106 Matching questions
- What percentage of patients will become medical addicts?
- _____ drugs tend to have a greater abuse potential.
- Reverse tolerance or sensitization
- T/F: Physical dependence is associated with LSD?
- Adverse effect of Rimonabant?
- What are the dose-related symptoms associated with each "state" of PCP ingestion? (4 states)
- MOA for LOW doses of GHB?
- What are the flowering tips of the marijuana plant called?
- Compulsive Use/Drug Dependence/Addiction (Drug usage)
- Examples of some inhalants:
- Medical addict
- How can inhalants alter your mental state? (CNS symptoms)
- What symptoms are associated with a low dose of dextromethorphan (DXM)>
- D2 receptors inhibit the activity of ______ neurons in the shell of the ______, and this results in drug reinforcement.
- What are some effects of taking MDMA?
- What are some medical uses for THC or synthetic analogs?
- Spectrum of psychomimetics from hallucinations to delusions:
- PCP has _____ tolerance and physical dependence (limited or high).
- Experimentation (Drug usage)
- Tolerance (definition)
- Which two drugs represent dissociative anesthetics?
- What symptoms are associated with a high dose of dextromethorphan (DXM)?
- Flashbacks from LSD use are now called ___,
- Inhalants (general):
- Situational or Circumstantial Use (Drug usage)
- What is the active metabolite of THC?
- GHB causes... (4 things)
- Conditioned tolerance
- GHB may be cross-tolerant and cross-sensitive to ___ and ___.
- Physical or physiological dependence
- Drug dependence
- What are the different patterns of drug usage (4 patterns/classes).
- The use of nitrates are associated with increased risk of ____.
- GHB is an endogenous neurotransmitter metabolized from ____.
- Define delusion...
- What are 4 physiological side effects of using inhalants?
- MDMA has a _____ effect similar to amphetamine but a more selective affinity for ____.
- Poisons or toxins:
- ______ is the basis for compulsive drug use and addiction.
- Deleriants produce hallucinations associated with hallucinations without ___.
- Organic solvents concentrate in the ____ and ___ where the cellular structure is ___.
- There is a reasonably good correlation between _____ partial agonist activity and _____ in humans.
- Where can mescaline be found?
- What plant does marijuana come from?
- Which classes of abused drugs have well characterized physical withdrawal?
- Indoleamkylamines are based on the the structure of ___.
- General side effects of hallucinogens (3 categories)
- Drug abuse or substance abuse
- What is hashish?
- Nitrates increase ____.
- 2 things that will determine the severity of withdrawal/abstinence syndrome?
- What are some street names for MDMA?
- Withdrawal or abstinence syndrome
- T/F: Dextromethorphan has physiological dependence?
- T/F: MDMA inhibits its own metabolism
- Acute tolerance
- LSD is cross-tolerant to ___ and ___.
- THC is an agonist at ____ and ___ receptors.
- CB1 receptors are largely found in the _____ and not the ____ and this may explain the relatively low toxicity of marijuana.
- LSD is NOT cross-tolerant to these hallucinogenic effects or ____, ___, ___ or ___.
- Addiction (definition)
- What are the perceptual effects of marijuana?
- Which drug has the street name STP for serenity, tranquility, and peace?
- Define hallucinogen...
- T/F: True hallucination are very common
- Conditioning or secondary reinforcement
- MDMA is know to lesion ____ neurons, which is associated with long term deficits in ____ and ___ as well as enhanced ___ and ___ states.
- Which classes of abused drugs may exhibit the rebound phenomenon?
- Classes of abused drugs (8 classes)
- Drugs are ____ of behavior.
- The _____ the brain concentration increases, the _____ the abuse potential
- What are the psychic effects of marijuana?
- Behavioral or learned tolerance
- What is the synthetic form of THC?
- Psychological dependence of marijuana occurs in _____ cases.
- Social Use (Drug usage)
- Define illusion...
- What is another name for mescaline?
- GBL gets metabolized to ____ in the body.
- Phenylethylamines are hallucinogens based on the structure of ____.
- T/F: LSD tolerance develops very rapidly?
- What are the adverse effect of marijuana?
- What is the active agent in marijuana?
