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  • What is the name of the data located at the intersection of a row and column?

    field

    A field is a location in a ___ in which a particular type of data is stored.

    record

    A column is an ___ for a row or record.

    attribute

    A ___ is a record within a table.

    row

    A table is a database object consisting of ___.

    rows and columns

    A record is a data structure that is a collection of ___ (elements), each with its own name and type that appear in a table as group of ___ across one row.

    fields

    A record is a data structure that is a collection of fields (elements), each with its own name and type that appear in a ___ as group of fields across one row.

    table

    Most modern database management systems implement a relational model in which the data is organized in ___ .

    relations (tables)

    A one-to-one relationship is an association between two tables in which the primary key value of each record in the primary table corresponds to the value in the matching field of one, and only one, record in the ___ .

    related table

    A ___ relationship is a complex association between two sets of parameters in which many parameters of each set can relate to many others in the second set.

    many-to-many

    A parent/child relationship is a relationship between nodes in a ___ in which the parent is one step closer to the root (that is, one level higher) than the child.

    tree data structure

    Primary Keys are ___ .

    unique data identifiers

    Structured query language (SQL) is ___ .

    a relational database language used in querying, updating, and managing relational databases and is the de facto standard for database products

    ___ is used to insert, update, and delete data and to query a database.

    Data manipulation language (DML)

    Data definition language (DDL) is used to ___ .

    create, modify, or drop relational databases, entities, attributes, and other objects (e.g. views)

    Which DDL command can Raj use to add a new field to the Cycle table to store the filename of the photo? ___

    ALTER TABLE Cycle ADD photo _ file _ name CHAR (30) NULL

    What is the main difference between the DML command DELETE and the DDL command DROP? ___

    DELETE removes all (or a subset of) records from the table only; it does not remove the table

    ___ is a description of a database to a database management system (DBMS) in the language provided by the DBMS.

    A schema

    Data definition language (DDL) defines database objects including ___ .

    entities, attributes, views, and indexes

    CREATE ___ .

    adds databases objects

    ALTER ___.

    changes databases objects

    DROP ___.

    removes databases objects

    ___ specify the possible range of values of the set, the operations that can be performed on the values, and the way in which the values are stored in memory.

    Data type

    Data types specify the possible range of values of the set, the operations that can be performed on the values, and the way in which the values are ___.

    stored in memory

    Integer data types store ___ .

    whole numbers

    Floating-point data types store any ___ .

    real numbers

    Character stores ___ (any digit or letter that math functions will not be applied to).

    A-Z or 0-9

    Boolean stores 1 or 0, true or ___ .

    false

    ANSI SQL syntax is the ___ governing the structure and content of statements.

    grammar and rules

    A table is a data structure usually consisting of a ___ .

    list of entries

    An identifier for a record in a data file that is unique and found in only one record is called a ___ . A Social Security number may serve as a ___ in an database of employees.

    key

    A ___ is a saved query that creates a virtual table from the result set of the query.

    view

    A view is a saved query that creates a ___ table from the result set of the query.

    virtual

    A view is a saved query that creates a ___ .

    virtual table from the result set of the query

    A query is a specific set of instructions for ___ .

    extracting/selecting particular data

    A graphical designer is an application, such as Microsoft Access, that is ___ .

    object-oriented and drag-and-drop driven

    Transact-SQL (T-SQL) is a sophisticated query language with additional features beyond what is defined in the ___ .

    ANSI SQL

    ____ is a sophisticated query language with additional features beyond what is defined in the ANSI SQL.

    Transact-SQL (T-SQL)

    Graphical designers include applications such as Microsoft Access, which are ___ .

    object-oriented and drag-and-drop driven

    Functions are one-word commands that return a ___ .

    single value written in the command set of SQL.

