

  56. A scalar functionperforms an operation and returns a single value. (a function can't perform any modification on a permanent table)

          

  57. DISTINCTreturns only distinct (unique) values.

          

  58. UNIONis used to query data from two or more tables.

          

  59. What are TRANSACTIONS?are a set of two or more statements grouped into a single unit.

          

  60. To update data in one table from another table, the developer should use: (what syntax?) (Rentals,equipment)UPDATE RENTALS SET kayak = RENTALS.kayak + EQUIPMENT.kayak FROM RENTALS,
    EQUIPMENT

          

  61. If all statements are correct within a single transaction what command records it to the database?The SET clause ( You specify the columns or variables that should be updated and, when a FROM clause is not also used, their values.)

          

  62. when you assign a DEFAULT value to a column?DEFAULT is specified for a column to assign a column a specific value if no value is specified when a row is added.

          

  63. What should be included in the physical security plan? (SG)avoid large index keys for more optimal performance.

          

  64. a Queryis a saved query that creates a virtual table from the result set of the query

          

  65. 1. SCHEMABINDING clause, purpose?
    2. when is it available?
    order the results of a query.

          

  66. the INTERSECT operator is used to, what?the WHERE clause of a SELECT statement to return results with character column values that contain specific characters or specific character strings.

          

  67. The ORDER BY clause of a SELECT statement is used to?to insert a new row in a table when a sub-select is used instead of the VALUES clause.

          

  68. What do Roles do, regarding security?grant permissions to the database. Defined roles give all users within a group the same permissions.

          

  69. A column is used to store data for?a single attribute of an entity.

          

  70. How is a Clustered index arranged? (SG)It is arranged in a special order to make retrieval of information faster with direct access to the information.

          

  71. A programmer can enforce data integrity rules when making changes to the records in a database by:the COMMIT command records the changes to the database. if all statements are correct in a single transaction.

          

  72. The INTERSECT query is used:to return a list of only the rows that are in both of the result sets generated by two other separate queries.

          

  73. Transactions are useful when updating/deleting/adding records to a database because:they allow multiple statements to be grouped together to avoid data integrity errors

          

  74. Permissionsreturns a Cartesian product (a result in which each combination of rows is represented).

          

  75. a ViewAllows whole numbers billion 4 bytes

          

  76. 1. What is the value of the case expression?
    2. What is the result if none is true?
    1. the value of the first WHEN clause that is true.
    2. if non is true, the result is the ELSE.

          

  77. Which clause is required when issuing an UPDATE statement?The SET clause ( You specify the columns or variables that should be updated and, when a FROM clause is not also used, their values.)

          

  78. Functionsare the individuals, groups, and processes granted access to SQL Server

          

  79. The command that would ensure that return visitors are only counted once is:the or operator and at least one field = true

          

  80. intis used to query data from two or more tables.

          

  81. When performing a full backup, what information is optional?
    a. data that has not changed
    b. server files such as user security NAT
    c. data that has not changed since the last full backup
    all files are copied for possible future retrieval.

          

  82. 1. What is a structure for storing database indexes?
    2. In that structure, how are the database indexes stored?
    1. b-tree structure.
    2. each node in the tree contains a sorted list of key values and links that correspond to ranges of key values between the listed values.

          

  83. Which of the following are not methods to manipulate data?
    a. select, insert, update, and delete
    b. creation of stored procedures and functions
    c. creation of primary and foreign keys
    c. creation of primary and foreign keys

          

  84. datetimeoffsetThe datetime2 data type stores date and time information at user- defined precision. However, it does not store a time zone offset.

          

  85. If you have two DELETE statements, deleting rows from separate tables. By default when you execute a DML statement (such as DELETE) what happens automatically?the changes are automatically saved to the database if the statement is successful. So if you issue two statements at once and only one is successful, by default only the one would be implemented to the database.

          

  86. The GROUP BY clausereturns a Cartesian product (a result in which each combination of rows is represented).

          

  87. a Graphical Designeris an application, such as Microsoft Access, that is object-oriented and drag-and-drop driven.

          

  88. Data integrity (SG)returns only matched rows from the two tables.

          

  89. The Second Normal Form (2NF)----(SG) GENERAL(equals) = 2NF + removing columns that are not dependent upon the primary key.

          

  90. The LIKE keyword is used in what?to return a list of only the rows that are in both of the result sets generated by two other separate queries.

          

  91. privilege escalation and SQL injections are examples of what?to return a list of only the rows that are in both of the result sets generated by two other separate queries.

          

  92. Normal Form (Study guide answer). What does it try to avoid? What does it promote?is the result of structuring (organizing) information to avoid redundancy and inconsistency and to promote efficient maintenance, storage, and updating.

