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  • positive and negative

    Two types of charges:

    repel

    Like charges

    attract

    Opposite charges

    dry

    One noticed static charges more on _____ days because there is not moisture in the air to "connect" the charges

    electrons

    move between material rather than protons

    Ions

    atoms that have gain or lost electrons and therefore have a charge

    neutral

    1 proton balances 1 electron and the net charge is zero

    transferred

    Charges cannot be created or destroyed, they can only be

    quantized

    Millikan discovered that a charged object's charge is always a multiple of a fundamental charge, e - called...

    e

    is the charge of one electron (-1.60 x 10-19 Coulombs)

    Coulomb (C)

    SI unit for charge is the

    Electrical Conductors

    materials that allow charges to flow easily from them (most metals)

    Electrical Insulators

    materials that do not allow charge to flow through them (glass, plastic, rubber, silk)

    Semiconductors

    normally insulators, but adding specific atoms as impurities can turn them into conductors (silicon, germanium - used a lot in electronics)

    Superconductors

    zero electrical resistance when below a certain temperature - can conduct electricity without heating up

    Charging by Contact

    rubbing two materials together - one object rubs the electrons off the other, making it positively charged

    contact

    Both insulators and conductors can be charged by

    Grounded

    conductor connected to the Earth by a conducting wire or copper pipe

    Charging by Induction

    A neutral conductor is brought near another charged object, then the conductor is grounded - no touching necessary

    conductors

    Only ____ can become charged by induction

    Polarization

    shifting of charge within an atom

    shifting of charge

    The _____ within an insulator can make its surface act like a charged object

    zero

    Polarized objects still have a net charge of

    greater

    The closer two charges are, the____ the force of attraction or repulsion between them

    Coulomb's Law

    F = (kq1q2)/r2

    (k = 8.9875 x 109 Nm2/C2)

    is called Coulomb's Constant

    resultant force

    Like any other force, the vector sum of all charge forces acting on an object is called the

    Principle of Superposition

    If charges are not linear, you must find the x- and y- components and then add the x-components and y-components and use the Pythagorean Theorem to find the resultant force - Called the

    Field Force

    force between two objects that are not in contact with each other

    attractive or repulsive

    Electric forces can be either

    gravitational force

    Electric force is much stronger than

    Electric field

    area around a charge where the charge can be "felt" by another object

    test charge (+)

    is used to detect the presence of an electric field

    qo

    is the small, positive test charge

    N/C

    Electric Field units are

    Direction of field

    is the direction of the force on the positive test charge

    vector (direction)

    E is a

    outward

    When the Field is positively charged, the direction is

    inward

    When the Field is negatively charged, the direction is

    stronger charge

    Lines closer together =

    q

    variable for charge

    positive charge to negative charge

    Lines drawn from

    Electric Dipole

    two equal in strength, but opposite charges - field lines are identical and turn away from each other

    conductor - electrostatic equilibrium

    No net motion of the charges in a

    zero

    Electric field is____ inside the conductor

    the outside of the material

    Charges reside only on

    material's surface

    Electric field is perpendicular to the

    irregularly shaped objects

    Charges accumulate at points for

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