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  1. industry standard architecture (ISA)
  2. Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
  3. drive-by download
  4. internetwork
  5. vertical position
  6. HTML
  7. eSATA
  8. Speaker On/Off key
  9. Mechanical Transfer Registered Jack (MT-RJ) connector
  10. archive attribute
  11. multifunction device (MFD)
  12. satellite communications
  13. floppy disk drive
  14. electrostatic discharge (ESD)
  15. Debugging Mode
  16. asymmetrical digital subscriber line (ADSL)
  17. parts grabber
  18. fiber-optic cable
  19. arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
  20. IRQ
  21. APM
  22. vertical refresh rate
  23. TrackPoint
  24. real-time clock (RTC)
  25. hyper threading
  26. local user account
  27. electro-photosensitive drum
  28. 100Base-T
  29. RIMM
  30. spyware
  31. hot swapping
  32. Safe Mode
  33. NTFS permissions
  34. active KVM switch
  35. voltage regulator module (VRM)
  36. video adapter
  37. communication network riser (CNR)
  38. heat sink compound
  39. cracker
  40. time to live (TTL)
  41. refresh rate
  42. synchronous dynamic RAM
  43. super video graphics array (SVGA)
  44. Video Electronics Standards Organization (VESA)
  45. Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA)
  46. CD-R (CD-Record)
  47. Centronics
  48. luminance
  49. lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery
  50. war chalking
  51. lit pixel
  52. SATA
  53. UDF
  54. transport layer security (TLS)
  55. liquid cooling system
  56. clock speed
  57. InterNational Committee on Information Technology Standards (INCITS)
  58. root folder
  59. WUXGA
  60. high-voltage power supply (HVPS)
  61. multimode fiber (MMF)
  62. thin-film transistor (TFT)
  63. broadband WAN
  64. Enable Boot Logging
  65. boot sequence
  66. active partition
  67. PGA
  68. SDRAM
  69. data migration
  70. Bluetooth
  71. heat sink
  72. vertical hold
  73. electromagnetic pulse (EMP)
  74. master file table (MFT)
  75. strong password
  76. DVD-18
  77. Trojan horse
  78. C
  79. DLT
  80. RJ-45
  81. coaxial cable
  82. mode
  83. war driving
  84. Ethernet
  85. pixel
  86. ink cartridge
  87. RAID array
  88. POTS
  89. passive matrix display
  90. code signing
  91. Compact Disc-Read-Only Memory (CD-ROM)
  92. SCSI ID
  93. mini-audio connector
  94. Gigabit Ethernet
  95. inkjet
  96. local area network (LAN)
  97. NetBIOS
  98. background process
  99. direct memory access (DMA) channel
  100. logical block address (LBA)
  101. POP
  102. ALU
  103. land
  104. Windows Update Website
  105. Service Set ID (SSID)
  106. T-carrier system
  107. solid-state drive (SSD)
  108. ATAPI
  109. primary corona wire
  110. Universal Serial Bus (USB)
  111. Internet service provider (ISP)
  112. CPE
  113. value entry
  114. field replaceable unit (FRU)
  115. Web browser
  116. capacity
  117. registry key
  118. Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA)
  119. UXGA
  120. Automatic Private IP Address (APIPA)
  121. auto-switching power supply
  122. patch
  123. universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART)
  124. track point
  125. CMOS settings
  126. peer-to-peer network
  127. Integrated Access Device (IAD)
  128. nonvolatile memory
  129. electromagnetic interference (EMI)
  130. PCIe (peripheral component interconnect express)
  131. digital video discs
  132. processor
  133. DHCP
  134. mount point
  135. CrossFire
  136. System Monitor
  137. SLD
  138. Quick Launch bar
  139. Extended Video Graphics Array (EVGA)
  140. laser printer
  141. netbook
  142. DVD-10
  143. intranet
  144. extending extractor
  145. TCP/IP
  146. Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2)
  147. peripheral component interconnect (PCI)
  148. Start Bar
  149. ATX
  150. Windows Explorer
  151. power state
  152. striping with distributed parity
  153. DVI-D
  154. HDMI
  155. distribution server
  156. partition
  157. floating-point unit (FPU)
  158. digital subscriber line (DSL)
  159. graphics tablet
  160. version
  161. Performance Monitor
  162. memory address
  163. complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)
  164. SGRAM
  165. DVD
  166. Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secure Sockets Layer (HTTPS)
  167. Advanced Technology eXtended (ATX)
  168. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  169. Advanced Power Management (APM)
  170. hot spot
  171. hub
  172. RS-232 port
  173. thermal wax transfer printer
  174. phishing
  175. surge suppressor
  176. ACPI
  177. shadow mask
  178. smart card
  179. central processing unit (CPU)
  180. discretion
  181. User State Migration Tool (USMT)
  182. adapter card
  183. repeater
  184. FAT table
  185. Infrared Data Association (IrDA)
  186. DVD-Video
  187. WWW
  188. TRACERT
  189. aspect ratio
  190. RAM
  191. bluesnarfing
  192. flat panel display (FPD)
  193. PVC
  194. Spam over Instant Messaging (spim)
  195. ATM
  196. extension magnet
  197. PGA2
  198. mainboard
  199. switching mode power supply
  200. video adapter card
  201. boot record
  202. User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
  203. pin-out
  204. Small Outline RIMM (SORIMM)
  205. form factor
  206. VFAT
  207. CompactFlash
  208. SAS
  209. network interface card (NIC)
  210. DMZ
  211. pointing stick
  212. S/PDIF
  213. multi-monitor
  214. hidden attribute
  215. bandwidth
  216. DisplayPort
  217. LPT2
  218. drive image
  219. security auditing
  220. Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE)
  221. DoS Attack
  222. original equipment manufacturer (OEM)
  223. permission
  224. Display Mode Key
  225. emergency repair disk (ERD)
  226. WAN connection
  227. SD Card
  228. Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS)
  229. file signature verification
  230. Domain Name Service (DNS)
  231. personal area network (PAN)
  232. Foreign
  233. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
  234. Li-ion
  235. encryption
  236. basic storage
  238. personal firewall
  239. Directory Services Restore Mode
  240. RJ-11
  241. Southbridge
  242. FSB
  243. input/out (I/O)
  244. Lucent connector (LC)
  245. memory controller chip (MCC)
  246. unattended installation
  247. laser beam
  248. hacker
  249. dot matrix printer
  250. cable select
  251. virtual circuit (VC) A
  252. exception
  253. Windows XP Files and Settings Transfer Wizard
  254. graphical processing unit (GPU)
  255. KVM switch
  256. routing information protocol (RIP)
  257. NetBEUI
  258. dead pixel
  259. Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS)
  260. grounding mat
  261. musical instrument digital interface (MIDI)
  262. dual-core CPU
  263. hardware abstraction layer (HAL)
  264. point-to-point protocol (PPP)
  265. touchpad
  266. DIN connector
  267. MAC
  268. SIMM
  269. SCSI
  270. sidebar
  271. display
  272. active matrix display
  273. DVI-A
  274. systray
  275. memory bank
  276. transferring
  277. LPT1
  278. digital signature
  279. regional settings
  280. read-only memory (ROM)
  281. computer platform
  282. jargon
  283. Internet
  284. copy
  285. thermal printer
  286. FAT16
  287. Distributed File System (DFS)
  288. Rambus Dynamic RAM (RDRAM)
  289. RDRAM
  290. 802.11g
  291. NiMH
  292. point stick
  293. domain
  294. SCSI host adapter
  295. v-hold
  296. even parity
  297. double-data rate (DDR) SDRAM
  298. APIPA
  299. compact disc (CD)
  300. Telnet
  301. basic input/output system (BIOS)
  302. nickel-cadmium (NiCD)
  303. plug and play (PnP)
  304. Level 1 (L1) cache
  305. digital linear tape (DLT)
  306. SMTP
  307. password
  308. 8-bit high color
  309. media bay
  310. land-grid array (LGA)
  311. Media Access Control (MAC) address
  312. hibernate
  313. dual inline memory module (DIMM)
  314. mounted drive
  315. Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)
  316. zero insertion force (ZIF) socket
  317. external cache
  318. solid-state storage
  319. material safety data sheet (MSDS)
  320. auditing
  321. New Low-profile eXtended (NLX)
  322. DDR3
  323. Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)
  324. wide area network (WAN)
  325. flash memory
  326. socket services
  327. Infrared (IR)
  328. LAN
  329. adware
  330. BNC
  331. continuity RIMM (CRIMM)
  332. stand-alone computer
  333. worm
  334. dynamic disk
  335. Ultra DMA (UDMA)
  336. case
  337. thread
  338. answer file
  339. local KVM switch
  340. contrast ratio
  341. malware
  342. registry
  343. Reliability and Performance Monitor
  344. DPMS
  345. fusing rollers
  346. embedded systems
  347. x86
  348. half-duplex
  349. case fan
  350. MMC
  351. virtual memory
  352. full-duplex
  353. Emergency Repair Process
  354. rootkit
  355. Super Video
  356. latency
  357. edition
  358. display power-management signaling (DPMS)
  359. inactive KVM switch
  360. internal cache memory
  361. cache controller
  362. SSL
  363. active communication
  364. power supply tester
  365. subscriber connector (SC)
  366. volts
  367. ISDN
  368. P412V
  369. Internet Explorer (IE)
  370. DVI
  371. projector
  372. local group account
  373. digital video interface (DVI)
  374. CMOS
  375. access control list (ACL)
  376. metropolitan area network (MAN)
  377. Control Panel
  378. tape drive
  379. MSINFO32.EXE
  380. backup media
  381. power supply
  382. single-sided (SS) DVD
  383. Internet Protocol (IP)
  384. UPS
  385. microcode
  386. process priority level
  387. smart card reader
  388. volatile
  389. swap file
  390. WRAM
  391. HD-DVD
  392. customer premises equipment (CPE)
  393. service pack
  394. multimeter
  395. Blu-ray disc
  396. ACE
  397. extended partition
  398. terminal
  399. sub-mini audio connector
  401. infrastructure mode
  402. WAP
  403. AGP
  404. CD-ROM
  405. format
  406. FAT
  407. NLX
  408. stylus
  409. processor bus
  410. DHCP Server
  411. secondary master
  412. mass storage device
  413. troubleshooting
  414. IEEE 1394b
  415. WEP
  416. protocol
  417. stuck pixel
  418. basic disk
  419. Post Office Protocol (POP)
  420. Y
  421. BIOS settings
  422. fraud
  423. Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)
  424. ECP
  425. memory
  426. DDR RAM
  427. drive path
  428. DXDIAG
  429. Wi-Fi
  430. special group
  431. ICMP
  432. shortcut
  433. Serial Attached SCSI (SAS)
  434. Last Known Good Configuration
  435. control unit
  436. inverter
  437. Multilingual User Interface (MUI)
  438. DC
  439. DB-25
  440. beam-on-blade connector
  441. Intel x86 Specification
  442. graphical user interface (GUI)
  443. SODIMM
  444. System Configuration Utility
  445. unidirectional mode
  446. Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN)
  447. icon
  448. parallel port
  449. Remote Desktop
  450. External Serial ATA (eSATA)
  451. IMAP
  452. Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
  453. FPU
  454. Digital Light Processing (DLP)
  455. COMx
  456. quad-core CPU
  457. P1 power connector
  458. root directory
  459. RAID 1
  460. pinned items list
  461. AC
  462. horizontal position
  463. IEC-320 connector
  464. monitor
  465. DVD-5
  466. XGA
  467. taskbar
  468. DDoS Attack
  469. shared video memory
  470. PPP
  471. DSL
  472. sector translation
  473. BitLocker drive encryption
  474. cookies
  475. Type III
  476. chrominance
  477. ISP
  478. PROM