          

  93. An inner joinreturns only matched rows from the two tables.

          

  94. Stored proceduresreturn a single value, based on the input value of a single field.

          

  95. Scalar functionsperforms an operation and returns a single value. (a function can't perform any modification on a permanent table)

          

  96. Which clause is REQUIRED when issuing an UPDATE statement?is used to update rows in a table based on information stored in another table.

          

  97. Is Combining informational columns, part of the normalization process?NO

          

  98. Which type of index has keywords & pointers to the data, but does not contain the actual data pages or records?Non-clustered index

          

  99. Which strategy is not related to an INTERNAL security plan?
    a. provide backups and operational continuity
    b. delete old and unused user accounts
    c. enforce user accounts to have strong passwords
    the database must be available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week

          

  100. Characterare the server, database, and objects a database contains

          

  101. A physical security plan does what?addresses the safety of the actual location of the database.

          

  102. DEFAULT constraint...

          

  103. The difference between UNION and JOIN is:UNION combines the results of two queries (note: must have same number of columns and data types)
    JOIN returns rows when there is at least one column match

          

  104. The CREATE INDEX statement is a what statement?DDL

          

  105. 1. Can you use a VALUES clause with an UPDATE statement?
    2. When can a VALUES clause be used?
    VALUES clause is not valid for the UPDATE statement.
    2. The VALUES clause can be used with an INSERT statement to specify the values that should be inserted.

          

  106. To m inim ize the am ount o f redundant data that is stored, you should design your tables to include only information about what?to insert a new row in a table when a sub-select is used instead of the VALUES clause.

          

  107. timestampThe time data type stores only time information up to 100 nanosecond accuracy. It does not store a time zone offset.

          

  108. A security plan identifies what?which users can do what action(s) to data in the database.

          

  109. a WHERE clause is used to do what, when updating.
    (whats an example?)
    the SET clause

          

  110. If you do not include a WHERE statement in the DELETE statement: what happens?DDL

          

  111. Aggregate functionsreturn a single value, calculated from values in a column.

          

  112. In a VIEW what does the WITH CHECK OPTION clause do?The act or state of being included into a group or structure (a larger group). TO INCLUDE SOMEONE!

          

  113. What do application roles allow access to?Application roles allow access to database objects, but only through an application. Application roles are not assigned to users. Instead, a single login is
    associated with an application.

          

  114. what is one difference between an application role and a database role?Application roles are not granted and revoked like database roles.

          

  115. datetime2The datetime2 data type stores date and time information at user- defined precision. However, it does not store a time zone offset.

          

  116. Subqueriesdata type store whole numbers

          

  117. What does ROLLBACK do?reverses changes

          

  118. Normalizing a database to 2nd normal form. What 2 steps do you make?1. you identify any columns that have the same value for more than a single primary key value and separate those columns into a different table.
    2.You then create foreign key relationships between the tables.

          

  119. Differences between TRUNCATE and DELETE?Because the TRUNCATE TABLE statement does not log each deletion, it is faster and requires fewer locks than the DELETE statement.
    The TRUNCATE TABLE statement requires fewer resources than the DELETE statement.

          

  120. Integerdata type store whole numbers

          

  121. What does a WHERE clause in an UPDATE statement do?specifies the rows to update. (also, used to specify criteria)

          

  122. it is important that backup software should work with what?locked records

          

  123. A stored procedure what type of securable?the data in permanent tables and return multiple values as output parameters.

          

  124. In a full backup what happens? FULL BACKUPall files are copied for possible future retrieval.

          

  125. By, default you can't specify a value for an identity column within an INSERT statement. Can you override that default? if so, how?you can override by using SET IDENTITY_INSERT to turn the identity insert option ON. After you issue the INSERT statement, you should turn identity insert OFF because only a single table can be enabled for identity insert within a session.

          

  126. The Third Normal Form (3NF)----(SG) GENERAL(equals) = 2NF + removing columns that are not dependent upon the primary key.

          

  127. What are three (common) types of data integrity? and what do they focus on?1. entity focuses on the primary key,
    2. referential focuses on the foreign key
    3. domain specifies that values must be declared.

          

  128. A predicate subquery:return a single value, calculated from values in a column.

          

  129. What is a junction or intersection table.
    The table contains columns that references what?
    DEFAULT is specified for a column to assign a column a specific value if no value is specified when a row is added.

          

  130. The SELECT INTO statement is used to do what? and what is important when issuing the SELECT INTO statement?to filter which rows will be updated.
    (SET LastUpdateDt = getdate(), CreditLimit = 2500 WHERE CustID = 893)

          

  131. when you assign a CHECK (constraint) value to a column?to return a list of only the rows that are in both of the result sets generated by two other separate queries.

