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180 Matching questions

  1. ________ is the difference between the dose of drug necessary to cause a therapeutic effect versus the dose necessary to cause a toxic effect.
  2. Yearly, alcohol is responsible for __________ deaths (people dying because of alcohol-related abuse).
  3. Pharmacologists refer to a perfect drug as a __________.
  4. An over-the-counter drug ingredient not generally recognized as safe or effective for the claimed therapeutic indication is classified as __________.
  5. __________ is the process of making alcohol.
  6. How much does the average brain weigh?
  7. _________-income drinkers prefer beer, whereas __________-income drinkers prefer wine.
  8. Chemical alteration of drugs by body processes is called __________.
  9. The highest economic cost for the nation regarding alcohol abuse is __________.
  10. Identify the culture(s) that is/are associated with binge drinking.
  11. Liver disorders are responsible for __________ of the deaths associated with alcoholism.
  12. Depressants are often classified according to __________.
  13. Alcohol interacts with which of the following?
  14. Codeine is most likely to be used to relieve __________.
  15. According to Erich Goode, ___________refers to using licit drugs such as alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine to achieve a certain mental or psychic state.
  16. __________, an ultrashort-acting barbiturate, is often used as anesthesia for minor surgery.
  17. Approximately __________ benzodiazepine compounds are currently available in the United States.
  18. Individuals are classified as __________ drinkers if they consume five or more drinks on one occasion, or consume alcohol on five or more days during a given 30-day period.
  19. The __________ served as the foundation and reference for subsequent laws directed at regulating drug abuse issues.
  20. The approach to detoxifying a person dependent on drugs depends on __________.
  21. Which of the following categories of depressants is named after a Greek god?
  22. Methadone is effective for about __________.
  23. Which of the following risk factors especially applies to adolescent drug use?
  24. A minute gap between the neuron and target cell across which neurotransmitters travel is called a __________.
  25. Which of the following is the most common clinical use of narcotics today?
  26. The __________ allowed the manufacturer to determine whether a drug was to be labeled prescription or nonprescription.
  27. The unpleasant effect that occurs when use of a drug is stopped is called __________.
  28. Which of the following lists steps of drug development in the correct chronological order?
  29. The type of crime committed that is often related to drug use involves __________.
  30. Which of the following is the generic name for Demerol?
  31. A person can become infected with the HIV virus in all but the following manner(s) __________.
  32. Which structure has been found to be important in maintaining nicotine dependence?
  33. The family therapy system developed by Jacques Moreno in which significant interpersonal issues are enacted in a focused setting using dramatic techniques is known as __________.
  34. Benzodiazepines are relatively safe when used for ________
  35. Which of the following describes a neuronal axon?
  36. Which of the following phases generally involves a few patients with a medical problem a drug is intended to treat and is designed to determine both safety and efficacy of a drug?
  37. __________ generally focus on using other people's drug supplies without maintaining a supply of their own and often waver between the characteristics of chronic types of drug users and experimenter types.
  38. The belief that attitudes about drug use develop from the values and attitudes of other drug users, the norms in the community, subcultures, peer groups, families, and personal experience is known as __________.
  39. The prevailing concept or model of addiction in the United States is the __________.
  40. Which of the following is least likely to be caused by abuse of anabolic steroids?
  41. The period of heaviest drinking in America began during __________ term in office (1800-1808).
  42. The capillary membranes that filter substances moving between the cerebral blood vessels and the brain are called the __________.
  43. Which of the following interactions best describes the analgesic effect when aspirin is combined with acetaminophen?
  44. The active ingredient(s) in tobacco that is addictive, colorless, and a highly volatile alkaloid is __________.
  45. Which of the following occurred because of Prohibition?
  46. The __________ divided substances with abuse potential into categories based on the degree of their abuse potential and their clinical usefulness.
  47. __________ refer to the chemical messengers released by the neurons for communicating with other cells.
  48. Drinks stronger than __________ proof may actually inhibit alcohol absorption.
  49. Hormones that are able to convert nutrients into tissue mass are called __________.
  50. The distillation device or "still" was developed by the __________.
  51. The trait associated with turning ones feelings inward rather than directing emotions outward is known as __________
  52. Which Hispanic group had the highest use of illicit-types of drugs?
  53. Types of individuals specifically termed __________ seekers continually seek new or novel thrills in their experiences.
