Drug Abuse Final 1 flashcards |

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In 2008, what percentage of the U.S. population reported cigarette use in the past month?

23._%

Which Hispanic group had the highest use of illicit-types of drugs?

Puerto Ricans

Which of the two popular views best reflect the long established relationship between drug use and crime?

Both A &B
A. Criminal behavior develops as a mean to support addiction
B. criminality is inherently linked to the personality of the user and occurs independently from drug use

The active ingredient(s) in tobacco that is addictive, colorless, and a highly volatile alkaloid is __________.

nicotine

THC is the primary psychoactive ingredient in __________.

marijuana

Which of the following is not found in Erich Goode's list of drug use types?

illegal recreational

The type of crime committed that is often related to drug use involves __________.

theft

__________ generally focus on using other people's drug supplies without maintaining a supply of their own and often waver between the characteristics of chronic types of drug users and experimenter types.

Floaters/chippers

What percentage of full-time workers reported alcohol usage within the past month according to the National Household Surveys?

65.6%

__________ are known to view their drug use as necessary in order to have fun and they often use drugs in order to escape and postpone personal problems, and relieve stress and anxieties.

Compulsive Users

Common communicable diseases that spread through contaminated needle sharing include(s) __________.

HIV, hepatitis

Which of the following is not a common test for drug use?

Pupil response test

According to Chapter 1, the principal social psychological factor in determining the presence of an individual's drug abuse is __________.

Motivation

The industrial category with the lowest rates of illicit drug use is found among ____________ workers.

Utilities,educational services,public administration

__________ drugs refer to types of drugs that lead to the use of other more addictive types of drugs.

Gateway

The drug used to increase muscle mass but whose side effects include heart disease, liver cancer, high blood pressure, septic shock, impotence, genital atrophy, and mood swings is __________.

Anabolic steroids

The phase that is synonymous with addiction, where more of the drug is sought despite the presence of negative physical symptoms is __________.

Dependency

According to Erich Goode, ___________refers to using licit drugs such as alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine to achieve a certain mental or psychic state.

Legal recreational

Which of the following is not classified as a narcotic drug?

coldone

Substances that affect the central nervous system and alter consciousness and/or perception are pharmacologically known as __________.

psychoactive drugs

A person can become infected with the HIV virus in all but the following manner(s) __________.

Saliva in deep kissing

The belief that attitudes about drug use develop from the values and attitudes of other drug users, the norms in the community, subcultures, peer groups, families, and personal experience is known as __________.

Cultural factors

__________ is characterized by: excessive use, constant preoccupation with the availability and supply of the drug, refusal to admit excessive use, and reliance on the drug.

Initial Drug Abuse

__________ relationships are characterized as a group of individuals sharing a high amount of intimacy and spontaneity and the members are emotionally bonded.

Primary social

__________ refer to the chemical messengers released by the neurons for communicating with other cells.

Neurotransmitters

Bejerot's theory, specifically known as __________ theory assumes it is biologically normal to continue a stimulus perceived as pleasurable.

Addiction to pleasure

__________ reinforcement refers to the ratio between reinforcers, both favorable and disfavorable, for sustaining drug use behavior

Differential

Which of the following is/are primary factor(s) responsible for drug use?

only A&C
A. amounts of exposure to drug using peers
B. availability of drugs in the community
C. age of initial use

Theories of addiction that deal with mental or emotional states, often associated with or exacerbated by social or environmental factors, are known as __________ theories.

psychological

The trait associated with turning ones feelings inward rather than directing emotions outward is known as __________

introversion

The prevailing concept or model of addiction in the United States is the __________.

disease model

The view that alcoholism is a __________ dates back to 200 years ago

sickness

Types of individuals specifically termed __________ seekers continually seek or novel thrills in their experiences.

sensation

It has been proposed that continual drug use __________ dopamine centers in the brain, which makes experiencing normal pleasure impossible.

exhausts

__________ refers to a theoretical explanation that places emphasis on how an individual learns patterns of behavior from the attitudes of others, society, and peers.

Social learning theory

It is believed that most drugs with abuse potential enhance pleasure centers by causing the release of __________.

dopamine

__________ status refers to the primary status position one has in the eyes of others.

Master

One's parents would represent a(n) __________ relationship.

primary

Which of the following risk factors especially applies to adolescent drug use?

misperception of peer norms

A change in personality resulting from marijuana use, characterized by a lack of motivation has been termed by some drug theorists as __________.

amotivational syndrome

Explanations of addiction in terms of genetics, brain dysfunction, and biochemical patterns are termed __________.

genetic and biophysiological theories

__________ in ten drug users work full time.

Seven

Which of the following is not one of the phases of addiction?

A. maintenance
B. experimentation
C. escalation
D. ex- addict
E. relapsing (is correct)

Because of its similarities to mental illness, the American Psychiatric Association has classified severe drug dependence as a __________.

from of psychiatric disorder

__________ can influence the effect alcohol has on the individual.

(All of the above)
other drugs, fatigue or illness , gender

An adaptation to pain and avoidance of reality is called __________.