          

  132. A stored procedure can modify what?which users can do what action(s) to data in the database.

          

  133. you can give the query optimizer a more efficient way to locate the rows required to generate the results by selecting certain columns, which kinds of columns?INSERT INTO table (columnl, column2) VALUES (val1a, val1b), (val2a, val2b);

          

  134. to control/change the physical sort order of a table what would you use?rows related by a FOREIGN KEY constraint to be deleted when the referenced row is deleted.

          

  135. A database role is assigned to who?To users and groups

          

  136. The INSERT INTO statement is used (when?)to insert a new row in a table.

          

  137. Moneymoney data type stores data with the accuracy of four decimal points. It Requires 8 bytes of storage. The money data type supports values between -922,337,203,685,477.5808 and 922,337,203,685,477.5807.

          

  138. indexes are used to optimize what?creates when-then-else functionality.
    Give an example using the WHEN and THEN?
    (WHEN this condition is met THEN do this.)

          

  139. The backup strategies that only copies files that have changed since the last full backup is:B! has keywords and pointers to the data

          

  140. Numeric data types (2 types)serves as the unique identifier of a specific row and uniquely defines a relationship
    within a database.

          

  141. Which is Not a result of using indexes?
    a. increased speed of data retrieval
    b. increased storage requirements
    c. increased speed of writing records
    The SET clause ( You specify the columns or variables that should be updated and, when a FROM clause is not also used, their values.)

          

  142. You can update data if a condition is true and perform an alternative update if the condition is false with the:____statementUPDATE RENTALS SET kayak = RENTALS.kayak + EQUIPMENT.kayak FROM RENTALS,
    EQUIPMENT

          

  143. Which clause is specified first? the ORDER BY clause and the GROUP BY clause?The GROUP BY clause.

          

  144. When no join is provided in a query, what happens?DEFAULT is specified for a column to assign a column a specific value if no value is specified when a row is added.

          

  145. An INDEXWhat contains 'keywords' and 'associated data' that point to the 'location' of more comprehensive information, (such as files and records on a disk or record keys in a database.)

          

  146. smallmoney (supports, stored to what decimal point, requires how much storage)The smallmoney data type supports values between -214,748.3648 and 214,748.3647. All values are stored with accuracy to four decimal points. The smallmoney data type requires 4 bytes of storage capacity.

          

  147. Principalsare the individuals, groups, and processes granted access to SQL Server

          

  148. how is data about each instance of an entity stored in a relational database?as a ROW in a table

          

  149. Backup is a process of what?saving all critical data to re-create the database in useful form in a relatively short time.

          

  150. To update all records in a database to reflect an increase in value-added tax from 8 percent to 10 percent the developer should use:UPDATE RENTALS SET value _ added _ tax = .10

          

  151. In which situation is the use of a replication service recommended?the database must be available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week

          

  152. IDENTITYautomatically assign sequential integer values to a column.

          

  153. primary difference between a function and a stored procedure isthat a function can be directly referenced in a SELECT statement. A stored procedure cannot be directly referenced in a SELECT statement or expression.

          

  154. bigintAllows whole numbers 8 bytes

          

  155. UPDATE is used to what?ensures that data is consistent, correct, and usable throughout the database.

          

  156. When creating a view, are any constraints not considered? if so, What is one of those constraints?DML statements can be performed using the view, but only on a single base table.

          

  157. Which columns do you need to set a value for when issuing an INSERT statement?
    When you do, which function do you need to apply and where?
    1.You need to set a value for a column that stores values of the uniqueidentifier data type.
    2. you need to use the NEWID() function in the VALUES list to generate the value.

          

  158. Normalizing 1st formreturns only matched rows from the two tables.

          

  159. What is meant by a data type- variable lengthCan assign a certain number to it, if that number is not reached the remaining space is not used.

          

  160. INTERSECTAllows whole numbers billion 4 bytes

          

  161. 1. The ALTER VIEW statement is?
    2. adding a WHERE clause does what in a view?
    to create a user-defined function. User-defined functions must return a value.

          

  162. Do you need to set a value for a column that has a DEFAULT constraint when issuing an INSERT statement?1.You need to set a value for a column that stores values of the uniqueidentifier data type.
    2. you need to use the NEWID() function in the VALUES list to generate the value.

          

  163. in a view can DML statements be used? are there limitations?DML can be performed using the view, but only against one base table at a time.

          

  164. A full outer joinreturns only matched rows from the two tables.

          

  165. The ON DELETE CASCADE option causes, what to happen?the query performs a cross join and returns a Cartesian product.

          

  166. In a table scan-each row of a table is loaded to locate the records needed to generate the results.

          

  167. Which function do you use to provide the current date?the getdate() function

          

  168. The FROM clause is used in an UPDATE statement, when/used for?is used to update rows in a table based on information stored in another table.