  54. Which of the following terms refers to drugs used to relieve anxiety?
  55. Clonidine is used to treat which of the following?
  56. In the United States, most alcohol drinkers drink __________.
  57. Talwin is the trade name for _______
  58. Frequent use of benzodiazepines can lead to __________.
  59. The "hair of the dog" method for treating a hangover consists of __________.
  60. Which of the following most often occur(s) with extensive use of drugs?
  61. Nearly __________ of all college students are binge drinkers.
  62. An adaptation to pain and avoidance of reality is called __________.
  63. Nicotinic receptors are activated by which of the following transmitters?
  64. Which of the following is not found in Erich Goode's list of drug use types?
  65. Approximately how many neurons are in the brain?
  66. __________ is the maintenance of internal stability.
  67. If a drug falls into which of the following categories, it will be classified as prescription
  68. A college student who attends a party and binges uncontrollably for the night, but then abstains from alcohol for three weeks until the next party where binging reoccurs is classified by Jellinek as a(n) __________ alcoholic.
  69. __________ are known to view their drug use as necessary in order to have fun and they often use drugs in order to escape and postpone personal problems, and relieve stress and anxieties.
  70. The narcotics mimic which of the following neurotransmitters?
  71. Which of the following phases generally involves a few healthy individuals, and is designed to determine the safety of a drug?
  72. __________ in ten drug users work full time.
  73. Which of the following is/are primary factor(s) responsible for drug use?
  74. Which of the following best describes the concept "margin of safety"?
  75. Which of the following would have most likely been a promoter of the temperance movement?
  76. Anabolic steroids have been classified in which of the following schedules of the Controlled Substance Act?
  77. The __________ established the criteria for determining whether a drug should be classified as prescription or nonprescription.
  78. Which is the manner whereby the body loses fluids through alcohol's diuretic action?
  79. Which of the following is not one of the phases of addiction?
  80. Common communicable diseases that spread through contaminated needle sharing include(s) __________.
  81. The drug used to increase muscle mass but whose side effects include heart disease, liver cancer, high blood pressure, septic shock, impotence, genital atrophy, and mood swings is __________.
  82. __________ status refers to the primary status position one has in the eyes of others.
  83. __________ refers to changes that decrease response to a set dose of a drug.
  84. __________ drugs refer to types of drugs that lead to the use of other more addictive types of drugs.
  85. _________ alcoholics live in a culture that views drinking alcohol as normal and these types of alcoholics spend most of the day continuously sipping, without control and are continuously "buzzed" throughout the day.
  86. __________ attempts to decrease individuals' tendency to use drugs with an emphasis on reformulating values and behaviors.
  87. The nervous system is composed of all but which of the following?
  88. According to Chapter 1, the principal social psychological factor in determining the presence of an individual's drug abuse is __________.
  89. How long does it take for withdrawals to begin once an addict stops using heroin?
  90. Select the incorrect statement concerning the adrenal glands.
  91. The lethal blood alcohol level is __________.
  92. __________ can influence the effect alcohol has on the individual.
  93. In contrast to the primary group, __________ relationships involve mostly segmented relationships that are role specific.
  94. The slave trade triangle specifically refers to the __________.
  95. Which area of the cortex is the most developed in man?
  96. What drug was used in Europe as a sedative for pregnant women?
  97. Codeine is a (n) __________.
  98. It is believed that most drugs with abuse potential enhance pleasure centers by causing the release of __________.
  99. With the passage of the __________, the decline of patent medicines began.
  100. Which of the following is not a neurotransmitter?
  101. _________ drugs have high abuse potential and are not approved in the United States for medical purposes.
  102. Which of the following effects is least likely to be caused by a sympathomimetic drug?
  103. With regard to women metabolizing alcohol differently than men, all of the following are significant factors except for __________.
  104. Which of the following best describes synergistic drug interactions?
  105. Which of the following neurotransmitters is metabolized by the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO)?
  106. Phenobarbital is classified in which of the following Schedules?
  107. The __________ Amendment was responsible for prohibition.
  108. True or false? The Pure Food and Drug Act did not allow the government to stop the distribution of dangerous preparations
  109. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act was passed in response to which of the following events?
  110. Theories of addiction that deal with mental or emotional states, often associated with or exacerbated by social or environmental factors, are known as __________ theories.
