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  • What type of relationship exists between this pair of related entities?

    BOOK and BOOK COPY (books have copies)

    one-to-many

    Storing the same data in more than one place is called ____.

    redundancy

    Customers, cars, and parts are examples of:

    entities

    An association between entities is known as a ____.

    relationship

    A visual way to represent a database is with a ____.

    entry-relationship diagram

    Popular ____ include Access, Oracle, DB2, MySQL, and SQL Server.

    DBMSs (Data Base Management Systems)

    A person's name, birthday, and social security number are all examples of:

    attributes

    ________ are established between entities in a well-structured database so that the desired information can be retrieved.

    Relationships

    ____ are screen objects used to maintain, view, and print data from a database.

    Forms

    An integrity constraint is a rule that ____.

    data must follow in the database

    ____ is the prevention of unauthorized access to the database.

    Security

    A person, place, an object , an event or concept about which the organization wishes to maintain data is called a:

    Entity

    A ____ is a characteristic or property of an entity.

    Attribute

    The ____ of an entity become the columns in the database table.

    attributes

    A database has ____ if the data in it satisfies all established integrity constraints.

    Integrity

    ________ is a property that lets you change the structure of the database without requiring you to change the programs that access the database

    Data independence

    When duplicate column names exist in a database and you need to indicate the column to which you are referring, ____.

    write both the table name and the column name, separated by a period

    Count, Sum, Avg, Max, and Min are a few of the built-in statistics or ____ functions that can be used in a query.

    Aggregate

    The ____ key of a table is the column or collection of columns that uniquely identifies a given row in that table.

    Primary

    Based on the statement below, which of the following is the primary key?

    Part (PartNum, Description, OnHand, Class, Warehouse, Price)

    PartNum

    The basic form of an SQL retrieval command is ____.

    SELECT-FROM-WHERE

    When used after the word SELECT, the ____ symbol indicates that you want to include all fields in the query results in the order in which you described them to the DBMS when you created the table.

    *

    Customer ( CustomerNum, CustomerName, Street, City, State, Zip, Balance, CreditLimit, RepNum )

    Based on the code above, list the number, name, credit limit, and balance for all customers with credit limits that exceed their balances.

    SELECT CustomerNum, CustomerName, CreditLimit, Balance FROM Customer WHERE CreditLimit>Balance;

    To use a wildcard, include the _________ operator in the WHERE clause,

    LIKE

    The IN operator can be used instead of the OR operator in phrasing certain conditions.

    True

    Redundancy wastes space because you are storing the same data in more than one place.

    True

    CHAR data types are numbers without decimal points.

    True

    In a relation, the order of the rows is important.

    True

    In a SELECT statement, the WHERE clause is mandatory.

    False

    The separation of the data description from programs is referred to as

    data Independence

    data type stores integers, but uses less space than INTEGER.

    SMALLINT

    data type for fields that contain letters and other special characters, and for fields that contain numbers that will not be used for arithmetic.

    CHAR

    By including the word ______ in a query after a computation , you can assign a name to the computed field.

    AS

    You use the SQL _______ command to create a table by describing its layout

    CREATE TABLE

    In an E-R diagram, _________ represent entitites

    rectangles

    In an E-R diagram, ________ represent relatinships

    lines

    List the name of each trip that does not start in New Hampshire (NH).

    SELECT TripName
    FROM Trip
    WHERE State !='NH';

    List the name of each trip that has the type Hiking and that has a distance of greater than six miles.

    SELECT TripName
    FROM Trip
    WHERE Type='Hiking' AND Distance >6;

    How many trips have a type of Hiking or Biking?

    SELECT COUNT (*)
    FROM Trip
    WHERE Type='Hiking' OR Type='Biking'

    List the trip name and state for each trip that occurs during the Summer season. Sort the results by trip name within state.

    SELECT TripName, State
    FROM Trip
    WHERE Season='Summer'
    ORDER BY State, TripName;

    An column (or columnss) that uniquely identifies each row in a relation is called a:

    primary key

    A column in a relation of a database that serves as the primary key of another relation in the same database is called a:

    foreign key

    The entity integrity rule states that:

    no primary key attribute can be null.

    A rule that states that each foreign key value must match a primary key value in the other relation is called the:

    referential integrity constraint.

    Which of the following are anomalies that can be caused by redundancies in tables?

    Insertion
    Deletion
    Modification

    A candidate key must satisfy all of the following conditions:

    a. each nonkey attribute is functionally dependent upon it.
    b. the key must be nonredundant.
    c. the key must uniquely identify the row.
    (All of the above)

    The attribute on the left-hand side of the arrow in a functional dependency is the:

    determinant

    A ____ is a column or collection of columns on which all columns in the table are functionally dependent.

    candidate key

    The fact that column B is functionally dependent on column A can be written as

    A -> B

    A table is in first normal form if it does not contain ________.

    repeating groups

    ________ normal form has an additional condition hat the only determinants the table contains are candidate keys.

    Third

    The ________ states that no primary key attribute may be null.

    entity integrity rule

    If B (an attribute) is functionally dependent on A, we can also say that _________.

    A functionally determines B

    The ____ is a column (or collection of columns) A such that all other columns are functionally dependent on A and no subcollection of the columns in A has this property

    primary key

    In order to make changes to existing data in a table, you would use the ________ command.

