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106 Matching questions

  1. What percentage of patients will become medical addicts?
  2. _____ drugs tend to have a greater abuse potential.
  3. Reverse tolerance or sensitization
  4. T/F: Physical dependence is associated with LSD?
  5. Adverse effect of Rimonabant?
  6. What are the dose-related symptoms associated with each "state" of PCP ingestion? (4 states)
  7. MOA for LOW doses of GHB?
  8. What are the flowering tips of the marijuana plant called?
  9. Compulsive Use/Drug Dependence/Addiction (Drug usage)
  10. Examples of some inhalants:
  11. Medical addict
  12. How can inhalants alter your mental state? (CNS symptoms)
  13. What symptoms are associated with a low dose of dextromethorphan (DXM)>
  14. D2 receptors inhibit the activity of ______ neurons in the shell of the ______, and this results in drug reinforcement.
  15. What are some effects of taking MDMA?
  16. What are some medical uses for THC or synthetic analogs?
  17. Spectrum of psychomimetics from hallucinations to delusions:
  18. PCP has _____ tolerance and physical dependence (limited or high).
  19. Experimentation (Drug usage)
  20. Tolerance (definition)
  21. Which two drugs represent dissociative anesthetics?
  22. What symptoms are associated with a high dose of dextromethorphan (DXM)?
  23. Flashbacks from LSD use are now called ___,
  24. Inhalants (general):
  25. Situational or Circumstantial Use (Drug usage)
  26. What is the active metabolite of THC?
  27. GHB causes... (4 things)
  28. Conditioned tolerance
  29. GHB may be cross-tolerant and cross-sensitive to ___ and ___.
  30. Physical or physiological dependence
  31. Drug dependence
  32. What are the different patterns of drug usage (4 patterns/classes).
  33. The use of nitrates are associated with increased risk of ____.
  34. GHB is an endogenous neurotransmitter metabolized from ____.
  35. Define delusion...
  36. What are 4 physiological side effects of using inhalants?
  37. MDMA has a _____ effect similar to amphetamine but a more selective affinity for ____.
  38. Poisons or toxins:
  39. ______ is the basis for compulsive drug use and addiction.
  40. Deleriants produce hallucinations associated with hallucinations without ___.
  41. Organic solvents concentrate in the ____ and ___ where the cellular structure is ___.
  42. There is a reasonably good correlation between _____ partial agonist activity and _____ in humans.
  43. Where can mescaline be found?
  44. What plant does marijuana come from?
  45. Which classes of abused drugs have well characterized physical withdrawal?
  46. Indoleamkylamines are based on the the structure of ___.
  47. Punishment
  48. General side effects of hallucinogens (3 categories)
  49. Drug abuse or substance abuse
  50. What is hashish?
  51. Nitrates increase ____.
  52. 2 things that will determine the severity of withdrawal/abstinence syndrome?
  53. What are some street names for MDMA?
  54. Withdrawal or abstinence syndrome
  55. T/F: Dextromethorphan has physiological dependence?
  56. T/F: MDMA inhibits its own metabolism
  57. Acute tolerance
  58. LSD is cross-tolerant to ___ and ___.
  59. THC is an agonist at ____ and ___ receptors.
  60. CB1 receptors are largely found in the _____ and not the ____ and this may explain the relatively low toxicity of marijuana.
  61. LSD is NOT cross-tolerant to these hallucinogenic effects or ____, ___, ___ or ___.
  62. Addiction (definition)
  63. What are the perceptual effects of marijuana?
  64. Which drug has the street name STP for serenity, tranquility, and peace?
  65. Define hallucinogen...
  66. T/F: True hallucination are very common
  67. Conditioning or secondary reinforcement
  68. MDMA is know to lesion ____ neurons, which is associated with long term deficits in ____ and ___ as well as enhanced ___ and ___ states.
  69. Which classes of abused drugs may exhibit the rebound phenomenon?
  70. Classes of abused drugs (8 classes)
  71. Drugs are ____ of behavior.
  72. The _____ the brain concentration increases, the _____ the abuse potential
  73. What are the psychic effects of marijuana?
  74. Behavioral or learned tolerance
  75. What is the synthetic form of THC?
  76. Psychological dependence of marijuana occurs in _____ cases.
  77. Social Use (Drug usage)
  78. Define illusion...
  79. What is another name for mescaline?
  80. GBL gets metabolized to ____ in the body.
  81. Phenylethylamines are hallucinogens based on the structure of ____.
  82. T/F: LSD tolerance develops very rapidly?
  83. What are the adverse effect of marijuana?
  84. What is the active agent in marijuana?
  85. Which classes of abused drugs are the most likely for compulsive use of addictive proportions?
  86. The endocannabinoids act is ______ in that they are released from the ______ to inhibit presynaptic _____ or ____ release.
