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What is a record?
A data structure that is a collection of fields (elements), each with its own name and type that appear in a table as a group of fields across one row.
What is a relational model?
A model for modern database management systems in which data is organized in relations (tables).
What is a one-to-one relationship?
An association between two tables in which the primary key value of each record in the primary table corresponds to the value in the matching field of one, and only one, record in the related table.
What is a many-to-many relationship?
A complex association between two sets of parameters in which many parameters of each set can relate to many others in the second set.
What is a parent/child relationship?
A relationship between nodes in a tree data structure in which the parent is one step closer to the root (that is, one level higher) than the child.
What is structured query language(SQL)?
A relational database language used in querying, updating, and managing relational databases and is the de facto standard for database products.
What is data manipulation language(DML)?
Used to insert, update, and delete data and to query a database.
What is data definition language(DDL)?
Used to create, modify, or drop relational databases, entities, attributes, and other objects (e.g. views).
What is a schema?
A description of a database to a database management system (DBMS) in the language provided by the DMBS.
What are data types?
They specify the possible range of values of the set, the operations that can be performed on the values, and the way in which the values are stored in memory.
What is a character?
A data type that stores A-Z or 0-9, any digit or letter that math functions will not be applied to.
What is a key?
An identifier for a record in a data file that is unique and found in only one record.
What is a graphical designer?
An application, such as Microsoft Access, that is object-oriented and drag-and-drop driven.
What is Transact-SQL (T-SQL)?
A sophisticated query language with additional features beyond what is defined in the ANSI SQL.
What is a user-defined function?
Compact segments of user-written SQL code that can accept parameters and return either a value or a table.
What does the AND logical operator do?
Displays a record if both the first condition AND the second condition are true.
What does the OR logical operator do?
Displays a record if either the first OR the second conditions are true.
What function does INSERT INTO with SELECT perform?
Used to insert a new row in a table when a sub-select is used instead of the VALUES clause.
What does the COMMIT command do?
If all statements are correct within a single transaction, it records the changes in the database.
What is normalization?
Involves applying a body of techniques to a relational database to minimize the inclusion of duplicate information.
What is normal form?
The result of structuring information to avoid redundancy and inconsistency and to promote efficient maintenance, storage, and updating.
What is second normal form?
Removing subsets of data that apply to multiple rows of a table and place them in separate tables.
What is a primary key?
Serves as a unique identifier of a specific row and uniquely defines a relationship within a database.
What is data integrity?
Ensures that data is consistent, correct, and usable throughout the database.
What is an index?
contains keywords and associated data that point to the location of more comprehensive information, such as files and records on a disk or record keys in a database.
What is a b-tree structure?
Each node in the tree contains a sorted list of key values and links that correspond to ranges of key values between the listed values.
What is a non-clustered index?
Arranged similarly to the index of a book, where the index value points to the actual information.
What is a clustered index?
Arranged in a special order to make retrieval of information faster with direct access to the information.
What is a role?
Grants permissions to the database. Defined roles give all users within a group the same permissions.
What is a backup?
A process of saving all critical data to re-create the database in useful form in a relatively short time.
What is a differential backup?
Only files that have been changed since the last FULL backup are copied.