  111. Which of the following is not a common test for drug use?
  112. One's parents would represent a(n) __________ relationship.
  113. Which of the following is called "speedballing"?
  114. Substances that affect the central nervous system and alter consciousness and/or perception are pharmacologically known as __________.
  115. Barbituric acid was synthesized in 1864 by __________.
  116. Which of the following brain regions is most likely to directly regulate the endocrine systems?
  117. THC is the primary psychoactive ingredient in __________.
  118. __________ is characterized by: excessive use, constant preoccupation with the availability and supply of the drug, refusal to admit excessive use, and reliance on the drug.
  119. Barbiturates likely cause their depressant effects by enhancing which transmitter?
  120. __________ is the ability of one drug to enhance the effect of another.
  121. The __________ allows companies to receive tax advantages if they develop drugs that are designed to treat rare diseases and hence are not very profitable
  122. The ______ policy of the FDA allows it to review prescription drugs and evaluate their suitability as OTC products.
  123. The synthesis of designer versions of what drug results in the byproduct MPTP?
  124. __________ are the cells in the nervous system that receive and send neurotransmitter messages.
  125. Explanations of addiction in terms of genetics, brain dysfunction, and biochemical patterns are termed __________.
  126. One hundred ten proof alcohol has a __________ alcohol content.
  127. _________ have the highest rate of current use (non-binge) alcohol consumption.
  128. It has been proposed that continual drug use __________ dopamine centers in the brain, which makes experiencing normal pleasure impossible.
  129. Mainlining refers to _________
  130. You have discovered that you require at least 300 mg of aspirin to get any pain relief. Which of the following terms best describes this phenomenon?
  131. Regarding alcohol use, a more important factor that is most likely to exert most influence on a person's view is __________.
  132. The Pure Food and Drug Act required:
  133. What part of the brain controls complex behaviors, processes information, and helps make decisions?
  134. A CNS depressant can __________.
  135. __________ reinforcement refers to the ratio between reinforcers, both favorable and disfavorable, for sustaining drug use behavior
  136. In determining how drugs affect the body, pharmacologists need to be concerned with __________.
  137. Which of the following is a clinical use for the drug naloxone?
  138. Agents that antagonize the effects of acetylcholine are called __________.
  139. Phenobarbital is often used to treat which of the following conditions?
  140. __________ relationships are characterized as a group of individuals sharing a high amount of intimacy and spontaneity and the members are emotionally bonded.
  141. The study of factors that influence the distribution and concentration of drugs in the body is called __________.
  142. Which of the following is the principal therapeutic use of dextromethorphan?
  143. Gamma alcoholism contains the characteristics of __________.
  144. The view that alcoholism is a __________ dates back to 200 years ago
  145. __________ aims to protect drug users by teaching them responsibility.
  146. In a marriage, alcohol is a primary predictor of __________.
  147. Because of its similarities to mental illness, the American Psychiatric Association has classified severe drug dependence as a __________.
  148. Which of the following is not part of the nervous system?
  149. Alcoholic beverages contain large amounts of __________.
  150. __________ is the process by which alcohol concentrations are increased.
  151. A "Mickey Finn" was used to make a person temporarily unconscious and contained __________.
  152. A glass of champagne has a faster onset of action than a glass of wine that contains the same amount of alcohol because __________.
  153. In 2008, what percentage of the U.S. population reported cigarette use in the past month?
  154. Of the 64% who report drinking alcohol in the U.S., men prefer to drink __________, while women prefer __________.
  155. __________ refers to a theoretical explanation that places emphasis on how an individual learns patterns of behavior from the attitudes of others, society, and peers.
  156. What percentage of full-time workers reported alcohol usage within the past month according to the National Household Surveys?
  157. Which of the following is not classified as a narcotic drug?
  158. The capacity of a drug to do damage or cause adverse effects in the body is called __________.
  159. The consumable type of alcohol that is the psychoactive ingredient in alcoholic beverages is _____
  160. Which of the two popular views best reflect the long established relationship between drug use and crime?
  161. The phase that is synonymous with addiction, where more of the drug is sought despite the presence of negative physical symptoms is __________.
  162. The industrial category with the lowest rates of illicit drug use is found among ____________ workers.
  163. __________ is used as an antifreeze whereas __________ is used as an antiseptic.