" double wall" of encapsulation

Which of the following most often occur(s) with extensive use of drugs?

(all of above)
legal defense costs, unlawful behavior, a violation of school policies

In contrast to the primary group, __________ relationships involve mostly segmented relationships that are role specific.

secondary

_________ drugs have high abuse potential and are not approved in the United States for medical purposes.

Schedule 1

__________ aims to protect drug users by teaching them responsibility.

Inoculation strategy

__________ drugs have high abuse potential but are approved for medical purposes.

Schedule 11

If a drug falls into which of the following categories, it will be classified as prescription

(all the above)
not safe for self-medicating because its toxicity
compound not been shown to be completely safe
the drug is habit forming

The __________ allowed the manufacturer to determine whether a drug was to be labeled prescription or nonprescription.

food, drug,and cosmetics act of 1938

The __________ allows companies to receive tax advantages if they develop drugs that are designed to treat rare diseases and hence are not very profitable

orphan drug law

Which of the following phases generally involves a few patients with a medical problem a drug is intended to treat and is designed to determine both safety and efficacy of a drug?

phase 11

With the passage of the __________, the decline of patent medicines began.

pure food and drug act of 1906

Which of the following lists steps of drug development in the correct chronological order?

preclinical development , requesting an IND, filling an NDA

__________ attempts to decrease individuals' tendency to use drugs with an emphasis on reformulating values and behaviors.

Demand reduction strategy

The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act was passed in response to which of the following events?

a pharmaceutical company marketed an antibiotic dissolved in the toxic solvent ,diethyleneglycol

The Pure Food and Drug Act required:

manufactures to indicate the amt of addicting substances found in each drug product

The __________ served as the foundation and reference for subsequent laws directed at regulating drug abuse issues.

Harrison Act

An over-the-counter drug ingredient not generally recognized as safe or effective for the claimed therapeutic indication is classified as __________.

category

__________ is from the Greek words for flippers, or "seal-shaped limbs."

phocomelia

The __________ established the criteria for determining whether a drug should be classified as prescription or nonprescription.

Durham-Humphrey Amendment of 1951

What drug was used in Europe as a sedative for pregnant women?

thalidomide

Decreasing the amount of drugs that are carried across U.S. borders is an example of __________.

interdiction

Which of the following phases generally involves a few healthy individuals, and is designed to determine the safety of a drug?

phase 1

The __________ divided substances with abuse potential into categories based on the degree of their abuse potential and their clinical usefulness.

comprehensive drug abuse prevention and control act

The ______ policy of the FDA allows it to review prescription drugs and evaluate their suitability as OTC products.

Switching

True or false? The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act divided substances with abuse potential into categories based on the degree of their abuse potential and their clinical usefulness

True

True or false? The Pure Food and Drug Act did not allow the government to stop the distribution of dangerous preparations

True

Hormones that are able to convert nutrients into tissue mass are called __________.

anabolic steroids

Which of the following is not a neurotransmitter?

acetylcholine
dopamine
androgen-(is correct )
serotonin

Which of the following is not part of the nervous system?

limbic system
pancreas-(is correct)
hypothalamus
basil ganglia

Which of the following describes a neuronal axon?

a small fiber that conducts electric-like impulses from dendrites to terminal

Which of the following neurotransmitters is classified as a catecholamine?

dopamine

The nervous system is composed of all but which of the following?

the blood vessels- (is correct)
the neurons
the brain
the spinal cord

Approximately how many neurons are in the brain?

100 billion

Nicotinic receptors are activated by which of the following transmitters?

acetylcholine

Which of the following neurotransmitters is metabolized by the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO)?

dopmine

Which area of the cortex is the most developed in man?

association areas

Which of the following is least likely to be caused by abuse of anabolic steroids?

disrupted sleep pattern
growth of muscle mass
headaches
sedation & mellowing of temper- (is correct)

Which structure has been found to be important in maintaining nicotine dependence?

insula

A class of biochemical compounds including norepinephrine and dopamine is called __________.

catecholamines

Agents that antagonize the effects of acetylcholine are called __________.

anticholinergic

__________ is the maintenance of internal stability.

Homeostasis

Anabolic steroids have been classified in which of the following schedules of the Controlled Substance Act?

III

Select the incorrect statement

for the most part, drugs of abuse decrease the activity of dopamine in the limbic system

Select the incorrect statement concerning the adrenal glands.

adrenaline is classified as an anabolic steroid

A minute gap between the neuron and target cell across which neurotransmitters travel is called a __________.

synaptic cleft

Which of the following effects is least likely to be caused by a sympathomimetic drug?

slowed heart rate

__________ are the cells in the nervous system that receive and send neurotransmitter messages.

Neurons

Which of the following brain regions is most likely to directly regulate the endocrine systems?

hypothalamus

What part of the brain controls complex behaviors, processes information, and helps make decisions?

frontal cortex

How much does the average brain weigh?