  479. RAMBUS Inline Memory Module (RIMM)
  480. IEEE 1284
  481. access control entry (ACE)
  482. Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi)
  483. ATV12V
  484. security policy
  485. processor board
  486. writing
  487. single-layer (SL)
  488. distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack
  489. S-Video
  490. Advanced Communications Riser (ACR)
  491. ECC
  492. bar code reader
  493. NAT
  494. dial-up modem
  495. power management
  496. Global System for Mobile communications (GSM)
  497. antistatic mat
  498. Display Brightness Key
  499. port
  500. 802.11b
  501. TWAIN
  502. multiplexing
  503. PCI
  504. Microsoft Product Activation (MPA)
  505. DVD-ROM
  506. back door
  507. component video
  508. enhanced capability port (ECP) mode
  509. DVD-ROM drive
  510. partition type
  511. random access memory (RAM)
  512. card services
  513. OCR
  514. VGA
  515. charging
  516. single-mode fiber (SMF)
  517. h-hold
  518. double-sided (DS) DVD
  519. DVD-9
  520. professionalism
  521. biometric
  522. accelerated graphics port (AGP)
  523. DVD-Data discs
  524. VGA Mode
  525. trusted platform module (TPM)
  526. LPT
  527. keystroke logger
  528. TLD
  529. second-level domain (SLD)
  530. PCI-E
  531. grayware
  532. ExpressCard
  533. watts
  534. subtree
  535. Windows Easy Transfer (WET)
  536. IEEE
  537. alternating current
  538. prank program
  539. TV tuner card
  540. miniconnector
  541. ARP
  542. IP router
  543. CNR
  544. system requirements
  545. EEPROM
  546. SXGA
  547. fast page mode (FPM)
  548. low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS)
  549. Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP)
  550. Secure Digital (SD) Card
  551. secondary slave
  552. Advanced Technology (AT)
  553. line printer
  554. BDD Workbench
  555. molex connector
  556. Start menu
  557. Device Manager
  558. fusing
  559. ERD
  560. RAID 5
  561. simultaneous multithreading (SMT)
  562. ROM
  563. ZIF
  564. distribution share
  565. dynamic storage
  566. cathode ray tube (CRT) monitor
  567. VRAM
  568. AT
  569. DVD-RAM
  570. audio modem riser (AMR)
  571. hard disk drive
  572. Remote Assistance
  573. subscription channel (SC)
  574. VESA
  575. loopback plug
  576. authorization
  577. Enable VGA Mode
  578. share
  579. spindle
  580. proxy server
  581. enhanced parallel port (EPP) mode
  582. impact printer
  583. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
  584. plain-old telephone service (POTS)
  585. pin grid array (PGA)
  586. Level 2 (L2) cache
  587. EFS
  588. ATA Packet Interface (ATAPI)
  589. LED
  590. attended installation
  591. overclocking
  592. secure socket layer (SSL)
  593. digital versatile disc (DVD)
  594. active listening
  595. server
  596. bridge
  597. motherboard
  598. DMA controller
  599. socket
  600. DIMM
  601. Enhanced IDE (EIDE)
  602. cable tester
  603. virtual file allocation table (VFAT)
  604. Type II
  605. update
  606. channel service unit (CSU)
  607. DVI-I
  608. portable computer
  609. Northbridge
  610. registration
  611. registered jack (RJ)
  612. mini-DIN-6
  613. Balanced Technology eXtended
  614. pit
  615. RAID 0
  616. low-voltage differential (LVD)
  617. LBA
  618. MIDI
  619. expansion card
  620. electronic KVM switch
  621. bidirectional mode
  622. RGB video
  623. SLI
  624. VoIP
  625. thread of execution
  626. interrupt request line (IRQ)
  627. SONET
  628. CardBus
  629. thumb drive
  630. dial-up
  631. BTX
  632. pop-up download
  633. Small Outline DIMM (SODIMM)
  634. mobo
  635. DNS
  636. top-level domain (TLD)
  637. ACR
  638. MBR
  639. video RAM (VRAM)
  640. POST
  641. system area
  642. bus
  643. High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI)
  644. DVD-R
  645. address bus
  646. DVD+R
  647. thermal compound
  648. WPA2
  649. I/O address
  650. device driver
  651. system resources
  652. mini-notebook
  653. denial of service (DoS) attack
  654. biometric logon
  655. power supply unit (PSU)
  656. Safe Mode With Networking
  657. system file
  658. DB-9
  659. PCIe Mini Card
  660. Tablet PC
  661. AMD
  662. flash drive
  663. secure attention sequence (SAS)
  664. radio frequency (RF)
  665. 10Base-T
  666. ANSI
  667. dynamic RAM (DRAM)
  668. VC
  669. root key
  670. key fob
  671. front side bus (FSB)
  672. floppy disk
  673. authentication
  674. client/server-based network
  675. analog modem
  676. EIDE
  677. RAID controller
  678. IEEE 1394a
  679. Multimedia Terminal Adapter (MTA)
  680. router
  681. Speaker Volume Key
  682. drive lock password
  683. redundant array of independent disks (RAID)
  684. KVM over IP
  685. soft power
  686. Windows Update
  687. System Information (MSINFO32.EXE)
  688. firewall
  689. spim
  690. docking station
  691. Scalable Link Interface (SLI)
  692. developing
  693. Standby
  694. Fn key
  695. virus encyclopedia
  1. a The component that provides power for all components on the motherboard and internal to the PC case. Also called a power supply unit (PSU). (3)
  2. b A drive that can write once to a special CD-R disc. (1)
  3. c A portion of a computer's chipset that controls communications between the CPU and such I/O busses as USB, IDE, PS2, SATA, and others. (1)
  4. d A method for allocating disk space on hard disks in which configuration information for each dynamic disk is located on the disk space beyond the first physical sector. This configuration information is stored outside of any volume on the hard disk. (10)
  5. e A process applied to digitally signed code to unencrypt the signature data and use the information to verify the program code was not modified since the signature was added. (9)
  6. f An interface on a PC that originally was unidirectional and operated at a speed of 150 KBps, but now has several operation modes. (2)
  7. g A standard for interconnecting electronic musical instruments to communicate with computers and among themselves. (3)
  8. h Program code that provides a way for someone to gain access to a computer while bypassing security. Only a person who knows how the back door works can use it, but once in, that individual has the same access as the host program to all the internal operating system code. (16)
  9. i Any power supply that provides high voltage, such as those in laser printers and CRTs. (3)
  10. j See Compact Disc-Read-Only Memory.
  11. k In a computer, pathways that power, data, and control signals travel from one component to another within the system. (2)
  12. l A single-sided, double-layer digital versatile disc (DVD) that stores 8.54 GB of data, or over four hours of video. (2)
  13. m A TPM is a special microchip, installed on a motherboard, that stores passwords, keys, and digital certificates. Various services, such as BitLocker can store such security data in this chip. (16)
  14. n A mat that provides a path to ground for a static charge and is designed for the desktop or floor of a workspace. One placed on the workbench reduces the risk of electrostatic discharge for components placed on it, while one placed on the floor provides the same protection for anyone standing on the mat. (5)
  15. o A technology for LCD displays in which transistors are positioned at each pixel. (3)
  16. p In Windows, an Advanced Options menu choice that starts Windows without several drivers and components and loads only very basic, non-vendor-specific drivers for mouse, video, keyboard, mass storage, and system services. It also displays in low resolution. The difference between Safe Mode and Safe Mode With Networking is that the latter will launch networking components. (11)
  17. q The Internet service that manages access to Internet domain names and the naming system it uses for computers and resources connected to the Internet or in a private network. (13)
  18. r A cooling system that uses liquid to transfer heat away from components. (3)
  19. s A device that converts digital signals from the broadband connection to voice for the analog phone and the analog voice signals to digital signals for the digital network. (14)
  20. t A network in which dedicated computers called servers store data and provide print services or other capabilities to computers running the appropriate client service or services. (13)
  21. u A component of the Windows operating system that resides in a file and is loaded into memory during the kernel loading phase of the Windows startup. (10)
  22. v A setting on an LCD display that adjusts the viewable area of the display horizontally. (3)
  23. w A video mode with a maximum graphics resolution of 1024 × 768. (3)
  24. x A riser card standard that AMD, 3Com, and others introduced in 2000 to supersede AMR. It uses one PCI slot, provides accelerated audio and modem functions as well as networking, and supports multiple Ethernet NICs. (2)
  25. y A part of the NTFS file system used to store a transaction-based database, with all file accesses treated as transactions, and if a transaction is not complete, NTFS will roll back to the last successful transaction.
  26. z See analog modem.
  27. aa A Windows program that launches Internet Explorer and connects to the Windows Update Website. (9)
  28. ab See Encrypting File System (EFS).
  29. ac See access control entry.
  30. ad See pin grid array.
  31. ae A 9-pin D-shell connector. (3)
  32. af See Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP).
  33. ag See digital subscriber line.
  34. ah In the laser printing process, the step at which the heat-sensitive toner is fused to the paper by heated fusing rollers. (12)
  35. ai A protocol that allows two devices to connect, authenticate, and negotiate what protocols they will use (almost always TCP/IP). (16)
  36. aj A term used for CPU packaging that indicates that a chip has columns and rows of pins. (1)
  37. ak A version of the FAT file system used by MS-DOS for hard drives, using a 16-bit file allocation table. (10)
  38. al The name used by the Windows operating systems to identify the second parallel port. (5)
  39. am A long-handled tool with a magnet on one end, used to pick up small objects containing iron. (5)
  40. an A technology used by hard drives to speed up data transfers by using DMA channels. (1)
  41. ao The difference in value between a display's brightest white and darkest black. Modern LCD displays have a contrast ratio of 500:1 or greater. (3)
  42. ap The original digital discs created in 1995 for storing video. (1)
  43. aq See secure socket layer.
  44. ar Also called mirroring, this RAID array type provides fault tolerance because all the data is written identically to the two drives in the mirrored set. (2)
  45. as A type of printer that uses heat in the image transfer process. (12)
  46. at A security account that exists in a local security accounts database. (16)
  47. au A slide switch on the exterior of a PC power supply used to switch between two input voltages.
  48. av A computer's temporary working space, usually in DRAM chips. (2)
  49. aw A magnetic storage device that contains a thin internal plastic disk, capable of receiving magnetic charges contained in the thin magnetic coating on the disk. (1)
  50. ax A user interface that takes advantage of the video system's graphics capabilities for manipulated graphic elements that represent objects and tasks. (8)
  51. ay See Integrated Service Digital Network.