  164. A change in personality resulting from marijuana use, characterized by a lack of motivation has been termed by some drug theorists as __________.
  165. A(n) __________ is the most likely to be a binge drinker in college.
  166. For most of the 1970s, __________ was the top-selling prescription drug.
  167. Decreasing the amount of drugs that are carried across U.S. borders is an example of __________.
  168. __________ drugs have high abuse potential but are approved for medical purposes.
  169. Women's reaction to barbiturates is most likely to be different than men's because of differences in __________.
  170. Bejerot's theory, specifically known as __________ theory assumes it is biologically normal to continue a stimulus perceived as pleasurable.
  171. A class of biochemical compounds including norepinephrine and dopamine is called __________.
  172. __________ is a form of withdrawal or a paradoxical effect that occurs when a drug has been eliminated from the body of a person who has become physically dependent.
  173. __________ is from the Greek words for flippers, or "seal-shaped limbs."
  174. The principal forms of drug administration include which of the following?
  175. The concentration of alcohol in wine coolers is usually about __________
  176. Which of the following was the reason for the "opium wars" between China and Great Britain?
  177. Select the incorrect statement
  178. Drugs often used to relieve symptoms of allergies and motion sickness are called __________.
  179. As a rule, it takes __________ the number of hours as the number of drinks consumed to sober up completely.
  180. True or false? Alcohol at 70% concentration is actually an effective bactericide, but not recommended for use on open wounds.
  1. a opiate withdrawal
  2. b hypothalamus
  3. c socialization (upbringing)
  4. d urine
  5. e lower; higher
  6. f carbonation
  7. g opioid analgesics
    antihistamines
    barbiturates
    ALL THE ABOVE
  8. h " double wall" of encapsulation
  9. i limbic system
    pancreas-(is correct)
    hypothalamus
    basil ganglia
  10. j short periods
  11. k Harrison Act
  12. l half
  13. m 100 billion
  14. n Initial Drug Abuse
  15. o the degree the decrease CNS activity
  16. p relieve anxiety
    be used as a sleep aid
    cause severe physical dependence
    ALL OF THE ABOVE
  17. q Cultural factors
  18. r Anabolic steroids
  19. s phase 1
  20. t Motivation
  21. u Social learning theory
  22. v American Indian/Alaskan Native male living on campus
  23. w synergism
  24. x preclinical development , requesting an IND, filling an NDA
  25. y lost productivity
  26. z taking a drink of the alcohol that caused the hangover
  27. aa association areas
  28. ab magic bullet
  29. ac whites
  30. ad psychological
  31. ae primary
  32. af 15
  33. ag synaptic cleft
  34. ah equal
  35. ai pure food and drug act of 1906
  36. aj pain relief
  37. ak Homeostasis
  38. al the blood vessels- (is correct)
    the neurons
    the brain
    the spinal cord
  39. am 23._%
  40. an administration
    bio transformation
    distribution
    ALL OF THE ABOVE
  41. ao 10-12%
  42. ap Rebound effect
  43. aq The presence of one drug enhances the effect of another drug
  44. ar Neurons
  45. as between 0.4% and .6%
  46. at cough relief
  47. au anticholinergic
  48. av intravenous injection
  49. aw Addiction to pleasure
  50. ax trading of rum for slaves, then slaves for molasses, and then returning to New England to make rum
  51. ay Compulsive Users
  52. az Legal recreational
  53. ba wine
  54. bb Durham-Humphrey Amendment of 1951
  55. bc Arabs
  56. bd thalidomide
  57. be slowed heart rate
  58. bf blood-brain barrier
  59. bg misperception of peer norms
  60. bh marital violence
  61. bi food, drug,and cosmetics act of 1938
  62. bj injection
    oral ingestion
    inhalation
    ALL OF THE ABOVE
  63. bk Master
  64. bl A. Polish & Finnish
    C. Russian
    BOTH A & C
  65. bm African American church member
  66. bn 18th
  67. bo disease model
  68. bp toxicity
  69. bq 100
  70. br Tolerance
  71. bs manufactures to indicate the amt of addicting substances found in each drug product
  72. bt Schedule 11