    Aggregate functions return a single value, calculated from values ___ .

    in a column

    Scalar functions return a ___ , based on the input value of a single field.

    single value

    ___ are compact segments of user-written SQL code that can accept parameters and return either a value or a table.

    User-defined functions

    Stored procedures are ___ saved to the database.

    precompiled groups of SQL statements

    Which command would ensure that return visitors are only counted once when running a query against the reservation system? ___

    SELECT DISTINCT

    For some of the reports it will be useful to see the results in alphabetical order. Which command will produce an alphabetical list? ___

    ORDER BY column _ name (either ASC or DESC)

    A truth table is helpful in visualizing the results of logical operators. When comparing two fields, which condition always results in TRUE? ___

    OR operator and at least one field = TRUE

    ___ is the most-used SQL command for selecting the data from the database.

    SELECT

    SELECT is the most-used SQL command for ___ .

    selecting the data from the database

    DISTINCT returns only ___

    distinct (unique) values.

    ___ returns only distinct (unique) values.

    DISTINCT

    ___ specifies which rows to retrieve.

    WHERE

    WHERE specifies which ___ .

    rows to retrieve

    ___ specifies an order in which to return the rows.

    ORDER BY

    ORDER BY specifies an ___ in which to return the rows.

    order

    Boolean logical operators : AND displays a record if both the first condition ___ .

    and the second condition are true

    Boolean logical operators : OR displays a record if either the first condition ___ .

    or the second conditions are true

    Truth tables show the relationships of the ___ .

    Boolean logical operators

    ___ show the relationships of the Boolean logical operators.

    Truth tables

    Which statement best defines a predicate subquery?

    uses extended logical constructs in the WHERE clause using AND, OR, LIKE, BETWEEN, AS, and TOP

    What is the difference between UNION and JOIN?

    UNION combines the results of two SQL queries when there is the same number of columns and data types; JOIN returns rows when there is at least one column match

    When should the INTERSECT query be used?

    To return only the rows that appear in both tables, similar to a Boolean AND

    ___ combines two or more SELECT statements with an OR function.

    UNION

    UNION combines two or more SELECT statements with an ___ .

    OR function

    ___ is used to query data from two or more tables.

    JOIN

    JOIN is used to query data from ___ .

    two or more tables

    Subqueries nest inside ___ .

    another query

    ___ combines two or more SELECT statements with an AND function.

    INTERSECT

    When designing the INSERT SQL, what happens if data is missing for a particular column? ___

    The INSERT statement uses the default value for the column.

    How can you set up the INSERT to allow copy rows from other tables? ___

    You can use the INSERT INTO with a SELECT FROM clause.

    The ___ statement is used to insert a new row in a table.

    INSERT INTO

    The INSERT INTO statement is used to insert a ___ in a table.

    new row

    The ___ statement is used to insert a new row in a table when a sub-select is used instead of the VALUES clause.

    INSERT INTO with SELECT

    The INSERT INTO with SELECT statement is used to insert a new row in a table when a sub-select is used instead of the ___ .

    VALUES clause

    To update all records in a database to reflect an increase in the provincial value-added tax from 8 percent to 10 percent the developer should use: ___

    UPDATE RENTALS SET value _ added _ tax = .10

    You want to update data if a condition is true and perform an alternative update if the condition is false. Which of the following is the best choice? ___

    CASE statement

    One of the developers mentioned that sometimes he needs to update data in one table from another table. Which of the following is the correct syntax for this type of update?

    UPDATE RENTALS SET kayak = RENTALS.kayak + EQUIPMENT.kayak
    FROM RENTALS, EQUIPMENT

    ___ is used to update existing records in a table.

    UPDATE

    UPDATE is used to update existing records ___ .

    in a table

    The ___ clause in an UPDATE statement specifies the rows to update.