  87. Characteristics of drug dependence?
  88. Compared to LSD how potent are psilocin and psilocybin?
  89. Innate tolerance
  90. What are the physiological side effects of marijuana?
  91. Where are psilocybin and psilocin found?
  92. Negative reinforcement
  93. What are 2 of our endocannabinoids?
  94. What is the general MOA of PCP?
  95. Rebound phenomenon
  96. Psychological dependence
  97. Dispositional, metabolic, and pharmacokinetic tolerance
  98. Which receptor is the predominant cannabinoid receptor in the brain?
  99. Positive reinforcement
  100. Anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol are derivative of ____.
  101. The effects of PCP may last 7-10 days due to its _____ and _____.
  102. Dronabinol (Marinol)
  103. Rimonabant
  104. Cellular, functional, and pharmacodynamic tolerance
  105. What is the half life of THC?
  106. What are the major differenced between marijuana and other hallucinogens? (4 differences)
  1. a THC (Delta9- tetrahydrocannabinol)
  2. b True
  3. c 50-60 hours
  4. d Individual feels that the effects of the drug are necessary to maintain optimal state of well-being. May occur with or without physical dependence/tolerance.
    Characterized by craving
  5. e - Organic solvents (benzene, toluene, xylene)
    - Nitrates: (amyl nitrate and butyl nitrate)
    - Nitrous oxide
  6. f 1. Experimentation
    2. Social use
    3. Situational or circumstantial use
    4. Compulsive use/Drug dependence/Addiction
  7. g 5-HT
    Hallucinogen
  8. h Less drug gets to the site of action due to increased metabolism or elimination
    (This is the major form of tolerance to barbiturates)
  9. i Intraoccular Pressure (IOP)
  10. j State dependency: when an individual muses a drug state in specific situations
    May lead to situational compulsive use in which the individual believes the drug must be present in certain situations
  11. k Scopolamine
    Marijuana
    PCP
    Ketamine
  12. l |Hallucinations| LSD --> Amphetamine poisons --> PCP/ketamine --> Anticholinergics |Delusions|
  13. m Low dose = 100-300 mg
    - mild stimulant effect with distorted visual perceptions
    - Dream like feeling, with empathy towards others
  14. n 1/400th the potency of LSD
  15. o Kaposi's Sarcoma
  16. p Perception of an external stimulus for which there is a basis in reality. The person is unaware that what they are seeing is not real, and you generally can not talk the person out of the delusions
  17. q Metabolic disturbances
  18. r - Opioids
    - General CNS Depressants
    - CNS Stimulants
    - Nicotine
  19. s Altered physiological state resulting from chronic drug use
  20. t 5-HT
    Cognition
    Memory
    Anxiety
    Paranoid
  21. u Perception of an external stimulus that has no basis in reality. The person is often aware that what they are seeing is not real
  22. v 1. Degree of physical dependence
    2. Duration of drug action (e.g. long-acting drugs will have a milder withdrawal)
  23. w Noncompetitive antagonist of NMDA and glutamate
    - May have some activity at opiate sigma receptors
  24. x 1. Stimulated, activated state
    2. Bizarre and aggressive behavior
    3. Unresponsive and catatonic
    4. Seizures and coma
  25. y False; but psychological dependence is implicated
    There are no signs and symptoms of withdrawal reported for DXM
  26. z 1. Physiological
    - Sympathomimetic
    2. Sensory
    - Perceptual distortions (single to complex hallucinations in more than one modality)
    3. Psychic
    - Produce psychotic episodes that looks like a schizophrenic state
  27. aa - Glaucoma
    - Antiemetic
    - Asthma
    - Appetite stimulant
    - Analgesia
  28. ab 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM)
  29. ac Peyote
  30. ad - CNS Stimulants
    - Nicotine
    - Cannabinoids
  31. ae - XTC
    - Ecstasy
    - Love drug
    - Hug drug
  32. af False
  33. ag 1. Hallucinations only occur at high doses
    2. Sedation that is not seen with LSD
    3. No sympathomimetic side effects
    3. No cross-tolerance to LSD
  34. ah False; they are rare
  35. ai Basic human behavior and may include up to 10 experiences with the drug
  36. aj Substances that cause organic brain syndromes accompanied by hallucinations
  37. ak Psilocybin
    Mescaline
  38. al GABA
  39. am 0.04%
  40. an 5-HT
  41. ao Genetically determined lack of sensitivity to a drug
  42. ap - Euphoria
    - Enhanced sensory perceptions
    - Social closeness
    - Amnesia
  43. aq The dried resinous exudate of the sensimellia
  44. ar - Sedative hypnotics
    - Opioids
  45. as When previous neutral stimuli become positive reinforcement. This is a major factor in drug relapse
  46. at CB1
  47. au Lipophilicity
    Gastroenteric recirculation
  48. av - Enhances the non-dominant senses, touch, taste and smell
    - Subtle visual and auditory stimuli that were previously ignored may take on a navel quality
  49. aw More drug is needed to elicit the same response
    OR
    Reduced response is elicited by the same dose
  50. ax 11-hydroxy-delta9-THC
  51. ay Rapid acting/Short acting
  52. az gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)
  53. ba Drug induced euphoria or other pleasurable side effects
    Induces approach behaviors
  54. bb - Euphoria
    - Elation
    - Slowed sense of time
    - Dream like state
    - Paranoia and anxiety (depending on the environment)
  55. bc Sensimellia
  56. bd - The individual's life is centered around the use of the drug
    - Extreme drug seeking behavior
    - "Wanting without liking"
  57. be Arachidonic acid
  58. bf - Euphoria
    - Enhanced sensory perception
    - Tachycardia
    - Dry mouth
    - Bruxism
    - Hyperthermia
    - Rhabdomyolysis
    - Visual hallucinations
  59. bg May induce suicidal depression
  60. bh Cannabis stavia
  61. bi Drug use that is socially acceptable for special settings. Tends not to lead to heavier drug use.