  52. az A DVD of any type that can contain data on only one side. (1)
  53. ba A network that covers a metropolitan area, usually using high-speed fiber-optic cable (operating in the gigabits-per-second range). (13)
  54. bb The signal in a television transmission that contains the color of the image. (3)
  55. bc See uninterruptible power supply.
  56. bd See power supply.
  57. be A utility that provides remote terminal emulation for connecting to computers and network devices running server software that can respond, without needing to be concerned with the actual operating system running on either system. (13)
  58. bf See internal cache memory.
  59. bg A perpetrator of malicious software attacks against computers and networks. Also called a cracker. (16)
  60. bh See Secure Digital (SD) Card.
  61. bi A type of solid-state storage that is portable, about the size of a flattened thumb, and usually has a USB interface. Also called a flash drive or jump drive. (2)
  62. bj A Windows service that allows a user to connect remotely to a computer and run the Windows desktop on the remote computer, but have the same access as if logged on to the computer and its local network. (11)
  63. bk In router configuration, a term that is used to describe traffic that is allowed, as in allowing traffic using a certain port number through the router. (16)
  64. bl A practice begun in Windows 2000 in which all of the operating system code is digitally signed to show that it has not been tampered with. (9)
  65. bm In an access control list, a record containing just one user or group account name and the permissions assigned to that account. (16)
  66. bn An Advanced Options menu choice that creates a log of the Windows startup in a file named NTBTLOG.TXT and saved in thesystemroot folder (normally C:\Windows). (11)
  67. bo A WAN connection that uses existing copper telephone wire for the communication circuit. To accomplish this, a DSL modem splits the existing phone line into two bands; voice transmission uses the frequencies below 4000 Hz, whereas data transmission uses everything else. (13)
  68. bp See ATA Packet Interface.
  69. bq A magnetic mass storage device primarily used for backing up data from computers. (1)
  70. br An LCD display using an old technology that has a grid of horizontal and vertical wires with a transistor at the end of each wire. When two transistors (one at the x-axis and one at the y-axis) send voltage along their wires, the pixel at the intersection of the two wires lights up. (3)
  71. bs A scaled-down laptop in the ultra-portable category, designed for Internet access. See also ultra-portable and mini-notebook. (6)
  72. bt In a CPU, special memory that resides within the CPU's core and is used to temporarily store instructions and data in order to increase the processing speed. Also called L1 cache. (1)
  73. bu The moving of data from one storage device to another. (9)
  74. bv A set of wires used by data traveling into and out of a processor. (1)
  75. bw The sudden and uncontrolled movement of electricity from an object with a greater charge to one with a lesser charge. Also called static electricity. (18)
  76. bx A T-1 multiplexer or a special LAN bridge that connects to the telephone company's channel service unit (CSU), which encodes data for transmission over a T-carrier circuit. (13)
  77. by See arithmetic logic unit.
  78. bz See single inline memory module.
  79. ca The cellular network standards used by AT&T and T-Mobile. (13)
  80. cb On a cable network, the device used at the customer site for the analog/digital conversion. (14)
  81. cc A device that in its traditional configuration as a local KVM switch connects a single keyboard, video display, and mouse to two or more computer systems, allowing the user to switch control from one computer to another. (3)
  82. cd A process that places the logical structure of a file system on a partitioned volume. (4)
  83. ce A DVI mode that supports both analog and digital video signals. (3)
  84. cf A key on a laptop that is combined with the FN key to toggle the laptop's speaker on and off. The SPEAKER ON/OFF key is usually one of the standard function keys, such as F3, that displays a speaker symbol. (7)
  85. cg A special substance, also called thermal paste or heat sink compound, that increases the heat conductivity between a fan or heat sink and a chip. (3)
  86. ch A video signaling method in which analog video information is transmitted as two or more discrete signals. Two general types of component video are RGB Video and S-Video. (3)
  87. ci An early method for addressing the disparity between the drive geometry supported by PC BIOSs and the physical geometry of drives. (1)
  88. cj A unit of measurement of actual delivered power, calculated by the formula watts = volts × amps. (3)
  89. ck A network in which all of the computers essentially operate as both servers (providing access to shared resources) and clients (accessing those shared resources). (13)
  90. cl See uniqueness database file.
  91. cm A simple type of component video signal that sends three separate signals—red, green, and blue—using three coaxial cables. (3)
  92. cn The successor to the Mini PCI. It has a 64-bit data bus and is half the size of a Mini PCI Card. (6)
  93. co See enhanced capabilities port (ECP) mode.
  94. cp A 36-pin connector mounted to a device's parallel interface. (3)
  95. cq An expansion bus architecture that uses serial communications rather than the parallel communications of PCI. Also called PCI Express and PCI-E. (1)
  96. cr A group of schemes designed to provide either better performance or improved data reliability through redundancy. (2)
  97. cs A communications network made up of personal computing devices, such as computers, telephones, and personal digital assistants. (13)
  98. ct See Advanced Technology eXtended.
  99. cu A network connection device that routes IP packets between networks. (13)
  100. cv See top-level domain.
  101. cw A type of rechargeable battery used in laptops and other portable devices. (6)
  102. cx The first physical sector on a floppy disk or the first sector on a hard drive partition. The boot record contains information about the OS. The boot record on a primary active partition is used to start the operating system. Also called the boot sector. Do not confuse this with the master boot record. (10)
  103. cy See Advanced Configuration and Power Interface.
  104. cz See motherboard.
  105. da See wireless access point.
  106. db A standards organization, of which the T10 SCSI committee maintains the SCSI standard. (4)
  107. dc The EXPLORER.EXE program. This program supports the entire Windows GUI. If EXPLORER.EXE is called up from inside the GUI, it opens a window for browsing your local disks and files. (8)
  108. dd The classic PC serial port that complies with the Recommended Standard-232 (RS-232) in its circuitry, cabling, and connector design, and transfers data one bit at a time. (3)
  109. de The protocol for connecting optical drives and tape drives to an ATA channel. (1)
  110. df A component that you can install into a system onsite, such as memory modules, heat sinks, and CMOS batteries. (5)
  111. dg An EIDE drive setting that has the system select the drive's role (master or slave) based on the drive's position on the cable. If the drive is on the end of the cable, it is the master drive, and if it is in the middle of the cable, it is the slave drive. (4)
  112. dh Light waves in the infrared spectrum. (6)
  113. di See video graphics array.
  114. dj A utility in Windows NT for gathering and viewing performance data involving memory, disks, processors, network, and other objectives. (11)
  115. dk A bundle of patches or updates released periodically by a software publisher. (8)
  116. dl See random access memory.
  117. dm In a laser printer, a metal drum with an electro-photosensitive coating to which a charge can be applied by a laser beam. (12)
  118. dn A very old expansion bus standard, seen in the early IBM PC. (1)
  119. do A device that sits at the connection between networks and routes packets based on their logical destination addresses. (13)
  120. dp A protocol that allows routers to update their list of routes dynamically. RIP dates to the 1980s and is considered obsolete; even though, it has been updated a few times and is still supported by most routers. (13)
  121. dq A chip that keeps track of the date and time on a PC. Set the date and time through your operating system or in the BIOS Setup program. (4)
  122. dr When a mount point exists between a partition or volume to a folder on another volume, the drive path is the path (including a drive letter) to that partition or volume. (10)
  123. ds A protocol used with WPA wireless encryption that was broken by hackers. (16)
  124. dt A pointing device built into some laptop keyboards. It appears to be a very tiny joystick-type button that barely protrudes above the level of the keys. (6)
  125. du An automated software installation that does not require a person be present to respond to prompts for information. (9)
  126. dv A socket for a PGA CPU that has a retention lever as well as contacts to match the number of pins on the CPU. The lever is used to attach the CPU to the socket in a manner that does not require force to insert or to remove the CPU. (1)
  127. dw In an IP packet, a value field that shows how many routers the packet can cross before being discarded. (15)
  128. dx A finite set of resources controlled by the operating system and critical to the use of all computer components. (5)
  129. dy A special modifier key on a laptop keyboard that when pressed together with certain alphanumeric keys, changes the output of the pressed key. It is often called the function key. (6)
  130. dz A device required at both ends of a T-carrier system connection. (13)
  131. ea A video mode that most often consists of a combination of 640 × 480 pixels display resolution and 16 colors. VGA can produce around 16 million different colors, but can display only up to 256 different colors at a time. (3)
  132. eb Cabling that contains a single copper wire surrounded by several layers of insulating plastic and a woven wire sheath that provides protection. (3)
  133. ec See New Low-profile eXtended.
  134. ed A type of DSL service in which the download speed is higher than the upload speed. (13)
  135. ee A fiber-optic connector that resembles an RJ-45 network connector and is less expensive and easier to work with than ST or SC connectors. (13)
  136. ef The proportion between an image's width and height. Traditional CRT monitors have an aspect ratio of 4:3. Widescreen displays have an aspect ratio of 16:9. (3)
  137. eg See Spam over Instant Messaging.
  138. eh A password that meets certain criteria in order to be difficult to crack. One definition of a strong password is one that contains at least eight characters, includes a combination of letters, numbers, and other symbols ( _, -, $, and so on) and is easy for you to remember but difficult for others to guess. (16)
  139. ei See interrupt request line.
  140. ej A video interface, also called Super Video, that transmits video using two signals—luminance, represented by a Y, and chrominance, represented by a C. S-video ports are round to accommodate a round plug with four pins. (3)
  141. ek See double-data rate (DDR) SDRAM.
  142. el The type of connector used in the ExpressCard interface. (6)
  143. em See second-level domain.
  144. en See Wireless Fidelity.
  145. eo See Advanced Communications Riser.
  146. ep The name used by the Windows operating systems to identify the first parallel port. (5)
  147. eq The smallest laptop type, weighing less than 3 pounds. See also netbook and mini-notebook. (6)
  148. er Two or more disks working together in one of the several RAID schemes. (2)
  149. es A set of rules and practices describing how an organization protects and manages sensitive information. A security policy applies to all employees. (16)
  150. et A virus that gains access to a computer by masquerading as a harmless program that a user innocently installs on the computer. (16)
  151. eu A diagram showing the purpose of each wire in a connector. (4)
  152. ev See power-on self-test.
  153. ew On a Microsoft Windows network, a resource, such as a file folder or printer, that is available on the network. (15)
  154. ex See Enhanced IDE.
  155. ey See surge protector.
  156. ez A special-purpose computer designed for a certain task and installed within a device. (2)
  157. fa Digital versatile disc (DVD) discs that can be written to, but data cannot be overwritten. This standard is newer than DVD-R. This term also refers to the drives that can write to these discs. (2)
  158. fb A software fix for a single problem. (8)
  159. fc The act of safely installing/uninstalling or attaching/removing a device while a computer is up and running. (3)
  160. fd The conversion of data into a special format that cannot be read by anyone unless they have a software key to convert it back into its usable form. (13)
  161. fe A parallel port mode that has the same performance as ECP but is used with parallel devices other than printers and scanners. (4)
  162. ff In the Windows registry, the top five folders, each of which is the top of a hierarchical structure. Also called subtrees. (8)
  163. fg See Media Access Control (MAC) address.
