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37 True/False questions

  1. Hedonism...Strives to maximize net pleasure

          

  2. What are some predisposed conditions/factor of vulnerability?- Genetic factors
    - Personality characteristics
    - Age of onset (get em young)
    - Family, cultural, social and community factors

          

  3. Incentive SalienceSubtract a "good" stimulus

          

  4. _______ in OCD --> similarly with the addict makes an obsession/compulsion to take the drug.Cortical-Striatal-Thalamic (CST)

          

  5. Positive ReinforcementSubtract a noxious stimulus

          

  6. mPFC activity in craving a cigarette...Involved with mood regulation in bipolar disorder's amygdala and possibly with nucleus accumbens

          

  7. Why does intoxication feel good?Satisfies/gives pleasure/relief

          

  8. What is the Moral Model of drug abuse?Biological and psychological condition of an individual

          

  9. What are the stages of "training" an addictive habit? (6)1. Predisposed conditions
    2. Intoxication reinforcement --> habitual intoxication and excessive binging
    3. Withdrawal Punishment
    4. Preoccupation/Anticipation/Salience
    5. Relapse
    6. Detrimental Effects

          

  10. Drug intoxification...Strives to maximize net pleasure

          

  11. What percent of children of alcoholics are also alcoholics?1. Wernicke's encephalopathy
    2. Korsakoff's Psychosis

          

  12. Counteracting systems are _______.Craving still exists after the drug is no longer associated with "feeling good"
    The brain has learned the drug is essential for survival and persona.
    Associates various "cues" that can trigger to seek the drug

          

  13. The Nucleus Accumbens is primarily (95%) made of _______.GABAnergic medium spiny neurons (MSN)

          

  14. Protracted Abstinence SyndromeCraving still exists after the drug is no longer associated with "feeling good"
    The brain has learned the drug is essential for survival and persona.
    Associates various "cues" that can trigger to seek the drug

          

  15. Positive Reinforcement (in the context of drug use)Drug induces euphoria and other pleasurable effects

          

  16. T/F: Women have a higher rate of alcoholism than men?True

          

  17. What is the health community's perspective of the treatment of drug abuse?Prevent and punish the illegal use of drugs

          

  18. Withdrawal/negative affect involves ___, ___, and ___.Upregulated
    (the brain and the body adapts to high drug levels by increasing the opposite system)

          

  19. ______: Decreases dopamine of the pleasure center with chronic useTolerance

          

  20. T/F: Native Americans have a higher prevalence of alcoholism than other races?False; alcoholism is more prevalent in men

          

  21. The brain's "pleasure center"Nucleus Accumbens

          

  22. General idea of operant conditioning reinforcement...Subtract a noxious stimulus

          

  23. Hedonist...Strives to maximize net pleasure

          

  24. What is the Disease Model of drug abuse?Drug use is a crime against society

          

  25. OFC activity in craving a cigarette...Long after drug use, the memory is strong. Does NOT fade away the desire

          

  26. Ways the brains has developed tolerance to the drug (3)Drug induces euphoria and other pleasurable effects

          

  27. Theory that ______ inhibits craving actions (part of the brain)Cingulate cortex

          

  28. Positive PunishmentAdd a noxious stimulus

          

  29. What is the justice system's perspective of the treatment of drug abuse?Prevent and punish the illegal use of drugs

          

  30. Negative PunishmentSubtract a "good" stimulus

          

  31. T/F: Alcohol binging during pregnancy is the biggest problem, not having a single glass of wine.- Small head
    - Low nasal bridge
    - Small eye openings
    - FLAT/SMOOTHED FACE
    - Underdeveloped jaw

          

  32. Anterior Cingulate Cortex activity in craving a cigarette...Low dlPFC= low motivation
    High dlPFC= high motivation

          

  33. Negative Reinforcement (in the context of drug use)Drug induces euphoria and other pleasurable effects

          

  34. Fetal alcohol syndrome and Crack babies have these facial features:- Small head
    - Low nasal bridge
    - Small eye openings
    - FLAT/SMOOTHED FACE
    - Underdeveloped jaw

          

  35. dlPCF activity in craving a cigarette...Low dlPFC= low motivation
    High dlPFC= high motivation

          

  36. Negative ReinforcementSubtract a noxious stimulus

          

  37. Two consequences of thaimine deficiency in alcoholics:1. Wernicke's encephalopathy
    2. Korsakoff's Psychosis