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  • What is a field?

    A location in a record in which a particular type of data is stored.

    What is a column?

    An attribute for a row or record.

    What is a row?

    A record within a table.

    What is a record?

    A data structure that is a collection of fields (elements), each with its own name and type that appear in a table as a group of fields across one row.

    What is a relational model?

    A model for modern database management systems in which data is organized in relations (tables).

    What is a one-to-one relationship?

    An association between two tables in which the primary key value of each record in the primary table corresponds to the value in the matching field of one, and only one, record in the related table.

    What is a many-to-many relationship?

    A complex association between two sets of parameters in which many parameters of each set can relate to many others in the second set.

    What is a parent/child relationship?

    A relationship between nodes in a tree data structure in which the parent is one step closer to the root (that is, one level higher) than the child.

    What is a primary key?

    A unique data identifier.

    What is structured query language(SQL)?

    A relational database language used in querying, updating, and managing relational databases and is the de facto standard for database products.

    What is data manipulation language(DML)?

    Used to insert, update, and delete data and to query a database.

    What is data definition language(DDL)?

    Used to create, modify, or drop relational databases, entities, attributes, and other objects (e.g. views).

    What is a schema?

    A description of a database to a database management system (DBMS) in the language provided by the DMBS.

    What does the CREATE function do?

    Adds databases or objects.

    What does the ALTER function do?

    Changes databases or objects.

    What does the DROP function do?

    Removes databases or objects.

    What are data types?

    They specify the possible range of values of the set, the operations that can be performed on the values, and the way in which the values are stored in memory.

    What is an integer?

    Data type that stores whole numbers.

    What is a floating point?

    A data type that stores any real numbers.

    What is a character?

    A data type that stores A-Z or 0-9, any digit or letter that math functions will not be applied to.

    What is a boolean?

    A data type that stores 1 or 0, true or false.

    What is ANSI SQL syntax?

    The grammar and rules governing the structure and contents of statements.

    What is a table?

    The data structure usually consisting of a list of entries.

    What is a key?

    An identifier for a record in a data file that is unique and found in only one record.

    What is a view?

    A saved query that creates a virtual table from the result set of the query.

    What is a query?

    A specific set of instructions for extracting/selecting particular data.

    What is a graphical designer?

    An application, such as Microsoft Access, that is object-oriented and drag-and-drop driven.

    What is Transact-SQL (T-SQL)?

    A sophisticated query language with additional features beyond what is defined in the ANSI SQL.

    What is a function?

    One-word commands that return a single value written in the command set of SQL.

    What is an aggregate function?

    Returns a single value, calculated from values in a column.

    What is a scalar function?

    Returns a single value, based on the input value of a single field.

    What is a user-defined function?

    Compact segments of user-written SQL code that can accept parameters and return either a value or a table.

    What is a stored procedure?

    Precompiled groups of SQL statements saved to the database.

    What does the SELECT function do?

    Selects data from the database.

    What does the DISTINCT function do?

    Returns only distinct(unique) values.

    What does the WHERE function do?

    Specifies which rows to retrieve.

    What does the ORDER BY function do?

    Specifies an order in which to return the rows.

    What does the AND logical operator do?

    Displays a record if both the first condition AND the second condition are true.

    What does the OR logical operator do?

    Displays a record if either the first OR the second conditions are true.

    What is a truth table?

    Shows the relationships between boolean logical operators.

    What does the UNION function do?

    Combines two or more SELECT statements with an OR function.

    What does the JOIN function do?

    Used to query data from two or more tables.

    What are subqueries?

    Queries nested inside another query.

    What does the INTERSECT function do?

    Combines two ore more SELECT statements with an AND function.

    What does the INSERT INTO function do?

    Used to insert a new row in a table.

    What function does INSERT INTO with SELECT perform?

    Used to insert a new row in a table when a sub-select is used instead of the VALUES clause.

    What does the UPDATE function do?

    Used to update existing records in a table.

    What does the CASE function do?

    Creates when-then-else functionality.

    What does the DELETE FROM function do?

    Deletes rows in a table.

    What are transactions?

    A set of two or more statements grouped into a single unit.

    What is a rollback?

    Reverses changes.

    What does the COMMIT command do?

    If all statements are correct within a single transaction, it records the changes in the database.

    What is normalization?

    Involves applying a body of techniques to a relational database to minimize the inclusion of duplicate information.

    What is normal form?

    The result of structuring information to avoid redundancy and inconsistency and to promote efficient maintenance, storage, and updating.

    What is first normal form?

    Eliminate duplicate columns from the same table.

    What is second normal form?

    Removing subsets of data that apply to multiple rows of a table and place them in separate tables.

    What is third normal form?

    removing columns that are not dependent upon the primary key.

    What is a primary key?

    Serves as a unique identifier of a specific row and uniquely defines a relationship within a database.

    What is a foreign key?

    References the primary key in another table.

    What is data integrity?

    Ensures that data is consistent, correct, and usable throughout the database.

    What is an index?

    contains keywords and associated data that point to the location of more comprehensive information, such as files and records on a disk or record keys in a database.

    What is a b-tree structure?

    Each node in the tree contains a sorted list of key values and links that correspond to ranges of key values between the listed values.

    What is a non-clustered index?

    Arranged similarly to the index of a book, where the index value points to the actual information.

    What is a clustered index?

    Arranged in a special order to make retrieval of information faster with direct access to the information.

    What is a security plan?

    Identifies which users can do what actions to data in a database.

    What is a physical security plan?

    Addresses the safety of the actual location of the database?

    What is access control?

    Ensures and restricts who can connect and what they can do.

    What is a user account?

    Provides users with access to the database.

    What is a role?

    Grants permissions to the database. Defined roles give all users within a group the same permissions.

    What is a backup?

    A process of saving all critical data to re-create the database in useful form in a relatively short time.

    What is a full backup?

    All files are copied for possible future retrieval.

    What is an incremental backup?

    Only files that have been changed since the last backup are copied.

    What is a differential backup?

    Only files that have been changed since the last FULL backup are copied.

    What are replicated services?

    Recreate a full or incremental reproduction of the database.

    What does RDBMS stand for?

    Relational Data Base Management System

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