3 pounds

The unpleasant effect that occurs when use of a drug is stopped is called __________.

withdrawal

Chemical alteration of drugs by body processes is called __________.

metabolism

Alcohol interacts with which of the following?

opioid analgesics
antihistamines
barbiturates
ALL THE ABOVE

Pharmacologists refer to a perfect drug as a __________.

magic bullet

In determining how drugs affect the body, pharmacologists need to be concerned with __________.

administration
bio transformation
distribution
ALL OF THE ABOVE

__________ is a form of withdrawal or a paradoxical effect that occurs when a drug has been eliminated from the body of a person who has become physically dependent.

Rebound effect

Which of the following interactions best describes the analgesic effect when aspirin is combined with acetaminophen?

additive

The study of factors that influence the distribution and concentration of drugs in the body is called __________.

pharmacokinetics

Which of the following best describes the concept "margin of safety"?

It is a comparison of dosage for therapeutic versus toxic effects

__________ refers to changes that decrease response to a set dose of a drug.

Tolerance

The capillary membranes that filter substances moving between the cerebral blood vessels and the brain are called the __________.

blood-brain barrier

__________ is the ability of one drug to enhance the effect of another.

synergism

________ is the difference between the dose of drug necessary to cause a therapeutic effect versus the dose necessary to cause a toxic effect.

margin of safety

The capacity of a drug to do damage or cause adverse effects in the body is called __________.

toxicity

The principal forms of drug administration include which of the following?

injection
oral ingestion
inhalation
ALL OF THE ABOVE

You have discovered that you require at least 300 mg of aspirin to get any pain relief. Which of the following terms best describes this phenomenon?

threshold dose

Which of the following best describes synergistic drug interactions?

The presence of one drug enhances the effect of another drug

The approach to detoxifying a person dependent on drugs depends on __________.

the nature of the drug
the severity of dependence
the duration of action of the drug
ALL THE ABOVE

Barbiturates likely cause their depressant effects by enhancing which transmitter?

GABA

A "Mickey Finn" was used to make a person temporarily unconscious and contained __________.

chloral hydrate

Frequent use of benzodiazepines can lead to __________.

withdrawal
dependence
tolerance
ALL THE ABOVE

Women's reaction to barbiturates is most likely to be different than men's because of differences in __________.

body-fat ratio

Benzodiazepines are classified in which of the following Schedules?

IV

Phenobarbital is classified in which of the following Schedules?

IV

Approximately __________ benzodiazepine compounds are currently available in the United States.

15

Barbituric acid was synthesized in 1864 by __________.

A. Bayer

__________, an ultrashort-acting barbiturate, is often used as anesthesia for minor surgery.

pentothal

Which of the following categories of depressants is named after a Greek god?

hypnotics

For most of the 1970s, __________ was the top-selling prescription drug.

valium

Drugs often used to relieve symptoms of allergies and motion sickness are called __________.

antihistamines

A CNS depressant can __________.

relieve anxiety
be used as a sleep aid
cause severe physical dependence
ALL OF THE ABOVE

Depressants are often classified according to __________.

the degree the decrease CNS activity

Which of the following terms refers to drugs used to relieve anxiety?

anxiolytic

Benzodiazepines are relatively safe when used for ________

short periods

Phenobarbital is often used to treat which of the following conditions?

seizures

Which is the manner whereby the body loses fluids through alcohol's diuretic action?

urine

The distillation device or "still" was developed by the __________.

Arabs

__________ is the process of making alcohol.

fermentation

__________ is the process by which alcohol concentrations are increased.

distillation

One hundred ten proof alcohol has a __________ alcohol content.

55%

Alcoholic beverages contain large amounts of __________.

carbohydrates

As a rule, it takes __________ the number of hours as the number of drinks consumed to sober up completely.

equal

__________ is used as an antifreeze whereas __________ is used as an antiseptic.

ethylene glycol; isopropyl alcohol

The concentration of alcohol in wine coolers is usually about __________

10-12%

The "hair of the dog" method for treating a hangover consists of __________.

taking a drink of the alcohol that caused the hangover

A glass of champagne has a faster onset of action than a glass of wine that contains the same amount of alcohol because __________.

carbonation

Liver disorders are responsible for __________ of the deaths associated with alcoholism.

10-15%

The lethal blood alcohol level is __________.

between 0.4% and .6%

The consumable type of alcohol that is the psychoactive ingredient in alcoholic beverages is _____

ethanol

Drinks stronger than __________ proof may actually inhibit alcohol absorption.

100

True or false? Alcohol at 70% concentration is actually an effective bactericide, but not recommended for use on open wounds.

true

_________-income drinkers prefer beer, whereas __________-income drinkers prefer wine.

lower; higher

The slave trade triangle specifically refers to the __________.

trading of rum for slaves, then slaves for molasses, and then returning to England to make rum

The highest economic cost for the nation regarding alcohol abuse is __________.

lost productivity

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