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### 27 Multiple choice questions

1. 1. something with matter resists change in velocity - inertia!; more mass, more inertia; a property of things, not a force; 2. F = ma (force = mass (acceleration), 3. for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction;
2. P = mass (velocity)
3. Galileo finds a Dutch spy glass and makes a better one; shows it to Venetian hierarchy and they buy some; makes himself a really nice one; he has invented the telescope
4. hired as Brahe's assistant; Lutheran; poor German; left Lutheran seminary; good at math; copernican; he had the job of computing the orbit of mars with Tyco's data; took way longer than estimated; within hours of Brahe's death, steals his data;
5. resurrects Aristarchus' sun centered universe with earth in third position; retrograde motion is a matter of appearance (earth moves twice as fast as mars); earth turns once on axis per day and once around sun per year; Problem : still no quid; he's not denying the need for a quid he is just reversing the order; he's changing the order from quid -> idea to idea -> quid
6. planets beyond earth
7. ordered Greek manuscripts, like Plato, to be translated into Latin and Italian
8. he put ball bearings at the top and watched them roll down; set up bells to measure time (more and more rings as balls went down);
9. investigates the copernican system; contradicts scripture; by saying the universe is one way and not another is saying God can only make it one way and it limits the power of God; after "The Dialogue" incident Galileo is summoned to Rome and examined without torture; he says he doesn't remember being told not to defend Copernican system; given 2 choices - 1. publicly disavow Copernican system, 2.) go to prison for life; so, he kneels and recants; rest of his life is under house arrest
10. straight lines
11. eventually every paradigm has questions it is unable to answer; Ptolemaic calendar stops working; usually, the solution is to add more epicycles; Clement V calls a meeting to mathematically adjust the model because they don't believe there are that many epicycles
12. after Brahe's falling out with the king, Rudolph, the holy roman emperor gives him a job because of a horoscope that came true predicting a successful campaign against the turks
13. Galileo was told not to defend Copernican system so he gives both a "fair hearing"; involves three characters - 1. salviati, an apologist for the Copernican system; 2. simplicius, an apologist for Ptolemy/Aristotle; 3. Sagredo, a neutral and honest judge; Salviati gets the good arguments and presents the quid - the motion of tides is caused by motion of planet on axis (WRONG); kepler writes him a letter saying this is wrong; approved by censorship and translated into many languages; mainstream and had little math; pope realizes that his opinion comes out of simplicius' mouth; the pope orders cessation of book's publication and fires head of Sacred Congregation of the Index;
14. orbit per year
15. innate property of matter to resist change in velocity; vis insita; more mass, more inertia
16. 1. the simplest equation explaining phenomena is the truth 2. same things have same causes (light bulb vs. sun) 3. whatever the laws of science are, they apply across the entire universe (if there are other intelligent beings, they must come up with same equations); 4. scientific method - arrive at truth by induction, for a testable hypothesis, science cannot say anything is absolutely true
17. written by Newton; mathematical principles of natural philosophy; considered by Einstein, to be greatest work of physics ever; science = math; used geometry even though he had calculus; atoms and void; difference between mass and weight; weight is a force and changes with gravity; mass doesn't change
18. mass has nothing to do with the rate at which things fall; moon is not smooth; light of sun hits top of moon first then spreads to valleys (just like the earth); believes things fall the same way on the moon as they do on the earth; we can see the moon when there is no sun because if you are standing on the moon, the earth reflects the light of the sun; describes the Milky way as "the galaxy" (=big collection of stars; stars are at an immense distance because they still twinkle through the telescope just appear slightly bigger; planets are spherical like earth; 4 moons around Jupiter, they all like on same line sometimes on one side of Jupiter, thus they revolve around it, this is important because it implies that not everything revolves around the earth; Jupiter is seen as the model of the Copernican universe (but its not a quid demonstration)
19. earth centered; sun orbits the earth and all the planets orbit around the sun; no one believed him
20. if you are sitting on a ship, you are not moving with relation to the ship, but you are moving with respect to the water
21. Platonist who made up numerology, magic, and astrology (provides money for astronomers)
22. written by Andreas Ossiander; enough to convince the censors that the book is okay; says sun-centered universe is hypothetical for calculation; it is a hypotheses not asserted to be true; Copernicus does not actually agree;
23. Plato liked math and believed that math is the idea itself, not the appearance
24. superior planets; earth, planet and sun are in the same line; 6 hours after sunset, 6 hours before sunrise
25. sums up everything that happened in past century; gives his name to new paradigm;used mathematical equations to define the way things happened; invented calculus; did work in 18 months during early 20s; dabbled in alchemy; wrote more on that than physics; didn't believe in divinity of christ and wouldn't swear by 39 articles of faith; Oxford gave him a position anyway