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108 Multiple choice questions

  1. = -∆N/∆t
  2. At ordinary temperatures, electrons remain in the
  3. WHO proposed that a particle can be represented by a value, ψ, called the wave function
  4. unit for activity
  5. The electrons ejected have a _____that can be found by the following equation: KEe = hf - work function
  6. The____ nuclei have more binding energy than the parent nucleus
  7. Unstable daughters become parents for a new decay, leading to a ____
  8. is the rate at which a sample decays over a time period
  9. Decay constant indicates the rate of ____
  10. E = nhf
  11. strong forces only appears at ____ (10-15m) - for longer distances it is practically nonexistent
  12. 1924 - _____ proposed that all matter, not just light, behaved as both waves and particles
  13. number of nucleons
  14. Einstein proposed that all electromagnetic waves are _____ - meaning they are bundles of energy (photons)
  15. A particle has a certain amount of energy due to its mass
  16. Neutron number (N) - number of neutrons ____-_____
  17. An ideal system that absorbs all incoming radiation is called a
  18. bright lines that correspond to the wavelength of light given off by a gas
  19. A stable nucleus's mass is less than the mass of its parts - called
  20. Used for atomic mass
  21. is planck's constant: 6.63x10-34 Js
  22. WHO hypothesized that all matter also behaved like waves, this would mean that electrons should interfere and diffract
  23. For elements above Z (atomic number) = 83, adding neutrons is not enough to stabilize the nucleus - these elements have ____
  24. _____ are also emitted in beta decay - needed to conserve momentum and energy in beta decay reactions - symbol, ν (nu)
  25. Amount of time it takes for half a sample to decay
  26. The photoelectric effect will not be observed if the frequency of light shone on a metal is not at least at that ____
  27. "Mega" =
  28. causes attraction/repulsion of charged particles, hold atoms/molecules together, long ranged
  29. Radiation is emitted with the two nuclei - as____,____ or both
  30. All gasses have unique____ - used to determine elements in a mixture
  31. Emission of high energy photons
  32. Another energy unit used in quantum mechanics is the ____ = 1.60x10-19J
  33. Beta decay: The atomic number (Z) of the daughter is___ less/___ more than that of the mother - the atomic mass (A) does not change
  34. Strong force exists between all ____, not just protons
  35. Photons should carry ____ as well as ____
  36. The quantity ψ2 is proportional to the probability of finding an electron at a
  37. All matter should_____, although larger object's have such small wavelengths that there are no apertures through which they could pass
  38. Light is both a
  39. ____ realized that if light behaved like a particle, then a collision between an electron and a photon should be similar to two balls colliding
  40. If electrons orbit the nucleus, then why don't they undergo centripetal acceleration
    ; Orbiting electrons should produce magnetic fields according to Maxwell's Equations - this would cause them to loose energy
    ; A lost in energy would cause the electron orbit to decrease - the atom would collapse
  41. antiparticle of neutrinos, symbol, ṽ
  42. binds neutrons and protons, strongest of fundamental forces, short ranged
  43. Each gas has a ____ & ____
  44. Absorbed photons account for the ___ in the absorption spectrum
  45. WHO proposed that the attractive force between the positive nucleus and negative electrons kept the electrons in orbit
  46. The greater the frequency of light, the greater the KE of the electrons____
  47. All objects emit
  48. Planck assumed that these resonators could only absorb and give off certain amounts of energy - called
  49. Electrons are accompanied by
  50. Alpha decay: Atomic mass (Z) decreases by ___ for the daughter
  51. short-ranged involved in beta decay.
  52. The circumference of the orbit must equal an integral number of the
  53. Compton shift is difficult o observe with visible light, easier to see in
  54. Higher temperature =
  55. the breaking apart of an unstable nucleus into two stable nuclei
  56. Once an electron is in an excited state, there is a certain probability that it was "fall" back down to the ground state by emitting a photon - called
  57. Positrons are accompanied by
  58. When a light shines on the atom, only the photon whose energy matches the energy difference between the two levels is
  59. help stabilize the nucleus
  60. A more intense light source ___ generate higher KE electrons
  61. changes the neutron/proton ratio in the parent nucleus - this affects the parent's nuclear stability
  62. number of protons
  63. cause the bright lines on an emission spectrum
  64. increase in wavelength of light as it strikes an electron
  65. ____nuclei are more tightly bound and have less mass than parent nucleus
  66. holds nucleus together, overcomes the repulsion of the positive charges
  67. Theory is that all EM waves consist of photons that have no mass, but carry energy and have momentum
  68. The electrons are ejected almost___
  69. is the quantum number (energy level, usually 1)
  70. Developed a formula that explained blackbody radiation
  71. This difference in mass is attributed to the energy needed to hold the nucleus together - called
  72. same element (Z), but different mass because different N value
  73. If the daughter nucleus is stable (mass = periodic table mass) the___ stops
  74. Each photon affects one____
  75. strong forces are Independent of___
  76. The first orbit contains____ wavelength, the second orbit ___ wavelengths
  77. In order to eject electrons, the electron must overcome the_____ holding it to the atom
  78. Energy and momentum of light increases with an increase in
  79. have no measurable size or structure and do not seem to break down into smaller parts
  80. The amount of light shone on the metal doesn't matter, only the____ of the light matters
  81. - Large nucleus splits into two smaller nuclei, this releases energy
  82. Einstein won the 1921 Noble Prize for this explanation of the
  83. - the new, stable nuclei
  84. No change in mass or atomic number of daughter nucleus
  85. What type of radiation a body will emit depends on its
  86. long-ranged, holds planets/stars in place, weakest of the forces
  87. unites two smaller nuclei to make a larger nucleus - generates energy
  88. Elements are identified by their
  89. Fission usually occurs as a
  90. emitted by blackbody, emits radiation only based on its temperature
  91. another unit for activity
  92. Alpha decay: Atomic Number (A) decrease by ___ for the daughter nucleus
  93. Explained that black body radiation was due to submicroscopic electric oscillators called
  94. Heavier nuclei need more ____ than ___- for stability
  95. Three types of radiation -
  96. One cannot know the position and momentum of a particle at the same time -
  97. The parent nucleus looses two protons and two neutrons
  98. found in nucleus, protons (positive) and neutrons (no charge)
  99. Strongly interacting particles - made up of mesons and baryons
  100. WHO Stated that the electrons were only allowed to be in certain orbits - electrons could jump from one orbit to the next, but could never be in between the circular orbits
  101. When a pure gas fills a tube and a potential difference is applied across the tube, the gas will give off ___
  102. Elements with unstable nuclei will decay into two small _____
  103. - amount remaining over a certain time period
  104. ____is the minimum amount of energy required to help the electron escape from the atoms of the metal (E = hfo) where fo is the threshold frequency for the metal
  105. is the frequency of the light wave
  106. white light is shone on the gas, the spectrum is a band of dark lines indicating what wavelengths of light were absorbed by the gas
  107. - starting nucleus
  108. minimum amount of nuclides needed to sustain a chain reaction