  164. fh An enhanced version of PPP, which adds the ability to secure the point-to-point connection with encryption. (16)
  165. fi See High-Definition Multimedia Interface.
  166. fj The original digital versatile disc (DVD) encoding format used for movies sold at retail. (2)
  167. fk On a motherboard, the type and location of components, as well as the size of the board itself. (1)
  168. fl A drive used for reading from and writing to removable floppy disks. Also called FDD. (1)
  169. fm In the domain name system, a name that is registered under a top-level domain, such as or (15)
  170. fn See Fast Ethernet.
  171. fo Audio connectors that use a 1/8" single pin plug. (3)
  172. fp A way to monitor security-related events. (16)
  173. fq An optical semiconductor used in small projectors and in rear-projection televisions. (3)
  174. fr See master boot record.
  175. fs An interface standard for use with DVD players, digital television (DTV) players, set-top cable or satellite service boxes, and other devices. It combines audio and video signals into an uncompressed signal and has a bandwidth of up to 5 GB/second. Only one specially designed cable is required where previously several were required. (3)
  176. ft In Disk Management, the status given to a dynamic disk that has not had its configuration information (stored on the disk) imported into Windows. This status occurs when a dynamic disk is moved to a different Windows computer or when a dynamic disk fails. (10)
  177. fu Electrically erasable programmable ROM. A ROM chip that is erasable using an electrical charge. (2)
  178. fv An exact duplicate of an entire hard drive's contents, including the OS and all installed software. (9)
  179. fw The amount of time it takes a packet to travel from one point to another. (13)
  180. fx An LCD technology based on thin-film transistor (TFT) technology. An active matrix display has a transistor at every pixel, which enables much quicker display changes than passive matrix displays and produces a display quality comparable to a CRT. (3)
  181. fy communication service provided over a telecommunications network or computer network. A VC logically resembles a circuit while passing over a complex routed or switched network, such as the phone company's frame relay network. (13)
  182. fz A service implemented on Windows Servers that hides the complexity of the network from end users in that it makes files that are distributed across multiple servers appear as if they are in one place. (10)
  183. ga A standardized document that contains general information, ingredients, and fire and explosion warnings as well as health, disposal, and safe transportation information about a particular product. Any manufacturer that sells a potentially hazardous product must issue an MSDS for it. (18)
  184. gb A word used to describe memory that cannot work without a steady supply of power. (2)
  185. gc See Post Office Protocol.
  186. gd See External Serial ATA.
  187. ge Another name for a motherboard in a laptop. (6)
  188. gf The connecting point of a mounted drive to a folder on an NTFS volume. (10)
  189. gg See Balanced Technology eXtended.
  190. gh A Web browser created by Microsoft. (14)
  191. gi The high-definition optical disc formatting standard developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association whose members include Sony, 20th Century Fox, Dell, Hewlett-Packard, and many other industry leaders. (2)
  192. gj Synchronous graphics random access memory is a type of RAM used on video adapters. (2)
  193. gk A Windows Advanced Options menu choice that restores a group of registry keys containing system settings such as services and drivers. These are the last settings that worked, and you have only a narrow window of opportunity to use Last Known Good—on the first reboot after making a configuration change and before logging on. Also called Last Known Good (LKG). (11)
  194. gl A power supply standard that has both the 20-pin connector for the motherboard and a 4-pin 12 V connector. (3)
  195. gm An interconnected network. The Internet is the largest example. (13)
  196. gn See S-Video.
  197. go See MSCONFIG.
  198. gp A VESA standard for graphics adapters with a maximum graphics resolution of 1024 × 768 pixels. (3)
  199. gq The order in which the BIOS will search devices for an operating system to start. (4)
  200. gr A printer that creates printed output line by line. (12)
  201. gs See network address translation.
  202. gt A local bus designed for video only, it provides a direct link between the processor and the video card, giving the video card direct access to main memory. (1)
  203. gu See permanent virtual circuit.
  204. gv See Wi-Fi Protected Access 2.
  205. gw See Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.
  206. gx Signals broadcast through the air. (4)
  207. gy The specific requirements for the level of CPU, amount of memory, and size of the hard disk for the computer on which an operating system can be installed. (8)
  208. gz A computer (or dedicated device) that sits between a private network and an untrusted network and examines all traffic in and out of the network it is protecting. It will block any traffic it recognizes as a potential threat, using a variety of techniques. (16)
  209. ha A device used to scan smart cards. (16)
  210. hb In the Windows registry, a folder that may contain one or more sets of settings as well as other keys. (8)
  211. hc Pertaining to a DVD drive or disc that can store data in a single layer of pits on each data side. (1)
  212. hd A tool for testing if a cable can connect properly end-to-end and to determine if a cable has a short. These tools are available for a variety of cable types. (5)
  213. he Threats that are not truly malicious code, but can have indirect negative effects, such as decreasing performance or using up bandwidth. Grayware includes spyware, adware, spam, and spim. (16)
  214. hf A wireless standard for using radio waves to communicate between devices. Class 3 Bluetooth devices (the most common) communicate at distances up to one meter. (6)
  215. hg A network connection device that passes traffic between two networks, using the physical address (MAC address) of the destination device. (13)
  216. hh The settings within a registry key. (8)
  217. hi A type of motherboard used in older PC systems; also refers to the 1984 IBM PC AT model. (1)
  218. hj A type of printer that uses one of several technologies to apply wet ink to paper to create text or graphic printouts. The two most popular inkjet printer models are the InkJet, developed by Hewlett-Packard, and the Bubble Jet, developed by Canon. Epson uses the term "ink jet" (with a space), but it does not appear in the model names of their printers. (12)
  219. hk Memory chips that use a special Rambus channel that has a data transfer rate of 800 MHz. A double channel width results in a 1.6 GHz data transfer. RDRAM sticks use special RIMM slots. (2)
  220. hl See peripheral component interconnect.
  221. hm In Windows, a security account that contains one or more local user accounts, and when a computer is a member of a Windows domain, may also contain domain user or group accounts. (16)
  222. hn A pointing device, often built into a laptop, which is a smooth rectangular panel over which you move your finger to move the pointer on the display. (6)
  223. ho A small expansion card introduced in the late 1990s that plugs into a special slot on a motherboard and uses the CPU to perform modem functions and sound functions. It is not plug and play compatible. (2)
  224. hp The delivery of electricity (as from a wall outlet) in which the flow of electrons reverses periodically and has alternating positive and negative values. (3)
  225. hq This attack occurs when a massive number (up to hundreds of thousands) of computers send DoS attacks to a server, making it unavailable. (16)
  226. hr See root key.
  227. hs An adapter used to connect a computer or other device to a network medium. (13)
  228. ht One of several groups that no user can create or modify. The membership of a special group is predefined, and it is available to you only when you assign permissions or rights. A few important special groups are Creator Owner, System, and Everyone. (16)
  229. hu See Small Computer System Interface.
  230. hv A wide area network (WAN) connection that allows a large amount of data to be transmitted. Broadband WANs includes cellular, ISDN, DSL, cable, T-carrier, satellite, and fiber. (13)
  231. hw See solid-state storage.
  232. hx A set of behaviors including active listening and active speaking that shows you are fully engaged in the conversation and encourages the other person to also communicate in a positive manner. (18)
  233. hy A type of arithmetic logic unit (ALU) that is used to perform specialized functions, such as division and large decimal number operations. Also called a math coprocessor. (1)
  234. hz The BIOS configuration settings, also called system settings, accessed via a special BIOS-based menu during system startup. (4)
  235. ia See low-voltage differential.
  236. ib See dual inline memory module (DIMM).
  237. ic A power-usage level. (6)
  238. id An organization that created several PC standards, including the VGA connector. (3)
  239. ie A command-line utility, installed with the TCP/IP protocol suite, that is used to troubleshoot DNS problems by querying DNS name servers and displaying the results of the queries. (15)
  240. if A subpackaging of a Windows revision that contains the core OS plus a special set of features that is offered as a separate product targeted to a certain type of end user. (8)
  241. ig Any type of computer that you can easily transport and that contains an all-in-one component layout. (6)
  242. ih See thermal compound.
  243. ii Describes the VGA mode color setting that, although it can produce around 16 million different colors, can only display up to 256 different colors at a time. (3)
  244. ij A set of behaviors for the workplace that includes how you interact with people and how you treat property. (18)
  245. ik A type of printer that uses a matrix of pins striking paper through an ink ribbon to create dots on the paper, forming alphanumeric characters and graphic images. (12)
  246. il A compartment in a portable computer's case that holds a single media device that can be swapped with another. For instance, you may swap an optical drive, a secondary hard drive, or a floppy drive into and out of a single bay. (6)
  247. im See Scalable Link Interface.
  248. in A network that covers a relatively small area, such as a building, home, office, or campus. The typical distances are measured in hundreds of meters. (13)
  249. io Ultra extended graphics array, a video graphics mode with a maximum resolution of 1600 × 1200. (3)
  250. ip See asynchronous transfer mode.
  251. iq Windows run-line utility for testing the DirectX support. Launch this program when experiencing video problems and/or audio problems when running DirectX applications. (11)
  252. ir See Wired Equivalent Privacy.
  253. is A drive that is mapped to an empty folder on an NTFS volume and is assigned a drive path rather than drive letters. (10)
  254. it In networking, this is a set of rules for using network hardware and software. In most discussions about networks, this term is assigned to certain network software components. (13)
  255. iu In a laser printer, a wire that stretches across the printer's drum, not touching it, but positioned very close to the drum's surface so it can pass high voltage to the drum. (12)
  256. iv Used to represent the chrominance signal in S-Video. (3)
  257. iw See local area network.
  258. ix In networking, the authorization to access a computer or resource on a computer. Specific permission levels include read, change, modify, etc. (16)
  259. iy Memory chips that provide much slower access than SRAM chips but that can store several megabytes of data on a single chip (or hundreds of megabytes, or even gigabytes, when they are packaged together on a "stick"). (2)
  260. iz An assigned address or range of addresses on a system's address bus that, together with an interrupt request line (IRQ), allows a device to be recognized by the processor. (5)
  261. ja See external cache.
  262. jb One of the main protocols of the TCP/IP protocol suite, IP manages logical addressing of network packets so routing protocols can route the packets over the network. (13)
  263. jc See pointing stick.
  264. jd See complementary metal-oxide semiconductor.
  265. je A network name used to identify a wireless network. Consisting of up to 32 characters, the SSID travels with the messages on the wireless network. All of the wireless devices on a WLAN must use the same SSID in order to communicate. (14)
  266. jf See central processing unit.
  267. jg See Video Electronics Standards Organization.
