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  • Wave

    a disturbance passing through a medium or space

    Medium

    substance that the wave is passing through

    Mechanical Waves

    require a medium to travel through (water and sound waves)

    Electromagnetic Waves

    do not require a medium (light and radio waves)

    Transverse Waves

    particles on the wave vibrate perpindicular to the direction that the wave is going

    Longitudinal Waves

    particals on these waves vibrate parallel to the direction that the wave is moving

    Wavelength

    the distance from a point on one wave to the identical point on the next wave

    Frequency

    number of waves passing each second, measured in hertz

    Amplitude

    maximum displacement of a wave from the rest position or the size of the wave or how large the wave is

    Reflection

    waves will bounce off barriers at an angle equal to the angle they will strike the barrier

    Law of Reflection

    "Angle of incidence= Angle of reflection"

    Refraction

    bending of a wave as it passes at an angle into another medium

    Diffraction

    bending of waves around barriers

    Damping

    dissipation of wave energy as the wave moves away from the source

    Impedance

    how easily or difficultly a wave can be launched in a medium

    Interference

    the effect of 2 waves passing each other as described by the principle of Superposition

    Principle of Superposition

    when 2 waves pass each other, the resulting wave is the vector of the 2 waves. After they meet, they continue undisturbed

    Construction Interference

    waves add as they meet

    Destructive Interference

    the waves partly or completely cancel as they pass

    Rectilinear propagation

    wave swill travel in straight lines or paths in a uniform medium

    Explain behavior of waves at different boundaries

    when a wave strikes a rigid barrier, it reflects inverted. When it strikes a non-reigid barrier, it reflects upright

    Sonic Spectrum

    complete range of the longitudinal waves

    Audio Spectrum

    part of the sonic spectrum that humans can hear frequencies between 20Hz and 20,000Hz

    Infra Sonic

    range of frequencies below 20Hz

    Ultra Sonic

    range of frequencies above 20,000 Hz. Many animals can hear thes frequencies

    Echo Location

    animals like bats send out ultrasonic frequencies and "hear" the reflection to determine if an object is near

    Loudness

    subjective perception of intensity

    Intensity

    power of the sound wave passing through an area

    Relative Intensity

    compares the intensity to the softest sound or "threshhold of hearing"

    Pitch

    subjective perception of frequency

    Doppler Effect

    change in frequency heard when the source of sound and the person recieving the sound are in relative motion

    Fundamental frequency

    harmonics are the whole number multiples of this

    Harmonics

    whole number multiples of the fundamental frequency

    Quality of Sound

    depends upon the number of harmonics produced and their intensities

    Law of Strings

    for the frequency produced by a vibrating string: the frequency is directly proportional to the tension and the frequency is inversely proportional to the string's density, diameter, and length

    Sympathetic Vibrations

    occurs when a standing sound wave is produced in a tube causing the tube to produce an amplified sound

    Beat

    2 sound waves close in frequency prducing an oscillating sound wave

    Node

    wave undergoes no displacement

    Antinode

    wave undergoes maximum displacement

    Threshold of Pain

    120 dB over a long period of time

    Threshold of Hearing

    decibel scale, can also be called relative intensity

    How is sound produced and transmitted?

    sound is produced by vibration, a vibrating object will send out a wave, the faster the object vibrates, the higher the frequency

    Compare the velocity of sound in solids, liquids, gases and space.

    sound travels fastest in solids, slower in liquids, slowest in gases and it doesn't travel at all in space

    Explain how the ear detects sound.

    sound travels down the auditory canal and strikes the eardrum. The vibrating eardrum causes 3 tiny bones on the other side of the eardrum to vibrate, they send pulses through the cochlea which is lined with cilia. The movement of cilia is detected as sound.

    Standing wave

    interference pattern produced when 2 waves of the same frequency and wavelength pass each other

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