- Which classes of abused drugs are the most likely for compulsive use of addictive proportions?
- The endocannabinoids act is ______ in that they are released from the ______ to inhibit presynaptic _____ or ____ release.
- Characteristics of drug dependence?
- Compared to LSD how potent are psilocin and psilocybin?
- Innate tolerance
- What are the physiological side effects of marijuana?
- Where are psilocybin and psilocin found?
- Negative reinforcement
- What are 2 of our endocannabinoids?
- What is the general MOA of PCP?
- Rebound phenomenon
- Psychological dependence
- Dispositional, metabolic, and pharmacokinetic tolerance
- Which receptor is the predominant cannabinoid receptor in the brain?
- Positive reinforcement
- Anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol are derivative of ____.
- The effects of PCP may last 7-10 days due to its _____ and _____.
- Dronabinol (Marinol)
- Cellular, functional, and pharmacodynamic tolerance
- What is the half life of THC?
- What are the major differenced between marijuana and other hallucinogens? (4 differences)
- a THC (Delta9- tetrahydrocannabinol)
- b True
- c 50-60 hours
- d Individual
feels that the effects of the drug are necessary to maintain optimal
state of well-being. May occur with or without physical
Characterized by craving
- e - Organic solvents (benzene, toluene, xylene)
- Nitrates: (amyl nitrate and butyl nitrate)
- Nitrous oxide
- f 1. Experimentation
2. Social use
3. Situational or circumstantial use
4. Compulsive use/Drug dependence/Addiction
- g 5-HT
- h Less drug gets to the site of action due to increased metabolism or elimination
(This is the major form of tolerance to barbiturates)
- i Intraoccular Pressure (IOP)
- j State dependency: when an individual muses a drug state in specific situations
May lead to situational compulsive use in which the individual believes the drug must be present in certain situations
- k Scopolamine
- l |Hallucinations| LSD --> Amphetamine poisons --> PCP/ketamine --> Anticholinergics |Delusions|
- m Low dose = 100-300 mg
- mild stimulant effect with distorted visual perceptions
- Dream like feeling, with empathy towards others
- n 1/400th the potency of LSD
- o Kaposi's Sarcoma
- p Perception of an external stimulus for which there is a basis in reality. The person is unaware that what they are seeing is not real, and you generally can not talk the person out of the delusions
- q Metabolic disturbances
- r - Opioids
- General CNS Depressants
- CNS Stimulants
- s Altered physiological state resulting from chronic drug use
- t 5-HT
- u Perception of an external stimulus that has no basis in reality. The person is often aware that what they are seeing is not real
- v 1. Degree of physical dependence
2. Duration of drug action (e.g. long-acting drugs will have a milder withdrawal)
- w Noncompetitive antagonist of NMDA and glutamate
- May have some activity at opiate sigma receptors
- x 1. Stimulated, activated state
2. Bizarre and aggressive behavior
3. Unresponsive and catatonic
4. Seizures and coma
- y False; but psychological dependence is implicated
There are no signs and symptoms of withdrawal reported for DXM
- z 1. Physiological
- Perceptual distortions (single to complex hallucinations in more than one modality)
- Produce psychotic episodes that looks like a schizophrenic state
- aa - Glaucoma
- Appetite stimulant
- ab 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM)
- ac Peyote
- ad - CNS Stimulants
- ae - XTC
- Love drug
- Hug drug
- af False
- ag 1. Hallucinations only occur at high doses
2. Sedation that is not seen with LSD
3. No sympathomimetic side effects
3. No cross-tolerance to LSD
- ah False; they are rare
- ai Basic human behavior and may include up to 10 experiences with the drug
- aj Substances that cause organic brain syndromes accompanied by hallucinations
- ak Psilocybin
- al GABA
- am 0.04%
- an 5-HT
- ao Genetically determined lack of sensitivity to a drug
- ap - Euphoria
- Enhanced sensory perceptions
- Social closeness
- aq The dried resinous exudate of the sensimellia
- ar - Sedative hypnotics
- as When previous neutral stimuli become positive reinforcement. This is a major factor in drug relapse
- at CB1
- au Lipophilicity
- av - Enhances the non-dominant senses, touch, taste and smell
- Subtle visual and auditory stimuli that were previously ignored may take on a navel quality
- aw More drug is needed to elicit the same response
Reduced response is elicited by the same dose
- ax 11-hydroxy-delta9-THC
- ay Rapid acting/Short acting
- az gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)
- ba Drug induced euphoria or other pleasurable side effects
Induces approach behaviors
- bb - Euphoria
- Slowed sense of time
- Dream like state
- Paranoia and anxiety (depending on the environment)
- bc Sensimellia
- bd - The individual's life is centered around the use of the drug
- Extreme drug seeking behavior
- "Wanting without liking"
- be Arachidonic acid
- bf - Euphoria
- Enhanced sensory perception
- Dry mouth
- Visual hallucinations
- bg May induce suicidal depression
- bh Cannabis stavia
- bi Drug use that is socially acceptable for special settings. Tends not to lead to heavier drug use.
