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37 Multiple choice questions

  1. Nucleus Accumbens
  2. Cingulate cortex
  3. - Small head
    - Low nasal bridge
    - Small eye openings
    - Underdeveloped jaw
  4. Prevent and punish the illegal use of drugs
  5. Low dlPFC= low motivation
    High dlPFC= high motivation
  6. Add a noxious stimulus
  7. Cortical-Striatal-Thalamic (CST)
  8. Long after drug use, the memory is strong. Does NOT fade away the desire
  9. Biological and psychological condition of an individual
  10. Add a "good" stimulus
  11. Satisfies/gives pleasure/relief
  12. Treat the biology and psychology of addiction, substance abuse, and withdrawal
  13. The immediate euphoria or escape feels good so a person takes the drug and wants to take it again
  14. 1. Wernicke's encephalopathy
    2. Korsakoff's Psychosis
  15. Increased dopamine/glutamate on the Nucleus Accumbens (mostly GABA neurons)
  16. 1. Predisposed conditions
    2. Intoxication reinforcement --> habitual intoxication and excessive binging
    3. Withdrawal Punishment
    4. Preoccupation/Anticipation/Salience
    5. Relapse
    6. Detrimental Effects
  17. Drug induces euphoria and other pleasurable effects
  18. 1. Desensitization of a drug GPCR binding site
    2. Other mechanisms of lowering the endogenous systems the drug mimics/activates
    3. In withdrawal, these systems are starved of normal activity
  19. - Genetic factors
    - Personality characteristics
    - Age of onset (get em young)
    - Family, cultural, social and community factors
  20. Upregulated
    (the brain and the body adapts to high drug levels by increasing the opposite system)
  21. True
  22. It feels good and reduced my bad feelings --> Brain wants it again
  23. Drug use is to satisfy craving to have to do the drug. The reward and punishment do not matter. A motivation "wanting" attribute given to the brain to reward-predicting stimuli.
  24. Subtract a noxious stimulus
  25. False; alcoholism is more prevalent in men
  26. Drug use is a crime against society
  27. Craving still exists after the drug is no longer associated with "feeling good"
    The brain has learned the drug is essential for survival and persona.
    Associates various "cues" that can trigger to seek the drug
  28. 50-60%
  29. Using the drug reduces unpleasant feelings (e.g. anxiety)
  30. Conflict/errors of craving
  31. Amygdala
    Locus coruleus
    Diminished Nucleus Accumbens activity
  32. Strives to maximize net pleasure
  33. GABAnergic medium spiny neurons (MSN)
  34. True
  35. Subtract a "good" stimulus
  36. Involved with mood regulation in bipolar disorder's amygdala and possibly with nucleus accumbens
  37. Tolerance