  73. bu Floaters/chippers
  74. bv sickness
  75. bw Saliva in deep kissing
  76. bx margin of safety
  77. by valium
  78. bz Primary social
  79. ca True
  80. cb Gateway
  81. cc Inoculation strategy
  82. cd the nature of the drug
    the severity of dependence
    the duration of action of the drug
    ALL THE ABOVE
  83. ce endorphins
  84. cf Neurotransmitters
  85. cg seizures
  86. ch A. maintenance
    B. experimentation
    C. escalation
    D. ex- addict
    E. relapsing (is correct)
  87. ci IV
  88. cj the British attacked the Chinese because of the Chinese opposition to the British opium trade in China
  89. ck antihistamines
  90. cl Jefferson's
  91. cm a pharmaceutical company marketed an antibiotic dissolved in the toxic solvent ,diethyleneglycol
  92. cn psychoactive drugs
  93. co illegal recreational
  94. cp III
  95. cq coldone
  96. cr the presence of estrogen and age
  97. cs meperidine
  98. ct category
  99. cu (all of above)
    legal defense costs, unlawful behavior, a violation of school policies
  100. cv body-fat ratio
  101. cw acetylcholine
    dopamine
    androgen-(is correct )
    serotonin
  102. cx Seven
  103. cy (All of the above)
    other drugs, fatigue or illness , gender
  104. cz threshold dose
  105. da Demand reduction strategy
  106. db pharmacokinetics
  107. dc heavy
  108. dd carbohydrates
  109. de being a true disease and progressing from a psychological to physical dependence
  110. df phase 11
  111. dg psychodrama
  112. dh dopamine
  113. di exhausts
  114. dj interdiction
  115. dk combining heroin with cocaine
  116. dl 10-15%
  117. dm Switching
  118. dn distillation
  119. do metabolism
  120. dp ethylene glycol; isopropyl alcohol
  121. dq for the most part, drugs of abuse decrease the activity of dopamine in the limbic system
  122. dr adrenaline is classified as an anabolic steroid
  123. ds 55%
  124. dt true
  125. du disrupted sleep pattern
    growth of muscle mass
    headaches
    sedation & mellowing of temper- (is correct)
  126. dv anabolic steroids
  127. dw marijuana
  128. dx a small fiber that conducts electric-like impulses from dendrites to terminal
  129. dy 65.6%
  130. dz epsilon
  131. ea dopmine
  132. eb chloral hydrate
  133. ec phocomelia
  134. ed Both A &B
    A. Criminal behavior develops as a mean to support addiction
    B. criminality is inherently linked to the personality of the user and occurs independently from drug use
  135. ee treatment of the person who has overdosed on narcotics
  136. ef meperdine
  137. eg catecholamines
  138. eh insula
  139. ei (all the above)
    not safe for self-medicating because its toxicity
    new compound not been shown to be completely safe
    the drug is habit forming
  140. ej only A&C
    A. amounts of exposure to drug using peers
    B. availability of drugs in the community
    C. age of initial use
  141. ek secondary
  142. el Pentazocine
  143. em over 100,000
  144. en hypnotics
  145. eo anti tussive
  146. ep A. Bayer
  147. eq Utilities,educational services,public administration
  148. er additive
  149. es Differential
  150. et Pupil response test
  151. eu 4-12 hrs
  152. ev acetylcholine
  153. ew coughing
  154. ex It is a comparison of dosage for therapeutic versus toxic effects
  155. ey Delta
  156. ez orphan drug law
  157. fa Schedule 1
  158. fb sensation
  159. fc anxiolytic
  160. fd withdrawal
  161. fe 24-36
  162. ff introversion
  163. fg comprehensive drug abuse prevention and control act
  164. fh from of psychiatric disorder
  165. fi A. Alcohol diminished the first 2 or 3 yrs
    B. Enforcement of law was thwarted by corrupt law enforcement officials
    C. Immigrants perceived prohibition as unnecessary and infringement of their cultural beliefs and practices
    >D. ALL THE ABOVE
  166. fj HIV, hepatitis
  167. fk theft
  168. fl frontal cortex
  169. fm 3 pounds
  170. fn beer
  171. fo ethanol
  172. fp Dependency
  173. fq withdrawal
    dependence
    tolerance
    ALL THE ABOVE
  174. fr fermentation
  175. fs amotivational syndrome
  176. ft GABA
  177. fu nicotine
  178. fv genetic and biophysiological theories
  179. fw pentothal
  180. fx Puerto Ricans