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27 Written questions

27 True/False questions

  1. attractioninferior planets; can't see it because it's below the horizon; once every six months; right angles; similar to quadrature

          

  2. Newton as a deistPlato liked math and believed that math is the idea itself, not the appearance

          

  3. Sacred Congregation of the Indexmodern science still requires it, but approach is different; something is proposed and accepted as true then the search for the quid begins

          

  4. Spyglasseventually every paradigm has questions it is unable to answer; Ptolemaic calendar stops working; usually, the solution is to add more epicycles; Clement V calls a meeting to mathematically adjust the model because they don't believe there are that many epicycles

          

  5. "De Motu"Galileo was told not to defend Copernican system so he gives both a "fair hearing"; involves three characters - 1. salviati, an apologist for the Copernican system; 2. simplicius, an apologist for Ptolemy/Aristotle; 3. Sagredo, a neutral and honest judge; Salviati gets the good arguments and presents the quid - the motion of tides is caused by motion of planet on axis (WRONG); kepler writes him a letter saying this is wrong; approved by censorship and translated into many languages; mainstream and had little math; pope realizes that his opinion comes out of simplicius' mouth; the pope orders cessation of book's publication and fires head of Sacred Congregation of the Index;

          

  6. Holy Office of Inquisitionsuperior planets; earth, planet and sun are in the same line; 6 hours after sunset, 6 hours before sunrise

          

  7. Rudolphafter Brahe's falling out with the king, Rudolph, the holy roman emperor gives him a job because of a horoscope that came true predicting a successful campaign against the turks

          

  8. inclined planehe put ball bearings at the top and watched them roll down; set up bells to measure time (more and more rings as balls went down);

          

  9. "The Dialogue"galileo writes while under house arrest; on mechanics; smuggled out after death and published in Holland; available everywhere except Italy

          

  10. Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motionplanetary orbit is an ellipse with the sun at one focus; an imaginary line drawn from the sun to any planet will sweep out equal areas in equal time; (Ta/Tb) squared = (Ra/Rb) cubed (*a = planet 1; b = planet 2; r = radii; T = period*)

          

  11. Dedication to Pope Paul IIImodern science still requires it, but approach is different; something is proposed and accepted as true then the search for the quid begins

          

  12. Galileo's protectionmass has nothing to do with the rate at which things fall; moon is not smooth; light of sun hits top of moon first then spreads to valleys (just like the earth); believes things fall the same way on the moon as they do on the earth; we can see the moon when there is no sun because if you are standing on the moon, the earth reflects the light of the sun; describes the Milky way as "the galaxy" (=big collection of stars; stars are at an immense distance because they still twinkle through the telescope just appear slightly bigger; planets are spherical like earth; 4 moons around Jupiter, they all like on same line sometimes on one side of Jupiter, thus they revolve around it, this is important because it implies that not everything revolves around the earth; Jupiter is seen as the model of the Copernican universe (but its not a quid demonstration)

          

  13. Inquisition and Copernicusnot many people read it; it is basically a giant math proof for other mathematician astronomers; proves what Ptolemy said but with a different position; goes through proofs that everyone knows (horizon and ship etc.); separates diurnal and annual motion; diurnal belongs to earth alone; annual belongs to planets and us; a.) natural motion of spheres is a circle, b.) earth is a sphere, c.) natural motion of earth is a circle; the universe is huge and earth is so small that it looks like we are in the center

          

  14. Brahe's Universeuniverse DOES change!; stella nova ("new star") : burns day and night, shows no parallax because its very far away; super nova : an exploding star, way far out among the fixed stars; comets : previously people said it was only between the earth and the moon, but he said it was far away then moved closer and showed parallax; no crystaline spheres

          

  15. Galileo's discoveriesorbits were ellipses; no one believes it

          

  16. Demonstratio Propter Quidmodern science still requires it, but approach is different; something is proposed and accepted as true then the search for the quid begins

          

  17. inertiainnate property of matter to resist change in velocity; vis insita; more mass, more inertia

          

  18. Elongationsuperior planets; earth, planet and sun are in the same line; 6 hours after sunset, 6 hours before sunrise

          

  19. Frequencyonly on something as long as its in your hand, then it moves by inertia and is pulled back by gravity; he thinks gravity and magnets attracting each other are the same (hes wrong); gravitational pull cannot make circles, it makes an ellipse; he doesn't know what gravity is and neither do we; "I do not show hypotheses"; how can there be force if things are not touching

          

  20. Rules of Reasoning and Philosophyreligion of the enlightenment; Newton was partly responsible for this religion which claimed that God is watching space and time and can perform miracles to mess with the laws if he wants

          

  21. Inferior Planetsplanets between earth and sun

          

  22. Ossiander Prefacewritten by Andreas Ossiander; enough to convince the censors that the book is okay; says sun-centered universe is hypothetical for calculation; it is a hypotheses not asserted to be true; Copernicus does not actually agree;

          

  23. Hermes TrimegistusPlato liked math and believed that math is the idea itself, not the appearance

          

  24. Tyco BraheDane; German Protestant; best naked eye astronomer in Europe; minor nobility; convinces king to build him an observatory in the Baltic; builds a wall to act as a horizon; spent 15 years here completing research

          

  25. movement and Newtonsums up everything that happened in past century; gives his name to new paradigm;used mathematical equations to define the way things happened; invented calculus; did work in 18 months during early 20s; dabbled in alchemy; wrote more on that than physics; didn't believe in divinity of christ and wouldn't swear by 39 articles of faith; Oxford gave him a position anyway

          

  26. Newton puts God "out of work"the universe runs itself with laws; god sees things at rest and in motion; we only see them relatively (wrong - time and space are not absolute)

          

  27. Sidericus Nuntiusstarry messenger; 40 page pamphlet; written in Italian; popular; dedicated to prince Lorenzo de Medici because Galileo wants a job