  268. jh Super XGA, a video graphics mode with a maximum resolution of 1280 × 1024. (3)
  269. ji In reference to computers, the pathways or methods for what goes into a computer in the form of data and instructions and similarly what comes out of the computer in many forms, including an onscreen display, a printout sent to a printer, or data sent to another device or computer. (1)
  270. jj A cable medium that transmits light pulses rather than electrical signals, so it is not susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI). (13)
  271. jk Any writable mass storage device, removable or fixed in place. (2)
  272. jl A special terminating stick that must be inserted into the open RIMM sockets. (4)
  273. jm A printed circuit card that you add to the motherboard to enhance functionality. Also called an expansion card. Video adapters and network interface cards (NICs) are examples of adapter cards. (2)
  274. jn A depressed area on an optical disc that is alternated with raised areas to be interpreted as data. (2)
  275. jo A plug designed for testing a specific port type (e.g., serial, parallel, or USB). The plug does not connect to a cable but reroutes the sending pins to the receiving pins. Using special software on the computer, a loopback test is performed in which signals are both sent and received. (5)
  276. jp The PCMCIA standard that succeeds the PC Card. (6)
  277. jq An Intel specification for the PC 32-bit architecture defining CPUs, motherboards, and other components. (5)
  278. jr A 4-pin connector that, in addition to a 20-pin connector, is part of motherboard power connector that follows the ATX 12V standard. (3)
  279. js See thumb drive.
  280. jt A common connector used to connect a power supply to internal peripherals. (3)
  281. ju Also called 1000Base-T, this networking standard supports speeds up to 1 Gbps. (13)
  282. jv A rectangular connector with a locking clip on one side and a number designation that refers to the size rather than the number of wires. (3)
  283. jw See lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery.
  284. jx See direct current.
  285. jy A processor on a graphics adapter used to render graphics images for the display, saving the CPU for other functions. (1)
  286. jz The read-only DVD discs sold at retail stores, containing video or software and having a maximum capacity of 15.9 GB of data. This term also applies to the drives that can only read DVDs. (2)
  287. ka A term applied to a CPU, motherboard, or other components that conform to the Intel 32-bit x86 specification. Also referred to as 32-bit. (5)
  288. kb A round connector that gets its name from Deutsche Industrie Norm, a German standards organization. Normally a round connector with a circular or semicircle of pins. (3)
  289. kc RAM that doubles the rate of speed at which a standard SDRAM can process data. Also called DDR and DDR1. A stick of DDR1 SDRAM has 184 pins. (2)
  290. kd See thread.
  291. ke In a CPU, the speed at which it can potentially execute instructions, measured in millions of cycles per second—megahertz (MHz)—or billions of cycles per second—gigahertz (GHz). (1)
  292. kf An organization that creates specifications for infrared wireless communication. (6)
  293. kg See hyper threading.
  294. kh A CPU component that manages the CPU cache. (1)
  295. ki A RAID array in which every time data is written to disk, a portion (block) is written to each disk in turn, creating a "stripe" of data across the member disks. RAID 0 uses the total disk space in the array for storage, without protecting the data from drive failure. (2)
  296. kj A value assigned to a process that controls the order in which the program code is executed in relation to other code. (11)
  297. kk A server containing source files for installing software onto client computers. The shared folder containing these files is a software distribution point. (9)
  298. kl A single-sided, single-layer digital versatile disc (DVD) that stores 4.7 GB of data, or over two hours of video. (2)
  299. km In the Windows GUI, a horizontal bar normally positioned across the bottom of the desktop containing a Start button, the Quick Launch toolbar, buttons for running programs, and at the far right, the notification area. Sometimes called the Start Bar. (8)
  300. kn A type of printer that uses a film coated with colored wax that melts onto paper. These printers are similar to dye-sublimation printers but differ in two major ways: the film contains wax rather than dye, and these printers do not require special paper. (12)
  301. ko An interface standard developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), it is used for both internal and external hard drives and optical drives as well as devices such as printers, modems, scanners, and many other peripherals. (3)
  302. kp A square snap coupling for fiber-optic cable, about 2.5 mm wide, used for cable-to-cable connections or to connect cables to network devices. It latches with a push-pull action similar to audio and video jacks. (13)
  303. kq A WAN connection that uses an analog modem rather than a network card and uses standard phone cables rather than network cables. (13)
  304. kr See display.
  305. ks A DVD drive that cannot write to but can read DVD discs. (2)
  306. kt In a CPU, special memory that resides outside the CPU's core and is used to temporarily store instructions and data in order to increase the processing speed. Also called Level 2 (L2) cache and Level 3 (L3) cache, depending on the design of the CPU and motherboard. (1)
  307. ku A component of a CPU that is responsible for all logical and mathematical operations in the system. (1)
  308. kv The use of a biometric for authentication. (16)
  309. kw See capture card.
  310. kx The disruption of signal transmission caused by the radiation of electrical and magnetic fields. Electric motors are a common source of EMI. (18)
  311. ky A utility for migrating data from many computers, or if you need to perform what Microsoft calls a "wipe-and-load migration" from and to the same computer. Available in Windows XP, Vista, and Windows 7. (9)
  312. kz In an operating system GUI, a tiny graphic representing an application, folder, disk, menu item, or other entity. (8)
  313. la Circuitry in a PC on an adapter card, or directly on the motherboard, that controls the output from the PC to the display device. (3)
  314. lb Software installed on a computer without permission that collects information about a user in order to display targeted advertisements, in the form of either inline banners or pop-ups. Inline banners are advertisements that run within the context of the current page, taking up screen real estate. (16)
  315. lc A 3/32" audio connector. (3)
  316. ld See parts grabber.
  317. le The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, an international nonprofit organization that sets standards as part of its charter. (3)
  318. lf Light emitting diode, a tiny bulb light found on many devices, often used to indicate operational status. (5)
  319. lg A private internetwork. (13)
  320. lh Authentication is validation of a user account and password that occurs before the security components of Windows will give the user access to the computer. (16)
  321. li A riser card that is similar to audio modem riser (AMR) except that it is plug and play-compatible and supports LANs in addition to audio, modem, and sound. (2)
  322. lj A primary partition that is marked for use by the system during startup. Windows operating systems can only be booted from an active partition. (10)
  323. lk A shared folder on a distribution server containing the source files for a remote installation. (9)
  324. ll One of the two main protocols of the TCP/IP protocol suite, TCP breaks the data into chunks, called datagrams. Each datagram also contains information, stored in a header, which is used by the TCP protocol on the receiving end to reassemble the chunks of data into the original message. (13)
  325. lm The primary input device for a PDA, shaped like a pen and used to press small keys on a keypad, tap the screen to select items, or write data on the screen. (6)
  326. ln A chip that works with a serial port, converting outgoing data from parallel to serial and incoming data from serial to parallel. (3)
  327. lo A Windows service designed to allow a user to invite someone to help troubleshoot a problem. (11)
  328. lp Used to represent the luminance signal in S-Video. (3)
  329. lq A communications system now used for data communications via satellite that usually uses microwave radio frequencies and requires a dish antenna, receiver, and transmitter. (13)
  330. lr A dedicated computer that stores data and provides print services or other capabilities to network clients. (13)
  331. ls A long-established fiber-optic WAN technology. (13)
  332. lt The hardware address of a network device, also called the Ethernet address (on Ethernet devices) or NIC address. (13)
  333. lu Local area networking using radio waves that includes several implementations based on the IEEE 802.11 group of standards. (13)
  334. lv See KVM switch.
  335. lw A measurement of a body part, such as a fingerprint or retina scan. (16)
  336. lx An Intel standard for motherboards targeted to the low-end consumer market that includes built-in components, while saving space and fitting into a smaller case. (1)
  337. ly A 25-pin D-shell connector. (3)
  338. lz A protocol for securing data for transmission by encrypting it. (13)
  339. ma A double-sided, single-layer digital versatile disc (DVD) that stores 9.4 GB of data, or over four hours of video. (2)
  340. mb The box that houses the main computer system. (1)
  341. mc See display power-management signaling.
  342. md See taskbar.
  343. me See nickel metal hydride.
  344. mf A printer that uses a light beam (laser) in the printing process. (12)
  345. mg An icon that represents a link to any object that an icon can represent. Activating a shortcut (by double-clicking it) is a quick way to access an object or to launch a program from the desktop without having to find the actual location of the object on your computer. (8)
  346. mh In the FAT file system, the top-level directory in which the operating system stores information about files, including a reference to the FAT table so it knows where to find the file's contents on disk. The NTFS file system also has a root, or top-level directory, but NTFS does not rely on this structure in the same way that FAT does. (10)
  347. mi Wide-ultra-extended graphics array—a widescreen video graphics mode with a maximum resolution of 1920 × 1200. (3)
  348. mj A circuit on a motherboard through which incoming power passes. Several voltage regulators maintain a steady voltage as demand goes up and down, with one or more voltage regulators for the various voltages required (5 volts, 12 volts, 3.3 volts, etc.). (1)
  349. mk A laptop in which the display is an integrated digitizer. (6)
  350. ml Programmable ROM. A ROM chip that can have programs added to it. (2)
  351. mm A solid-state storage standard for high-capacity (2, 4, and 8 GB) memory cards that are tiny—32 mm × 24 mm × 2.1 mm—and support high-speed data transfer. SD cards are in portable devices, such as digital video recorders, digital cameras, handheld computers, audio players, and cell phones. (2)
  352. mn The code used to provide multiple language support to Windows. (9)
  353. mo See customer premises equipment.
  354. mp A device that stores a large amount of information, even when it is powered off. (1)
  355. mq A card that fits into the PC Card interface, including both PC Card and CardBus cards. This type measures 85.6 millimeters long by 54 millimeters wide and measures 10.5 mm thick. (6)
  356. mr See electronic KVM switch.
  357. ms A heat dissipation device, usually a passive metal object with a flat surface attached to a component, such as a chip. (3)
  358. mt A logical memory address defined in a processor's address bus that allows the system to access physical RAM or ROM memory locations. (3)
  359. mu A device that takes video output and projects it onto a screen for viewing by a larger audience. (3)
  360. mv The original version of the IEEE 1394 standard that supports speeds up to 400 Mbps. (3)
  361. mw In regard to Windows operating systems, a version of Windows that is designed to work with a certain manufacturer's equipment. (9)
  362. mx A file operation in which the file or folder remains in the source location, and a duplicate is created in the target (destination) location. (10)
  363. my See PCIe.
  364. mz See digital video interface.
  365. na A processor packaging that uses pads on the processor that come in contact with pins in the socket on the motherboard, permitting a higher density than possible with PGA. (4)
  366. nb In telecommunications, a technique that combines multiple messages or signals onto a single transmission channel. (13)
  367. nc A KVM switch that uses software and special keyboard commands to switch among controlled computers. Also called anactive KVM switch. (3)
  368. nd See Advanced Technology.
  369. ne A Windows Advanced Options menu choice used to send debugging information about the Windows startup over a serial cable to another computer running a special program called a debugger. (11)
  370. nf See Internet service provider.
  371. ng See American National Standards Institute.
  372. nh A digital display interface standard developed by the Video Electronics Standards Association that supports both video and audio signals, contains HDCP copy protection, and is unique because it is royalty-free to manufacturers. (3)
  373. ni A file attribute set by the OS when a file is created or modified. Backup software often removes this attribute when backing up a file in order to mark it as a backed-up file. (10)
  374. nj In the laser printing process, this is the step in which the cover on the printer's toner cartridge is opened and the toner particles are attracted to the relatively less negatively charged areas of the drum. (12)
  375. nk An optical disc created and read by a mechanism using a laser. (2)
  376. nl A specialized chip that controls DMA channels. (5)
  377. nm See synchronous dynamic RAM.