    UPDATE

    From all of the _______________ keys, one is chosen to be the primary key.

    candidate

    In SQL, you can use the CHECK clause to enforce _____________________ integrity.

    legal-values

    Essentially, setting the value of a given field to ______________ is similar to not entering a value into it at all.

    null

    Second normal form can be defined as a table that is in first normal form and contains no _________.

    partial dependencies

    The SQL statement used to delete an index that is no longer needed is

    DROP INDEX

    _________ dependencies are dependencies on only a portion of the primary key.

    Partial

    __________ is the prevention of unauthorized access to the database.

    Security

    In SQL you specify referential integrity using a______ clause in either the CREATE TABLE or the ALTER TABLE commands.

    foreign key

    The SQL command used to create an index is

    CREATE INDEX

    In a system catalog, the ________ table contains information about the tables known to SQL.

    Systables

    The SELECT command that creates the view,indicates what to include in the query.

    True

    Once you add an index to a database, it cannot be deleted.

    False

    If the primary key of a table contains only a single column, the table is automatically in 3rd normal form.

    False

    Indexes are most useful for columns that frequently appear in WHERE clauses of SQL commands, either to qualify the rows to select or for linking.

    True

    A foreign key is a primary key of a relation that also is a primary key in another relation.

    False

    When a subquery is used, _________ is(are) evaluated first.

    the subquery query

    When rows are grouped, one row of output is produced for each group.

    True

    Database design decisions must be made carefully because of impacts on:

    Data accessibility
    Response times
    Security

    Which of the following are properties of relations?

    Each attribute has a unique name
    No two rows in a relation are identical
    There are no multivalued attributes in a relation
    (All the above)

    In _____ normal form, any multivalued attributes have been removed

    First

    Which of the following is a generic entity type that has a relationship with one or more subtypes?

    Supertype

    Which might be a subtype under the supertype entity STUDENT?

    IN_STATE_STUDENT

    A form of database specification that indicates all the parameters for data storage that are then input to a database implementation is:

    Physical

    A(n) _____ is a constraint between two attributes.

    Functional Dependency

    In 1:M relationships, the entity on the one-side of the relationship becomes a foreign key in the table of the many-side of the relationship

    True

    1:M

    One-To-Many

    A(n) _____ contains minimal data redundancy.

    Well-Structured Relation

    A(n) _____ is an attribute in a relation that serves as a primary key of another relation in the same database.

    Foreign Key

    When a regular entity type contains a multivalued attribute, one must:

    Create two new relation

    Which of the following is NOT a reason to create an instance of a relational schema with sample data?

    Sample data can reverse database implementation errors

    A recursive foreign key is used in a unary relationship.

    true

    The entity integrity rule states that

    no primary key attribute can be null

    Normalization is the process of decomposing relations to produce smaller, well- structured relations

    True

    This is similar to an object-oriented database's object identifier.

    Enterprise Key

    A(n) _____ corresponds to a column in the relation

    Attribute

    A domain definition consists of the following components EXCEPT:

    Integrity constaints

    A determinant is a constraint between two attributes or sets of attributes.

    False

    A determinant is an attribute or combination of attributes that uniquely identifies a row in a relation.

    False

    _____ entities are entities that cannot exist except with an identifying relationship with a regular entity type.

    Weak

    A rule that states that each foreign key value must match a primary key value in the other relation is called the:

    Referential integrity contraint

    The attribute on the left-hand side of the arrow in a function dependency is the:

    Determinant

    Which of the following are anomalies that can be caused by redundancies in tables?

    Insertion anomaly
    Deletion anomaly
    Modification anomaly
    (All the above)

    A relation that contains minimal redundancy and allows easy use is considered to be:

    Well-Structured

    Understanding the steps involved in transforming EER diagrams into relations is important because:

    You must be able to check the output of a CASE tool

    A nonkey attribute is also called a(n):

    Descriptor

    In _____ normal form, any transitive dependencies have been removed.

    Third

    A functional dependency in which one or more nonkey attributes are functionally dependent on part but not all of the primary key is called a _____ dependency.

    Partial functional

    A relation that contains no multivalued attributes, but has nonkey attributes not dependent on the primary key is in which normal form?

    First

    A relation that contains no multivalued attributes, and has nonkey attributes solely dependent on the primary key, but contains transitive dependencies is in which normal form?

    Second

    A primary key whose value is unique across all relations is called a:

    Enterprise Key

    Information-level design

    completed independently of any particular DBMS

    Physical-level design

    information-level design adapted for the specific DBMS that will be used
    Must consider characteristics of the particular DBMS

    User view:

    set of requirements necessary to support operations of a particular database user

    Cumulative design

    supports all user views encountered during design process

    One-to-many relationship

    include primary key of the "one" table as a foreign key in the "many" table

    Many-to-many relationship

    create a new table whose primary key is the combination of the primary keys of the original tables

    One-to-one relationship

    simplest implementation is to treat it as a one-to-many relationship

    Alternate key

    column(s) that could have been chosen as a primary key but was not

    Secondary keys

    columns of interest strictly for retrieval purposes

    Foreign key

    column(s) in one table that is required to match value of the primary key for some row in another table or is required to be null

    Natural key

    consists of a column that uniquely identifies an entity
    -Also called a logical key or an intelligent key

    Artificial key

    : column created for an entity to serve solely as the primary key and that is visible to users

    Surrogate key

    system-generated; usually hidden from users
    Also called a synthetic key

    Entities

    drawn as rectangles

    Relationships

    are drawn as diamonds with lines connecting the entities involved in relationships

    Composite entity

    exists to implement a many-to-many relationship

    Existence dependency

    existence of one entity depends on the existence of another related entity

    Weak entity

    depends on another entity for its own existence

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