- bj 1. Acute toxicity
2. Cardiac arrhythmia's
4. Sudden Sniffing Death (SSD)
- bk Faster
- bl - Anandamide
- bm Kidney
- bn Extreme form of psychological dependence
- bo CB1
- bp Drug relieves anxiety or dysphoria
The drug is rewarding because it eliminated adverse effects
- bq - Sleepiness
- Increased appetite
- Increased peripheral vasodilation
- Conjunctiva reddening
- Dry mouth
- br Psychological dependence
- bs - Compulsive, out of control drug use
- Drug use continues despite adverse health effects
- Associated with unproductive, deviant behavior
- bt Transporter reversing
- bu Reinforcers
- bv Mild abstinence syndromes resulting from drugs that cause low levels of physical dependence. Some drugs are not addictive (e.g. antidepressants, antipsychotics, B-blockers)
- bw Limited
- bx Intermittent exposure causes progressive increase in sensitivity to the drug
(Examples: Opiate post-addicts, physchostimulant post-addicts)
- by Individual learns to compensate for drug effect
- bz Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD)
- ca Cacti
- cb GABAnergic medium spiny
- cc - Acute Panic (if the person is in a threatening situation)
- Amotivational Syndrome
- Carcinogenic (tar)
- cd - Phencyclidine (PCP)
- Ketamine (Ketelar)
- ce Develops when environmental cues are consistently associated with drug administration. The body makes physiological adjustments to the drug even before the drug is administered
- cf Older term implying compulsive use and physical dependence. (Term is coming back into use now). Should imply drug dependence
- cg Patient who becomes "addicted" to available prescription drugs
- ch Selective CB1 antagonist
Reported to be useful in smoking cessation and weight loss in obese patients
- ci The same amount of drug gets to the site of action but the response is reduced due to change in cellular receptors or related intracellular mechanism
- cj 1. Opioids
2. General CNS Depressants
3. CNS Stimulants
- ck High dose = 200-400 mg
- Induce dissociation of the mind from the body (like PCP and ketamine)
- Dissociative effects are due to noncompetitive antagonism of NMDA receptors
- cl Some extreme
- cm Nabilone (Cesamet) - synthetic THC analog
- cn - Opioids
- General CNS Depressants
- co Drug induced adverse effects
Punishment induces AVOIDANCE
- cp Norepinephrine
- cq Binds to GABA-B receptors
GABA-B inhibits GABA neurons in the VTA which allows and increase inDA neuron activity to the N. Accumbens
- cr Recurrent use of illegal substance or harmful substances
(Things not being used for their legitimate purpose)
- cs Clinical version of THC
- ct Chemicals that are volatile at room temperature
- cu Rapidly developing pharmacodynamic tolerance
(Best example is alcohol)
- cv A sensory perception in which an external stimulus is misperceived or misinterpreted
- cw Forebrain
- cx Adverse physiological and psychological effects of stopping a drug that induces physical dependence. Substance specific syndrome.
- cy - exhilaration and lightheadedness
- Impaired judgement/perception (individual appears as though they're drunk on alcohol)
- Loss of consciousness or coma
- cz Retrograde neurotransmitters
- da Mushrooms
- db True (This means that the more you take the longer the effects will last)