  378. nn The utility to use when doing a single data and settings transfer to a new Windows Vista computer from one running Windows XP or Windows Vista. (9)
  379. no See paging file.
  380. np The second version of the IEEE 1394 standard; it supports speeds up to 3.2 Gbps and distances of up to 100 meters. (3)
  381. nq A database of all configuration settings in Windows. (8)
  382. nr The protocol used to allow client computers to pick up e-mail from mail servers. The current version is POP3. (13)
  383. ns See Voice over IP (VoIP).
  384. nt A chip that retains system settings such as the time, keyboard settings, and boot sequence. (1)
  385. nu A parallel interface standard that supports bidirectional communication and transfer rates of up to 2 MBps. (3)
  386. nv In the laser printing process, the step in which the toner on the drum is transferred to the paper. (12)
  387. nw A type of motherboard and its variants most commonly used in recent PC systems. (1)
  388. nx A connector used to attach coaxial cables to computers and network equipment. Origin of the term may be "Bayonet-Neill-Concelman" or "British Naval Connector." (2)
  389. ny A category of software that runs surreptitiously on a user's computer in order to gather information without the user's permission and then sends that information to the people who requested it. (16)
  390. nz Program code that allows an operating system to control the use of a physical device. (9)
  391. oa Laser discs sold at retail stores that contain music (audio CDs) or software (data CDs). (1)
  392. ob A computer circuit board that attaches to and controls SCSI devices. (4)
  393. oc A hardware device or a program that monitors and records a user's every keystroke, usually without the user's knowledge. (16)
  394. od In networks, when data can travel in either direction, but only in one direction at a time. (13)
  395. oe A Windows folder that contains numerous applets you can use to adjust the configuration of many different aspects of the OS. (8)
  396. of A Windows GUI utility that allows an administrator to view the status of devices and install, remove, and update device drivers. (8)
  397. og See hacker.
  398. oh A table on each file and folder in the NTFS file system that contains one or more access control entries. (16)
  399. oi The use of deceit and trickery to persuade someone to hand over money or valuables. (16)
  400. oj A type of DIMM memory module used in laptops. (6)
  401. ok Video RAM memory that uses a technique for using video RAM to perform Windows-specific functions to speed up the OS. (2)
  402. ol A specialized type of scanner that reads bar codes, which are patterns of bars of varying widths printed on labels or directly on items. The bar pattern is converted into a numeric code that is transmitted to a computer as data. (3)
  403. om Encrypted data placed in a file to guard against tampering. (9)
  404. on A connection over a wide area network. (13)
  405. oo A variation of the PGA CPU packaging that was used with Pentium CPUs. (4)
  406. op A technology developed in the 1980s for storing data. Variations of this format are in use today. (2)
  407. oq A power management standard, introduced by Intel in 1992, that defines four power-usage operating levels. (6)
  408. or An underlying protocol that supports Microsoft Remote Desktop. (11)
  409. os In Windows, an Advanced Option that is only available in Windows Servers in the role of domain controllers, although it appears on the menu in non-domain controllers. (11)
  410. ot See front side bus.
  411. ou A subprotocol of IP that detects and reports problems that can cause errors. (15)
  412. ov See Automatic Private IP Address.
  413. ow Data storage technology with no moving mechanical parts that uses large-capacity, nonvolatile memory, commonly calledflash memory or solid-state drives. (2)
  414. ox See serial ATA.
  415. oy A method for supporting up to 8.3 GB capacity hard drives. Both the BIOS and hard drive system must use LBA. (1)
  416. oz A common connector used to connect a power supply to floppy drives. (3)
  417. pa A network protocol suite originally developed for the Internet; it has been mostly adopted on private networks. (13)
  418. pb In the laser printer, the heated rollers that fuse the toner to the paper. (12)
  419. pc See RAMBUS Inline Memory Module.
  420. pd A blanket term used for DVD discs regardless of the type of data they contain. (2)
  421. pe A program downloaded to a computer without the user's consent. The user unwittingly initiates the download by some simple act, such as browsing to a Website or opening an e-mail message written in HTML. Or a user may initiate a drive-by download by installing an application. (16)
  422. pf A PCMCIA card standard that comes in two interfaces: PCIe and USB 2.0. (6)
  423. pg The use of more than one monitor on a single computer. (3)
  424. ph A service on a laptop that configures a card after socket services has recognized it. (6)
  425. pi See Rambus Dynamic RAM.
  426. pj A generic reference to a PC's serial communications port, in which the x represents the port number. (5)
  427. pk A memory module (stick) that installs into matching DIMM sockets found on many motherboards. The word "dual" refers to the separate pins or connections on both sides of the module and socket. (1)
  428. pl A tool used to create and manage a distribution share and various installation images. (9)
  429. pm Operating system interface settings, such as the language used and the date, time, and currency formats. (9)
  430. pn A Windows 2000 recovery tool requiring an up-to-date emergency repair disk (ERD) or recent emergency repair information stored on the local hard disk. (11)
  431. po In Windows 2000 and Windows XP, an Advanced Options menu choice that starts Windows normally, except that video mode is changed to the lowest resolution, using the currently installed video driver. This option does not switch to the basic Windows video driver. (11)
  432. pp A network connection over long distances, traditionally using phone lines or satellite communications. (13)
  433. pq In Microsoft Windows, NTFS permissions are used to specify and control which users and groups can access certain files and folders and what each user or group can do with them. (10)
  434. pr See Ethernet.
  435. ps In Microsoft terminology, software that contains one or more software fixes or changes to the operating system. (8)
  436. pt A multi-GPU solution developed by ATI. (3)
  437. pu The top-level folder or directory in the file structure. This appears the same, regardless of the underlying file system. (10)
  438. pv A type of computer firmware that is responsible for informing the CPU of installed devices and how to communicate with them. (1)
  439. pw The use of words, often technical and uncommon, that both parties understand in the same way. (18)
  440. px A power supply and motherboard feature that allows software to turn off a computer rather than only using a physical switch. (3)
  441. py See emergency repair disk.
  442. pz A command-line utility, installed with the TCP/IP protocol suite, that traces the route taken by packets to a destination. (15)
  443. qa A system by which the computer BIOS and operating system recognizes a device and the operating system automatically installs and configures a device driver. (3)
  444. qb The type of battery used in the first portable PCs, which was heavy and inefficient. (6)
  445. qc Sony-Philips digital interface format—a single-pin RCA phone jack used for transferring digital audio from CD and DVD players to amplifiers and speakers. (3)
  446. qd The primary control device for a computer system. The CPU is simply a chip containing a set of components that manages all the activities. Also called a processor. (1)
  447. qe This attack occurs when someone sends a large number of requests to a server, overwhelming the server so it stops functioning on the network. (16)
  448. qf A non-routable network protocol suite for use only in small networks. (13)
  449. qg A display device that contains a cathode ray tube and uses an electron gun to activate phosphors behind the screen at the front of the tub. (3)
  450. qh In the laser printing process, the stage in which the printer's high-voltage power supply (HVPS) conducts electricity to the primary corona wire so it can pass the voltage on to the printer's electro-photosensitive drum. (12)
  451. qi One of many low-level instructions built into the control unit of a CPU. Also called a microprogram. (1)
  452. qj A remote KVM switch that captures the keyboard, video, and mouse signals, encodes them into IP packets, and sends them over an IP network. (3)
  453. qk Both the connectors on the RDRAM memory modules and the motherboard sockets (or slots) that match them. (1)
  454. ql See accelerated graphics port.
  455. qm A mark on a building created by a war driver to specify where a hotspot exists. People "in the know" look for these marks to identify hotspots for their use. (16)
  456. qn A 20- or 24- pin connector that supplies power from a PC's power supply to the motherboard. (3)
  457. qo An improved version of WPA that does not support older network cards and offers both secure authentication and data encryption. It uses EAP for a variety of authentication methods—most often EAP-PSK. (16)
  458. qp A type of KVM switch that is controlled through a mechanical switch on the box. (3)
  459. qq See demilitarized zone.
  460. qr A connector commonly used for PC keyboards. It is much smaller than the original DIN connector. (3)
  461. qs A service that manages Microsoft NetBIOS names for a Windows network. This service is becoming obsolete, as Windows has moved to DNS for naming and name service. (13)
  462. qt See adapter card.
  463. qu A system resource that certain devices, such as sound cards and hard drives, can use to move data between the device and system RAM without involving the processor. (5)
  464. qv A CRT video setting, also known at horizontal hold, that holds the image horizontally on the screen. (3)
  465. qw A menu that opens from the Start button on the taskbar. (8)
  466. qx A magnetic storage device that stores data on metal platters that have a coating that holds data in the form of changes to small magnetic particles in the coating. Also called HDD. (1)
  467. qy An encryption technology introduced in Windows Vista Enterprise and Ultimate editions, Windows Server 2008, and also in Windows 7 Ultimate and Enterprise editions. It encrypts the entire boot volume. (16)
  468. qz A specialized device for testing a power supply unit that comes with connectors compatible with the output connectors on a standard power supply. (5)
  469. ra See digital linear tape.
  470. rb See System Information.
  471. rc A circuit card in a PC that controls the output to the display device(s). (2)
  472. rd A CRT video setting, also known as the vertical refresh rate, that controls the rate per second at which an image appears on the tube. (3)
  473. re See DDR3 SDRAM.
  474. rf A memory error-checking method in which the parity bit is used to ensure that the total number of 1s in the data stream is even. (2)
  475. rg An optional toolbar you can add to the taskbar just to the right of the Start button. Shortcuts on this bar launch with a single-click. (8)
  476. rh The Windows Vista and Windows 7 tool for gathering and viewing performance data involving memory, disks, processors, network, and other objectives. (11)
  477. ri See Microsoft Management Console.
  478. rj An installation of Windows that is not automated, where the user is required to pay attention throughout the entire process to provide information and to respond to messages. Also called a manual installation. (9)
  479. rk See antistatic mat.
  480. rl A raised area on an optical disc that is alternated with depressed areas to be interpreted as data. (2)
  481. rm A metal plate behind the front of a CRT monitor that focuses the electron beams from the gun. (3)
  482. rn The former name of the Parallel AT Attachment (PATA) interface standard. (1)
  483. ro In Windows Vista, a vertical bar found by default on the right side of the desktop. Here, you will find gadgets and mini-programs. (8)
  484. rp A company in the business of providing Internet access to users. (13)
  485. rq See Serial Attached SCSI.
  486. rr See digitizing tablet.
