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  1. momentum = P
  2. "The Dialogue"
  3. Kepler's books
  4. Euclidean space
  5. Crisis
  6. Lorenzo the Magnificent
  7. Sidericus Nuntius
  8. Brahe's discoveries
  9. Newton puts God "out of work"
  10. period
  11. Ossiander Preface
  12. Rules of Reasoning and Philosophy
  13. Sacred Congregation of the Index
  14. Tyco Brahe
  15. Opposition
  16. Galileo Galilei
  17. Inferior Planets
  18. Rudolph
  19. Copernican Universe
  20. Gutenberg Printing Press
  21. Principia
  22. Quadrature
  23. Isaac Newton
  24. Inquisition and Copernicus
  25. Galileo's protection
  26. Hermes Trimegistus
  27. Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
  1. a planet and earth are at a right angle from the sun; superior planets
  2. b the universe runs itself with laws; god sees things at rest and in motion; we only see them relatively (wrong - time and space are not absolute)
  3. c planets between earth and sun
  4. d lived in Padua; Padua belonged to Venice; Venice had no relationship with the papacy
  5. e includes his laws; thinks he can solve the universe with numbers; first to write science fiction about a trip to the moon
  6. f universe DOES change!; stella nova ("new star") : burns day and night, shows no parallax because its very far away; super nova : an exploding star, way far out among the fixed stars; comets : previously people said it was only between the earth and the moon, but he said it was far away then moved closer and showed parallax; no crystaline spheres
  7. g sums up everything that happened in past century; gives his name to new paradigm;used mathematical equations to define the way things happened; invented calculus; did work in 18 months during early 20s; dabbled in alchemy; wrote more on that than physics; didn't believe in divinity of christ and wouldn't swear by 39 articles of faith; Oxford gave him a position anyway
  8. h straight lines
  9. i Dane; German Protestant; best naked eye astronomer in Europe; minor nobility; convinces king to build him an observatory in the Baltic; builds a wall to act as a horizon; spent 15 years here completing research
  10. j ordered Greek manuscripts, like Plato, to be translated into Latin and Italian
  11. k starry messenger; 40 page pamphlet; written in Italian; popular; dedicated to prince Lorenzo de Medici because Galileo wants a job
  12. l P = mass (velocity)
  13. m most famous mathematician astronomer in Europe; musician; studied at university of Padua ( a college of math and medicine ); gets degrees, teaches, and casts horoscopes; not a good teacher because he wants to do research; interested in motion and wants to use the new math to answer questions like "how fast?"; neo platonist
  14. n Galileo was told not to defend Copernican system so he gives both a "fair hearing"; involves three characters - 1. salviati, an apologist for the Copernican system; 2. simplicius, an apologist for Ptolemy/Aristotle; 3. Sagredo, a neutral and honest judge; Salviati gets the good arguments and presents the quid - the motion of tides is caused by motion of planet on axis (WRONG); kepler writes him a letter saying this is wrong; approved by censorship and translated into many languages; mainstream and had little math; pope realizes that his opinion comes out of simplicius' mouth; the pope orders cessation of book's publication and fires head of Sacred Congregation of the Index;
  15. o in charge of censorship; rounds up copies of heretical writing and burns then, as well as puts them on the list (=the index) of books that the faithful should not read
  16. p written by Newton; mathematical principles of natural philosophy; considered by Einstein, to be greatest work of physics ever; science = math; used geometry even though he had calculus; atoms and void; difference between mass and weight; weight is a force and changes with gravity; mass doesn't change
  17. q resurrects Aristarchus' sun centered universe with earth in third position; retrograde motion is a matter of appearance (earth moves twice as fast as mars); earth turns once on axis per day and once around sun per year; Problem : still no quid; he's not denying the need for a quid he is just reversing the order; he's changing the order from quid -> idea to idea -> quid
  18. r 1. the simplest equation explaining phenomena is the truth 2. same things have same causes (light bulb vs. sun) 3. whatever the laws of science are, they apply across the entire universe (if there are other intelligent beings, they must come up with same equations); 4. scientific method - arrive at truth by induction, for a testable hypothesis, science cannot say anything is absolutely true
  19. s Platonist who made up numerology, magic, and astrology (provides money for astronomers)
  20. t planetary orbit is an ellipse with the sun at one focus; an imaginary line drawn from the sun to any planet will sweep out equal areas in equal time; (Ta/Tb) squared = (Ra/Rb) cubed (*a = planet 1; b = planet 2; r = radii; T = period*)
  21. u written by Andreas Ossiander; enough to convince the censors that the book is okay; says sun-centered universe is hypothetical for calculation; it is a hypotheses not asserted to be true; Copernicus does not actually agree;
  22. v investigates the copernican system; contradicts scripture; by saying the universe is one way and not another is saying God can only make it one way and it limits the power of God; after "The Dialogue" incident Galileo is summoned to Rome and examined without torture; he says he doesn't remember being told not to defend Copernican system; given 2 choices - 1. publicly disavow Copernican system, 2.) go to prison for life; so, he kneels and recants; rest of his life is under house arrest
  23. w superior planets; earth, planet and sun are in the same line; 6 hours after sunset, 6 hours before sunrise
  24. x anything anyone says can be put into print; offices for censorship are created
  25. y eventually every paradigm has questions it is unable to answer; Ptolemaic calendar stops working; usually, the solution is to add more epicycles; Clement V calls a meeting to mathematically adjust the model because they don't believe there are that many epicycles
  26. z in earth years; earth's period is 1
  27. aa after Brahe's falling out with the king, Rudolph, the holy roman emperor gives him a job because of a horoscope that came true predicting a successful campaign against the turks