Motivation and Addiction (Dr. Bessac) flashcards |

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What is the Disease Model of drug abuse?

Biological and psychological condition of an individual

What is the Moral Model of drug abuse?

Drug use is a crime against society

What is the justice system's perspective of the treatment of drug abuse?

Prevent and punish the illegal use of drugs

What is the health community's perspective of the treatment of drug abuse?

Treat the biology and psychology of addiction, substance abuse, and withdrawal

What are the stages of "training" an addictive habit? (6)

1. Predisposed conditions
2. Intoxication reinforcement --> habitual intoxication and excessive binging
3. Withdrawal Punishment
4. Preoccupation/Anticipation/Salience
5. Relapse
6. Detrimental Effects

What are some predisposed conditions/factor of vulnerability?

- Genetic factors
- Personality characteristics
- Age of onset (get em young)
- Family, cultural, social and community factors

What percent of children of alcoholics are also alcoholics?


Drug intoxification...

Satisfies/gives pleasure/relief


Strives to maximize net pleasure


The immediate euphoria or escape feels good so a person takes the drug and wants to take it again

T/F: Native Americans have a higher prevalence of alcoholism than other races?


T/F: Women have a higher rate of alcoholism than men?

False; alcoholism is more prevalent in men

General idea of operant conditioning reinforcement...

It feels good and reduced my bad feelings --> Brain wants it again

Positive Reinforcement (in the context of drug use)

Drug induces euphoria and other pleasurable effects

Negative Reinforcement (in the context of drug use)

Using the drug reduces unpleasant feelings (e.g. anxiety)

Why does intoxication feel good?

Increased dopamine/glutamate on the Nucleus Accumbens (mostly GABA neurons)

The brain's "pleasure center"

Nucleus Accumbens

The Nucleus Accumbens is primarily (95%) made of _______.

GABAnergic medium spiny neurons (MSN)

Ways the brains has developed tolerance to the drug (3)

1. Desensitization of a drug GPCR binding site
2. Other mechanisms of lowering the endogenous systems the drug mimics/activates
3. In withdrawal, these systems are starved of normal activity

Counteracting systems are _______.

(the brain and the body adapts to high drug levels by increasing the opposite system)

Withdrawal/negative affect involves ___, ___, and ___.

Locus coruleus
Diminished Nucleus Accumbens activity

______: Decreases dopamine of the pleasure center with chronic use


Positive Reinforcement

Add a "good" stimulus

Negative Reinforcement

Subtract a noxious stimulus

Positive Punishment

Add a noxious stimulus

Negative Punishment

Subtract a "good" stimulus

Incentive Salience

Drug use is to satisfy craving to have to do the drug. The reward and punishment do not matter. A motivation "wanting" attribute given to the brain to reward-predicting stimuli.

Protracted Abstinence Syndrome

Craving still exists after the drug is no longer associated with "feeling good"
The brain has learned the drug is essential for survival and persona.
Associates various "cues" that can trigger to seek the drug

dlPCF activity in craving a cigarette...

Low dlPFC= low motivation
High dlPFC= high motivation

OFC activity in craving a cigarette...

Involved with mood regulation in bipolar disorder's amygdala and possibly with nucleus accumbens

Anterior Cingulate Cortex activity in craving a cigarette...

Conflict/errors of craving

mPFC activity in craving a cigarette...

Long after drug use, the memory is strong. Does NOT fade away the desire

_______ in OCD --> similarly with the addict makes an obsession/compulsion to take the drug.

Cortical-Striatal-Thalamic (CST)

Theory that ______ inhibits craving actions (part of the brain)

Cingulate cortex

Two consequences of thaimine deficiency in alcoholics:

1. Wernicke's encephalopathy
2. Korsakoff's Psychosis

Fetal alcohol syndrome and Crack babies have these facial features:

- Small head
- Low nasal bridge
- Small eye openings
- Underdeveloped jaw

T/F: Alcohol binging during pregnancy is the biggest problem, not having a single glass of wine.


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