  487. rs A Windows sleep mode that uses hard drive space to save all the programs and data that are in memory at the time you choose this mode. The computer then completely shuts down and requires no power while it is hibernating. (6)
  488. rt The IBM branded name for a pointing stick or track point. (6)
  489. ru A single dot on a display screen. A contraction of "Picture Element." (3)
  490. rv Fiber-optic cable in which multiple light waves can pass simultaneously. Usually larger in diameter than single-mode fiber; and each wave uses a certain portion of the fiber cable for transmission. (13)
  491. rw A key on a laptop that, when pressed along with the FN key, changes the laptop display brightness at the hardware level. On some laptops, when this key combination is pressed, a small brightness control panel will display on the screen. Use the up (↑) or right (→) arrow key to increase the brightness, and use the left (←) or down (↓) arrow key to decrease the brightness. The DISPLAY BRIGHTNESS key is normally a function key, such as F5, that displays a sun-like symbol. (6)
  492. rx An action, such as the CTRL-ALT-DELETE key combination or the insertion of a smart card, that clears memory of certain types of viruses before a user logs on. (17)
  493. ry A partition type that can exist on a basic disk and have one or more logical drive letters assigned to it. A Windows operating system cannot boot from an extended partition. (10)
  494. rz An early technology for increasing the performance of DRAM. (2)
  495. sa A mode for parallel ports that allows access to special features in the PC called DMA channels. This mode is approximately ten times faster than regular bidirectional mode and is designed for printers and scanners. (4)
  496. sb A more advanced and more expensive alternative to a port replicator. In addition to the ports normally found on a port replicator, a docking station may include full-size expansion slots and drives. (6)
  497. sc A type of solid-state storage that is commonly used in a variety of devices, such as digital cameras. (2)
  498. sd An external bus that connects into the PC's PCI bus. With USB, you can theoretically connect up to 127 devices to your computer. (3)
  499. se The location where a cable attaches to a computer. Alternatively, a connector on a motherboard for memory, CPUs, power, or other circuitry. (3)
  500. sf A connector that contains two to four wires and usually attaches phone cables to modems and to wall-mounted phone jacks. (3)
  501. sg The Microsoft Website from which you can download updates to Windows. (9)
  502. sh A CPU technology that allows two threads to execute at the same time within a single execution core. This technology is considered to be partially parallel execution. Intel introduced it in the Pentium 4 Xeon CPU. Also known as simultaneous multithreading (SMT). (1)
  503. si The high-definition optical disc formatting standard, promoted by Toshiba, that was defeated by the Blu-ray Disc standard as the widely accepted high-definition standard. (2)
  504. sj Introduced in 1993, the most common expansion bus architecture in PCs in the mid 1990s. It transfers data in parallel over a data bus that is either 32- or 64-bits wide. (1)
  505. sk Client software for browsing and accessing the content on the World Wide Web. Examples include Internet Explorer and Firefox. (14)
  506. sl A group of features in the system BIOS, the chipset, the operating system, device drivers, and the individual components that enable efficient use of power in a computer. (6)
  507. sm A fiber-optic connector that has a snap coupling and, at 1.25 mm, is half the size of the SC connector. Also called a local connector. (13)
  508. sn A measurement of the pressure of electrons, the electromotive force. It is calculated by the formula volts = watts / amps. (3)
  509. so The generic term for a pointing stick. (6)
  510. sp In fiber-optics, a single light wave passing down a cable. (13)
  511. sq Memory that can only be read and that contains program code. ROM is also called firmware. (2)
  512. sr A motherboard form factor introduced in 2003 by Intel as the successor to ATX. (1)
  513. ss A tool for migrating user data and settings from one Windows computer to a computer running Windows XP. (9)
  514. st See Small Outline DIMM.
  515. su See Address Resolution Protocol.
  516. sv The process that authenticates a user and verifies the user account's level of access to a resource. (16)
  517. sw In a CPU, the component that is primarily responsible for directing all the activities of the computer and the interactions of its components. (1)
  518. sx Software created to perform malicious acts. Also called malicious software. (16)
  519. sy The protocol used by DHCP servers and clients. A DHCP server allocates IP addresses within the scope of addresses configured on the server by an administrator. DHCP clients request IP addresses and other IP configuration settings from DHCP Servers. (13)
  520. sz A handheld device used to measure electrical resistance, voltage, and/or current. (5)
  521. ta A parallel port mode in which the signals can be transmitted in both directions between the PC and parallel devices connected to the computer. (4)
  522. tb A type of printer that transfers ink to paper by causing a print head to strike a printer ribbon containing ink against the paper. (12)
  523. tc A wireless network standard that uses the 2.4 GHz band at a speed of up to 10 Mbps. (13)
  524. td The style of partition on a basic disk, which includes primary and extended. (10)
  525. te See plain-old telephone service.
  526. tf See Domain Name Service.
  527. tg A data encryption technology used for securing data transmitted over the Internet. TLS succeeded SSL. (13)
  528. th The process of informing the software manufacturer who the official owner or user of the product is, and providing contact information such as name, address, company, phone number, e-mail address, and so on, about them. Registration is usually a voluntary action. (9)
  529. ti A double-sided, double-layer digital versatile disc (DVD) that stores 17.08 GB of data, or over eight hours of video. (2)
  530. tj The hardware architecture, including the CPU, BIOS, and chipset. (8)
  531. tk A file attribute that is given to a file to indicate it should not be visible in Windows Explorer unless View settings override the attribute and allow the file to be shown.
  532. tl A wireless network standard that uses the 2.4 GHz band at a speed of up to 54 Mbps. It is downward-compatible with 802.11b. (13)
  533. tm In the laser printing process, the step in which the laser beam creates a negative of the image that will eventually appear on the printout. Each place that the laser beam touches loses most of its charge, creating an image, whereas the rest of the drum remains highly negatively charged. (12)
  534. tn A sleep mode that is available on any computer that supports ACPI power management. It conserves power while saving the desktop in RAM memory in a work state. To resume, you simply press the power button, and the desktop is quickly displayed. (6)
  535. to See floating-point unit.
  536. tp See software firewall.
  537. tq A new level of an operating system with major changes to the core components. (8)
  538. tr A misnomer, referring to the BIOS settings that are stored in a CMOS chip. (1)
  539. ts See Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).
  540. tt A technology for transferring serial data at high speeds. Also known as low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS). (3)
  541. tu A small group of computers communicating wirelessly with one another without the use of a centralized wireless access point (WAP). (14)
  542. tv DRAM that runs at the speed of the system bus (up to 100-133 MHz). (2)
  543. tw A multi-GPU solution developed by NVIDIA. (3)
  544. tx A connection point on a device or computer, sometimes called a socket. (3)
  545. ty A program file or some special data file that is part of the operating system and is very important to proper operation of the OS. (10)
  546. tz A power supply that detects the incoming voltage and switches to accept either 120 or 240 VAC. (6)
  547. ua A marriage of SCSI and Serial ATA, this uses a serial interface to a SCSI bus. (3)
  548. ub The digital versatile disc (DVD) encoding format used for data storage. (2)
  549. uc An early international standard for sending voice and data over digital telephone wires. ISDN uses existing telephone circuits or higher-speed conditioned lines to get speeds of either 64 Kbps or 128 Kbps. ISDN lines also have the ability to carry voice and data simultaneously over the circuit. (13)
  550. ud See read-only memory.
  551. ue A command-line utility installed on a Windows computer with the TCP/IP protocol suite; it's used to view the IP configuration of a network connection and to perform certain administrative tasks. (15)
  552. uf See alternating current.
  553. ug A DVD of any type that can store data on both sides of the disc. (1)
  554. uh A computer that is not connected to a network of any kind. (13)
  555. ui An early PC hard drive interface. (1)
  556. uj A special disk used for recovering an OS failure in Windows 2000. It requires that you create the ERD while the system is healthy, and then use it, along with the Windows Setup CD, to repair Windows. (11)
  557. uk Slang for motherboard. (1)
  558. ul A file used during an unattended installation of Windows. It provides a script of responses to the questions Setup asks so the user does not have to answer them manually. (9)
  559. um A modulator/demodulator device that allows computers to communicate with one another over existing phone lines. (2)
  560. un A portion of a program that can run separately from and concurrently with other portions of the program. Also called thread of execution. (1)
  561. uo A process that runs "behind the scenes" with a low priority, does not require input, and rarely creates output. (11)
  562. up See Advanced Micro Devices.
  563. uq A dark spot on an LCD screen caused when a transistor is permanently off. (7)
  564. ur See virtual file allocation table.
  565. us A pen-sized tool that has a plunger at one end. When pressed, the plunger causes small, hooked prongs to extend from the other end of the tool for retrieving dropped objects from inside a computer. (5)
  566. ut At first, a terminal was not much more than a display, a keyboard, and the minimal circuitry for connecting to the mainframe. Now, a terminal can be a computer running Windows or other operating system, plus terminal client emulation software that allows it to connect to a server in which a separate session is run for the client computer. (13)
  567. uu A portion of system memory used by a video adapter built into a motherboard. (6)
  568. uv In reference to IDE PATA drives, the slave drive on the second channel. (4)
  569. uw A disk type introduced with Windows 2000 that contains space allocated in volumes without the limits imposed on basic disks. On a dynamic disk, the number of volumes are unlimited, and a volume can extend to include available space on any hard disk in the computer. (10)
  570. ux In Windows, an Advanced Options menu choice that starts Windows without several drivers and components and loads only very basic, non-vendor-specific drivers for mouse, video, keyboard, mass storage, and system services. Safe Mode also displays in low resolution. (11)
  571. uy Specialized hardware used to create and manage a RAID array. (2)
  572. uz Memory that does not require power to keep stored data intact. Also called flash memory. (2)
  573. va A joke program that produces strange behavior, such as screen distortions, erratic cursor behavior, or strange icons to appear on the screen. (16)
  574. vb Malware that hides itself from detection by antimalware programs; it is installed on a computer by someone who has privileged access to the computer. (16)
  575. vc A connector that is slightly larger than an RJ-11 connector and contains eight wires. RJ-45 connectors most commonly attach twisted-pair cables to Ethernet network cards. (3)
  576. vd The act of moving through a neighborhood in a vehicle or on foot, using either a laptop equipped with Wi-Fi wireless network capability or a simple Wi-Fi sensor available for a few dollars from many sources. War drivers are searching for open hotspots—areas where a Wi-Fi network connects to the Internet without using security to keep out intruders. (16)
  577. ve A disc designed to store all types of data usable by a computer. This term also refers to the drives that read and write to these discs. There are various types of DVD drives and media. (1)
  578. vf A type of RIMM memory module used in laptops. (6)
  579. vg A physical area where a Wi-Fi network connects to the Internet. (13)
  580. vh An assigned channel over which a device can send a signal to the processor to get its attention. (5)
  581. vi See refresh rate.
  582. vj A card that fits into the PC Card interface, including both PC Card and CardBus cards. This type measures 85.6 millimeters long by 54 millimeters wide and 5.0 millimeters thick. (6)
  583. vk See communication network riser.
  584. vl See point-to-point protocol.
  585. vm An organization that creates standards for laptop computer peripheral devices. (6)
  586. vn [1] A device that is the central connecting point of a LAN. A hub is little more than a multiport repeater taking incoming signals on one port and repeating them to all other ports. Ethernet hubs have been largely replaced by Ethernet switches. (13). [2] A multiport connecting device for USB devices. (4)
  587. vo See digital versatile disc (DVD).