    WHERE

    The WHERE clause in an UPDATE statement specifies ___ .

    the rows to update

    CASE creates ___ functionality (WHEN this condition is met THEN do this).

    when-then-else

    The value of the case expression is the value of the ___ that is true. If none is true, the result is the ELSE.

    first WHEN clause

    The value of the case expression is the value of the first WHEN clause that is true. If none is true, the result is the ___

    ELSE

    What happens if a WHERE statement is not included with the DELETE statement? ___

    The data from the table is deleted

    How are transactions useful when updating/deleting/adding records to a database? ___

    They allows multiple statements to be grouped together to avoid data integrity errors

    How can a programmer enforce data integrity rules when making changes to the records in a database? ___

    When all statements in a transaction have successfully completed, issue a commit statement

    ___ deletes rows in a table.

    DELETE FROM

    DELETE FROM ___ in a table.

    deletes rows

    ___ are a set of two or more statements grouped into a single unit.

    TRANSACTIONS

    TRANSACTIONS are a set of two or more statements grouped into a ___ .

    single unit

    ___ reverses changes.

    ROLLBACK

    ROLLBACK ___ changes.

    reverses

    The goal of First Normal Form is: ___

    minimize the inclusion of duplicate information

    What is not a benefit of enforcing Second and Third Normal Forms? ___

    Indexed data for easy retrieval

    ___ involves applying a body of techniques to a relational database to minimize the inclusion of duplicate information.

    Normalization

    Normal Form is the result of structuring (organizing) information to avoid ___ and to promote efficient maintenance, storage, and updating.

    redundancy and inconsistency

    Normal Form is the result of structuring (organizing) information to avoid redundancy and inconsistency and to promote ___ .

    efficient maintenance, storage, and updating

    ___ is the result of structuring (organizing) information to avoid redundancy and inconsistency and to promote efficient maintenance, storage, and updating.

    Normal Form

    ___ sets a few basic rules for a database: eliminate duplicative columns from the same table.

    The First Normal Form (1NF)

    ___ = 1NF + removing subsets of data that apply to multiple rows of a table and place them in separate tables.

    The Second Normal Form (2NF)

    ___ = 2NF + removing columns that are not dependent upon the primary key.

    The Third Normal Form (3NF)

    The First Normal Form (1NF) sets a few basic rules for a database: ___

    eliminate duplicative columns from the same table.

    The Second Normal Form (2NF) = 1NF + removing subsets of data that apply to multiple rows of a table and place them in ___ .

    separate tables

    The Third Normal Form (3NF) = 2NF + ___ that are not dependent upon the primary key.

    removing columns

    What is not a rule for the primary key? ___

    it must be numeric

    ___ serves as the unique identifier of a specific row and uniquely defines a relationship within a database.

    A primary key

    A primary key serves as the ___ of a specific row and uniquely defines a relationship within a database.

    unique identifier

    A foreign key references the ___ .

    primary key in another table

    A ___ references the primary key in another table.

    foreign key

    ___ ensures that data is consistent, correct, and usable throughout the database.

    Data integrity

    Data integrity ensures that data is ___ throughout the database.

    consistent, correct, and usable

    An ___ contains keywords and associated data that point to the location of more comprehensive information, such as files and records on a disk or record keys in a database.

    index

    In a ___ structure for storing database indexes, each node in the tree contains a sorted list of key values and links that correspond to ranges of key values between the listed values.

    b-tree

    A ___ index is arranged similarly to the index of a book, where the index value points to the actual information.

    non-clustered

    A ___ is arranged in a special order to make retrieval of information faster with direct access to the information.

    clustered index

    What should be included in the physical security plan? ___

    location of servers with restricted access

    A ___ plan identifies which users can do what action(s) to data in the database.

    security

    A ___ plan addresses the safety of the actual location of the database.

    physical security

    Access control ___ who can connect and what they can do.

    ensures and restricts

    A user account provides users with ___ .

    access to the database

    Roles ___ to the database. Defined roles give all users within a group the same permissions.

    grant permissions

    Roles grant permissions to the database. Defined roles give all users within a group the same ___ .

    permissions

    Replication services are recommended when: ___

    The database must be available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week

    ___ is a process of saving all critical data to re-create the database in useful form in a relatively short

    Backup

    In a ___ backup all files are copied for possible future retrieval.

    full

    In an ___ backup only files that have been changed since the last backup are copied.

    incremental

    In a ___ backup only files that have been changed since the last full_backup are copied.

    differential

    Replicated services re-create a ___ reproduction of the database.

    full or incremental

    RDBMS is the acronym for ___ .

    Relational Data Base Management System

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