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  • Newton's First Law

    An object in motion will stay in motion and an object at rest will stay at rest unless acted on by an outside force.

    Object will do what it does unless otherwise acted on

    Newton's First Law in a brief

    Air Resistance

    Example of an "outside force" that would stop an object


    Newton's first law is directly related to this.


    An objects resistance to change its motion

    Newton's Second Law

    The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on the object and inversely proportional to the object's mass.


    Formula with Newton's second law

    1N = 1 kg * (m/s²)

    Newton is equal to.

    amount of force to accelerate 1kg of mass at 1 m/s²

    What is a Newton?

    Newton's 3rd Law

    For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

    same time, different objects, same amount of force, opposite directions

    Action/Reaction force pairs act at the _____ but on ______. They also apply the _______, but in ________.

    force of table on book

    Action/Reaction pairs: What is the Reaction pair in a physics book on a table?

    force of book on table

    Action/Reaction pairs: What is the Action pair in a physics book on a table?

    gravitational force

    When someone jumps up, this pulls them back down.

    pulling earth up

    There is a Force pulling us down and there is one doing this too.


    Which has a bigger force: Earth/Person whilst jumping?


    Which has a bigger mass: Earth/Person whilst jumping?


    Which has a bigger acceleration: Earth/Person whilst jumping?

    50 N

    A 10kg object is moving at 5 m/s². What is the net force acting on the object?

    4 m/s²

    A 2kg object experiences a net force of 8N. What is the object's acceleration?


    Units of force

    Physical Interaction

    Contact forces arise from....


    Field forces act over a....

    tension, applied, normal, friction

    Types of Contact forces

    gravitational, electromagnetic

    Types of field forces

    sum of all forces of an object

    A Net Force is a....

    0N, 0 m/s²

    An object is in equilibrium if it's net force equals this and its acceleration equals this.

    not moving, constant velocity

    If an object is doing this or traveling at a this, it is in equilibrium.


    An object is traveling at a constant 4m/s and moves left. Is it in equilibrium?

    Free Body Diagram

    shows all forces acting on an object


    The arrows in FBDs represent these and go out from an object.


    The measure of a gravitational force acting on an object.

    Fg = mg

    Weight equation

    9.81 m/s²

    The "g" in the weight equation is this on earth.


    Weight acts in this direction.

    250 N

    What is the gravitational force acting on a 5 kg object?

    Normal Force

    The Force of a surface acting on an object

    perpendicular to surface

    The direction Normal Force goes in


    the resistance that one surface or object encounters when moving over another

    applied force

    Friction opposes this.

    static and kinetic

    Two types of friction


    This friction is resistive at rest (keep something from moving)


    This friction is the resistive force on an object in motion).

    Parallel to surface, direction of motion

    Friction moves in this direction, but is opposite of this.

    Coefficients of Friction

    This is the ratio of the force of friction on an object to the normal force acting on the object.

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