  62. bj 1. Acute toxicity
    2. Cardiac arrhythmia's
    3. hypoxia
    4. Sudden Sniffing Death (SSD)
  63. bk Faster
    Greater
  64. bl - Anandamide
    - 2-arachidonylglycerol
  65. bm Kidney
    Liver
    Broken down
  66. bn Extreme form of psychological dependence
  67. bo CB1
    CB2
  68. bp Drug relieves anxiety or dysphoria
    The drug is rewarding because it eliminated adverse effects
  69. bq - Sleepiness
    - Increased appetite
    - Tachycardia
    - Increased peripheral vasodilation
    - Conjunctiva reddening
    - Paresthesias
    - Dry mouth
  70. br Psychological dependence
  71. bs - Compulsive, out of control drug use
    - Drug use continues despite adverse health effects
    - Associated with unproductive, deviant behavior
  72. bt Transporter reversing
    SERT
  73. bu Reinforcers
  74. bv Mild abstinence syndromes resulting from drugs that cause low levels of physical dependence. Some drugs are not addictive (e.g. antidepressants, antipsychotics, B-blockers)
  75. bw Limited
  76. bx Intermittent exposure causes progressive increase in sensitivity to the drug
    (Examples: Opiate post-addicts, physchostimulant post-addicts)
  77. by Individual learns to compensate for drug effect
  78. bz Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD)
  79. ca Cacti
  80. cb GABAnergic medium spiny
    Nucleus accumbens
  81. cc - Acute Panic (if the person is in a threatening situation)
    - Amotivational Syndrome
    - Carcinogenic (tar)
  82. cd - Phencyclidine (PCP)
    - Ketamine (Ketelar)
  83. ce Develops when environmental cues are consistently associated with drug administration. The body makes physiological adjustments to the drug even before the drug is administered
  84. cf Older term implying compulsive use and physical dependence. (Term is coming back into use now). Should imply drug dependence
  85. cg Patient who becomes "addicted" to available prescription drugs
  86. ch Selective CB1 antagonist
    Reported to be useful in smoking cessation and weight loss in obese patients
  87. ci The same amount of drug gets to the site of action but the response is reduced due to change in cellular receptors or related intracellular mechanism
  88. cj 1. Opioids
    2. General CNS Depressants
    3. CNS Stimulants
    4. Nicotine
    5. Cannabinoids
    6. Psychedelics
    7. Arylcyclohexylamines
    8. Inhalants
  89. ck High dose = 200-400 mg
    - Induce dissociation of the mind from the body (like PCP and ketamine)
    - Dissociative effects are due to noncompetitive antagonism of NMDA receptors
  90. cl Some extreme
  91. cm Nabilone (Cesamet) - synthetic THC analog
  92. cn - Opioids
    - General CNS Depressants
  93. co Drug induced adverse effects
    Punishment induces AVOIDANCE
  94. cp Norepinephrine
  95. cq Binds to GABA-B receptors
    GABA-B inhibits GABA neurons in the VTA which allows and increase inDA neuron activity to the N. Accumbens
  96. cr Recurrent use of illegal substance or harmful substances
    (Things not being used for their legitimate purpose)
  97. cs Clinical version of THC
  98. ct Chemicals that are volatile at room temperature
  99. cu Rapidly developing pharmacodynamic tolerance
    (Best example is alcohol)
  100. cv A sensory perception in which an external stimulus is misperceived or misinterpreted
  101. cw Forebrain
    Brainstem
  102. cx Adverse physiological and psychological effects of stopping a drug that induces physical dependence. Substance specific syndrome.
  103. cy - exhilaration and lightheadedness
    - Impaired judgement/perception (individual appears as though they're drunk on alcohol)
    - Hallucinations
    - Loss of consciousness or coma
  104. cz Retrograde neurotransmitters
    Postsynaptic soma
    Glutamate
    GABA
  105. da Mushrooms
  106. db True (This means that the more you take the longer the effects will last)