Motivation and Addiction (Dr. Bessac) flashcards |

This is a Free Service provided by Why Fund Inc. (a 501 C3 NonProfit) We thank you for your donation!


(1. Click on the course Study Set you wish to learn.) (2. If you wish you can click on "Print" and print the test page.) (3. When you want to take a test...click on anyone of the tests for that Study Set.) (4. Click on "Check Answers" and it will score your test and correct your answers.) (5. You can take all the tests as many times as you choose until you get an "A"!) (6. Automated college courses created from lecture notes, class exams, text books, reading materials from many colleges and universities.)

๎„?

Long-Term Learning

Learn efficiently and remember over time.

Start Long-Term Learning

Get personalized study reminders at intervals optimized for better retention.
Track your progress on this set by creating a folder

What is the Disease Model of drug abuse?

Biological and psychological condition of an individual

What is the Moral Model of drug abuse?

Drug use is a crime against society

What is the justice system's perspective of the treatment of drug abuse?

Prevent and punish the illegal use of drugs

What is the health community's perspective of the treatment of drug abuse?

Treat the biology and psychology of addiction, substance abuse, and withdrawal

What are the stages of "training" an addictive habit? (6)

1. Predisposed conditions
2. Intoxication reinforcement --> habitual intoxication and excessive binging
3. Withdrawal Punishment
4. Preoccupation/Anticipation/Salience
5. Relapse
6. Detrimental Effects

What are some predisposed conditions/factor of vulnerability?

- Genetic factors
- Personality characteristics
- Age of onset (get em young)
- Family, cultural, social and community factors

What percent of children of alcoholics are also alcoholics?

50-60%

Drug intoxification...

Satisfies/gives pleasure/relief

Hedonist...

Strives to maximize net pleasure

Hedonism...

The immediate euphoria or escape feels good so a person takes the drug and wants to take it again

T/F: Native Americans have a higher prevalence of alcoholism than other races?

True

T/F: Women have a higher rate of alcoholism than men?

False; alcoholism is more prevalent in men

General idea of operant conditioning reinforcement...

It feels good and reduced my bad feelings --> Brain wants it again

Positive Reinforcement (in the context of drug use)

Drug induces euphoria and other pleasurable effects

Negative Reinforcement (in the context of drug use)

Using the drug reduces unpleasant feelings (e.g. anxiety)

Why does intoxication feel good?

Increased dopamine/glutamate on the Nucleus Accumbens (mostly GABA neurons)

The brain's "pleasure center"

Nucleus Accumbens

The Nucleus Accumbens is primarily (95%) made of _______.

GABAnergic medium spiny neurons (MSN)

Ways the brains has developed tolerance to the drug (3)

1. Desensitization of a drug GPCR binding site
2. Other mechanisms of lowering the endogenous systems the drug mimics/activates
3. In withdrawal, these systems are starved of normal activity

Counteracting systems are _______.

Upregulated
(the brain and the body adapts to high drug levels by increasing the opposite system)

Withdrawal/negative affect involves ___, ___, and ___.

Amygdala
Locus coruleus
Diminished Nucleus Accumbens activity

______: Decreases dopamine of the pleasure center with chronic use

Tolerance

Positive Reinforcement

Add a "good" stimulus

Negative Reinforcement

Subtract a noxious stimulus

Positive Punishment

Add a noxious stimulus

Negative Punishment

Subtract a "good" stimulus

Incentive Salience

Drug use is to satisfy craving to have to do the drug. The reward and punishment do not matter. A motivation "wanting" attribute given to the brain to reward-predicting stimuli.

Protracted Abstinence Syndrome

Craving still exists after the drug is no longer associated with "feeling good"
The brain has learned the drug is essential for survival and persona.
Associates various "cues" that can trigger to seek the drug

dlPCF activity in craving a cigarette...

Low dlPFC= low motivation
High dlPFC= high motivation

OFC activity in craving a cigarette...

Involved with mood regulation in bipolar disorder's amygdala and possibly with nucleus accumbens

Anterior Cingulate Cortex activity in craving a cigarette...

Conflict/errors of craving

mPFC activity in craving a cigarette...

Long after drug use, the memory is strong. Does NOT fade away the desire

_______ in OCD --> similarly with the addict makes an obsession/compulsion to take the drug.

Cortical-Striatal-Thalamic (CST)

Theory that ______ inhibits craving actions (part of the brain)

Cingulate cortex

Two consequences of thaimine deficiency in alcoholics:

1. Wernicke's encephalopathy
2. Korsakoff's Psychosis

Fetal alcohol syndrome and Crack babies have these facial features:

- Small head
- Low nasal bridge
- Small eye openings
- FLAT/SMOOTHED FACE
- Underdeveloped jaw

T/F: Alcohol binging during pregnancy is the biggest problem, not having a single glass of wine.

True

Please allow access to your computerโ€™s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

๎€˜
๎€—

We canโ€™t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

๎€ 
Voice Recording

This is a Plus feature

๎€ 

๎€ 
๎€‚ Create Study Set