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  • positive and negative

    Two types of charges:


    Like charges


    Opposite charges


    One noticed static charges more on _____ days because there is not moisture in the air to "connect" the charges


    move between material rather than protons


    atoms that have gain or lost electrons and therefore have a charge


    1 proton balances 1 electron and the net charge is zero


    Charges cannot be created or destroyed, they can only be


    Millikan discovered that a charged object's charge is always a multiple of a fundamental charge, e - called...


    is the charge of one electron (-1.60 x 10-19 Coulombs)

    Coulomb (C)

    SI unit for charge is the

    Electrical Conductors

    materials that allow charges to flow easily from them (most metals)

    Electrical Insulators

    materials that do not allow charge to flow through them (glass, plastic, rubber, silk)


    normally insulators, but adding specific atoms as impurities can turn them into conductors (silicon, germanium - used a lot in electronics)


    zero electrical resistance when below a certain temperature - can conduct electricity without heating up

    Charging by Contact

    rubbing two materials together - one object rubs the electrons off the other, making it positively charged


    Both insulators and conductors can be charged by


    conductor connected to the Earth by a conducting wire or copper pipe

    Charging by Induction

    A neutral conductor is brought near another charged object, then the conductor is grounded - no touching necessary


    Only ____ can become charged by induction


    shifting of charge within an atom

    shifting of charge

    The _____ within an insulator can make its surface act like a charged object


    Polarized objects still have a net charge of


    The closer two charges are, the____ the force of attraction or repulsion between them

    Coulomb's Law

    F = (kq1q2)/r2

    (k = 8.9875 x 109 Nm2/C2)

    is called Coulomb's Constant

    resultant force

    Like any other force, the vector sum of all charge forces acting on an object is called the

    Principle of Superposition

    If charges are not linear, you must find the x- and y- components and then add the x-components and y-components and use the Pythagorean Theorem to find the resultant force - Called the

    Field Force

    force between two objects that are not in contact with each other

    attractive or repulsive

    Electric forces can be either

    gravitational force

    Electric force is much stronger than

    Electric field

    area around a charge where the charge can be "felt" by another object

    test charge (+)

    is used to detect the presence of an electric field


    is the small, positive test charge


    Electric Field units are

    Direction of field

    is the direction of the force on the positive test charge

    vector (direction)

    E is a


    When the Field is positively charged, the direction is


    When the Field is negatively charged, the direction is

    stronger charge

    Lines closer together =


    variable for charge

    positive charge to negative charge

    Lines drawn from

    Electric Dipole

    two equal in strength, but opposite charges - field lines are identical and turn away from each other

    conductor - electrostatic equilibrium

    No net motion of the charges in a


    Electric field is____ inside the conductor

    the outside of the material

    Charges reside only on

    material's surface

    Electric field is perpendicular to the

    irregularly shaped objects

    Charges accumulate at points for

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