  588. vp A DVI mode that supports digital video signals and is partially compatible with HDMI. See also digital video interface and High-Definition Multimedia Interface. (3)
  589. vq A string of characters that a user enters, along with an identifier, such as a user name, in order to be authenticated. (16)
  590. vr Fiber-optic cable that allows only a single light wave to pass down the cable. (13)
  591. vs The amount of data that can travel over a network at a given time. (13)
  592. vt Any video adapter or monitor that exceeds the VGA standard in resolution and color depth with a maximum resolution of 1600 × 1200. (3)
  593. vu A DVI mode that supports downward compatibility with analog displays. (3)
  594. vv A protocol developed in the 1980s by IBM for managing names on a network. Also used by Microsoft in early networking. Replaced by DNS on TCP/IP networks. (13)
  595. vw A wireless mode requiring a wireless access point (WAP). (14)
  596. vx See error-correcting code.
  597. vy See World Wide Web.
  598. vz A specialized type of memory used only with video adapters. (2)
  599. wa A utility in Windows XP and Windows 2000 for gathering and viewing performance data involving memory, disks, processors, networks, and other objectives. (11)
  600. wb A number that identifies a device on a SCSI chain. (4)
  601. wc Not revealing information about someone that would be harmful to or embarrass him or her. (18)
  602. wd One or more chips in a computer's chipset that controls communications between the CPU and RAM on the motherboard. (1)
  603. we In reference to parallel ports, a mode in which the parallel device connected to the parallel port can receive data but cannot send data. CMOS settings (system settings) may refer to this mode as "Transfer only." (4)
  604. wf The portion of the chipset that controls communications between the CPU and system RAM. (1)
  605. wg An extension of the SATA standard for external SATA devices, with speeds triple that of USB 2.0. (1)
  606. wh A key on a laptop that is pressed along with the FN key to change display modes so the output will be only to the laptop's display, only to an external display, or simultaneously to both displays. The DISPLAY MODE key is normally a function key, such as F7, that displays a display symbol. (6)
  607. wi In reference to networks, communications in both directions at the same time. (13)
  608. wj A CPU containing four CPU cores. (1)
  609. wk This GUI utility will display a system summary of the hardware, operating system, and other software. (11)
  610. wl A communications system, owned and operated by the telephone companies, that multiplexes voice and data signals onto digital transmission line. (13)
  611. wm A VESA standard for power management in display devices. (3)
  612. wn A virus that is self-replicating. (16)
  613. wo A type of solid-state storage that is commonly used in a variety of devices, such as digital cameras, which often use CompactFlash. (2)
  614. wp A large burst of electromagnetic energy, as from a nuclear explosion, that has the potential to damage communications and power lines within a large geographic area, depending on the size and location of the pulse. (16)
  615. wq Also called striping with distributed parity or striping with interleave parity, this RAID method involves a set of disks in which every time data is written to disk, a portion is written to each disk in turn, creating a "stripe" of data across the member disks. However, in each stripe, the portion on one disk is not the actual data, but the result of an algorithm performed on the data contained in the other blocks in the stripe. This block is called the parity block, and because of the space required, the total disk space in the array available for data storage is equal to the total disk space less one entire disk. (2)
  616. wr A small device containing a microchip used to generate unique passwords for logging on to a computer or a network. (16)
  617. ws Digital versatile disc (DVD) discs that can be written to once, but data cannot be overwritten. This term also refers to the drives that can write to these discs. (2)
  618. wt See Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.
  619. wu The act of discovering the cause of a problem and correcting it. (5)
  620. wv A plastic card, often the size of a credit card, that contains a microchip. The microchip can store information and perform functions, depending on the type of smart card. Some smart cards only store data, whereas others may have a variety of functions, including security cards for facilities or logging on to computers. (16)
  621. ww A set of standards for imaging devices, such as scanners and cameras, that is used in drivers and other software for these devices. (12)
  622. wx A device that combines two or more devices, such as a printer, scanner, and fax machine. (12)
  623. wy An area on the top left of the Windows XP Start menu containing shortcuts to Windows Update and programs for browsing the Internet and using e-mail. (8)
  624. wz A key on a laptop that is combined with the FN key to bring up a small volume control panel on the display. Using the up (↑) or right (→) arrow key, the volume will increase. To decrease the volume, press the FN key and the SPEAKER VOLUME key along with either the left (←) or down (↓) arrow key. This changes the speaker volume at the hardware level, bypassing Windows' volume control. (7)
  625. xa A disk that uses basic storage, which means that it uses the partition table in the master boot record (MBR) to define disk partitions. (10)
  626. xb A service of the operating system on a laptop that detects when a card has been inserted. (6)
  627. xc See lit pixel.
  628. xd A network device that is used to extend the range of a network by taking the signals received on a port from one network and regenerating (repeating) those signals to another port to transmit them on a second network. (13)
  629. xe A digital video interface that has several modes, including one that offers downward compatibility with analog displays. It requires a special connector, which comes in several variations to support the DVI modes. (3)
  630. xf A small cassette containing an ink reservoir used to provide the medium for certain printers. An ink cartridge will only fit a certain model printer. (12)
  631. xg See file allocation table.
  632. xh A CPU containing two CPU cores. (1)
  633. xi See FAT file system.
  634. xj See RAID 5.
  635. xk A coherent and concentrated light beam, also simply called a laser. (12)
  636. xl Memory that is accessible in any (random) order. Most of the memory in a PC is RAM. (2)
  637. xm See Advanced Power Management.
  638. xn A subprotocol of TCP/IP used for connectionless communications in which each packet is sent without establishing a connection. (13)
  639. xo The signal in a television transmission that contains the brightness of the image. (3)
  640. xp A portable computer small enough to fit in your hand, also referred to as a "palmtop" computer. Because it is so small, a PDA does not have the functionality of a laptop or desktop computer. In other words, a typical PDA allows you to perform only a small number of functions. (6)
  641. xq A generic term for a collection of information on known malware (not just viruses). (17)
  642. xr See video RAM.
  643. xs A set of skills, behaviors, and attitudes to use when listening to another person. (18)
  644. xt Microsoft's product activation program. (9)
  645. xu See denial of service (DoS) attack.
  646. xv See optical character recognition.
  647. xw See security auditing.
  648. xx A network service that handles the requests for Internet services, such as Web pages, files on an FTP server, and mail for a proxy client without exposing that client's IP address to the Internet. There is specific proxy server and client software for each type of service. (13)
  649. xy An internal bus in a CPU that connects it to memory and video. (1)
  650. xz A cooling fan mounted directly on the case, as opposed to a power supply fan, which is inside the power supply. (3)
  651. ya A pixel that is permanently turned on, causing the pixel to show constantly as red, green, or blue. Also called a stuck pixel. (7)
  652. yb See musical instrument digital interface.
  653. yc The use by the operating system of a portion of hard disk as memory. (9)
  654. yd The traditional wired telephone network. (13)
  655. ye A modified version of FAT12 and FAT16 used in Windows since Windows 95. (10)
  656. yf A name used by the Windows operating systems to identify any parallel port. (5)
  657. yg A device that converts DC current to AC. An inverter is required in a laptop to provide the AC current required by the display. (6)
  658. yh A fraudulent method of obtaining personal and financial information through the use of pop-ups or e-mail messages that purport to be from a legitimate organization, such as a bank, credit card company, or retailer. (16)
  659. yi The act of covertly obtaining information broadcast from wireless devices using the Bluetooth standard. (16)
  660. yj A group of wires used to identify addresses in main system memory in a computer. The number of wires in an address bus is called the width of the bus and determines the number of unique memory locations that can be addressed using binary math with the two raised to the power of the number of wires in the bus. A 32-bit bus can address up to 4 GB of memory, whereas a 36-bit address bus can address up to 64 GB of memory. (1)
  661. yk A data encryption technology used for securing data transmitted over the Internet. (13)
  662. yl See virtual circuit.
  663. ym A paid television subscription service offered by cable television providers. (13)
  664. yn In the domain name system, a first-level domain, which is a suffix added to a registered domain name and separated from the domain name with a "dot" (.). Among the TLDs are .com, .gov, .edu, .org, .mil, .net, .biz, many two-lettered country codes, and several others. (15)
  665. yo A computer display that uses liquid crystal or plasma technology and does not require the bulk of a large picture tube. The screen enclosure can be as thin as one to two inches. (3)
  666. yp In power supplies, the amount of wattage the power supply can handle. (3)
  667. yq A storage type in Windows that uses the partition table in the master boot record (MBR) to define disk partitions. (10)
  668. yr A server running the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service. This server allocates IP addresses to DHCP client computers. (13)
  669. ys Small text files a Web browser saves on the local hard drive at the request of a Website. Cookies can contain information that will be used the next time the user connects to the Website. (16)
  670. yt An address that a DHCP client will assign to itself after requesting an address and failing to receive one from a DHCP server. The address it will assign is in the 169.254 /16 network, which is the range of addresses from to (13)
  671. yu The practice of forcing a CPU or other computer component to run at a higher clock rate than the manufacturer intended. (1)
  672. yv See zero insertion force (ZIF) socket.
  673. yw A standard for hard drives that attach to the Parallel AT Attachment (PATA) interface. (1)
  674. yx The area at the beginning of a disk formatted with the FAT file system. This area contains the boot record, FAT table, and root directory. (10)
  675. yy See logical block address.
  676. yz A CRT video setting, also known as vertical hold, that holds the image vertically on the screen. (3)
  677. za A screen device for video output. Also called a monitor. (3)
  678. zb A virus that downloads to a user's computer through a pop-up window that appears in a Web browser. It requires an action on the part of a user, such as clicking a button that implies acceptance of something like free information. (16)
  679. zc In reference to a memory module, the number of memory modules required to match the data bus width of the processor. (2)
  680. zd An area of the Windows taskbar used by programs and some hardware devices to display status icons. Also called thenotification area or system tray. (8)
  681. ze The language of Web pages. Web designers use the HTML language to create Web page code, which your Web browser converts into the pages you view on your screen. (13)
  682. zf The circuit board in a computer to which all other components directly or indirectly connect. Also called a mainboard, system board, mobo, or planar board. (1)
  683. zg See v-hold.
  684. zh (n.) An area of a physical hard disk that defines space that will be used for logical drives. (4). (v.) To define the space to be used for logical drives using a special program, such as the Windows Setup program. (9)
  685. zi In a disk drive, the rotating shaft used to spin the disks. (1)
  686. zj Unsolicited messages sent over an instant messaging service, such as Windows Messenger. (16)
  687. zk See Internet Control Message Protocol.
  688. zl A power supply that converts between alternating current and direct current. (3)
  689. zm A group of networking standards created by the IEEE 802.3 subcommittee. (13)
  690. zn A password that locks your hard drive and is often stored in a TPM chip. (16)
  691. zo In reference to IDE PATA drives, the master drive on the second channel. (4)
  692. zp The worldwide interconnection of networks that can be accessed with various Internet-based software. The World Wide Web is one of the many services of the Internet. (13)
  693. zq See distributed denial of service attack.
  694. zr In a Microsoft Windows network, an administrative organization with a centralized security accounts database maintained on one or more special servers called domain controllers. This centralized database contains accounts for users, groups, and computers participating in the domain, and it is used to authenticate a user for access to any resource in the domain. (13)
  695. zs An LCD display setting that adjusts the viewable area of the display vertically. (3)