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  • Scientific Method

    1. Question/ Recognize the Problem
    2. Hypothesis
    3. Predict consequences of hypothesis
    4. Conduct experiment and collect data
    5. Conclusion

    Fact

    an objective observation that cannot be contradicted; a close agreement between competent observations who make a series of observations of the same phenomenon

    Hypothesis

    an educated guess; specific, quantitative/ qualitative, includes time period

    Theory

    an explanation of why things happen that is tested, but is constantly undergoing change; a synthesis of a large body of information that encompasses well-tested and verified hypotheses; not set and can undergo change

    Accurate

    Nearness of a measurement to the accepted true value

    Precise

    how replicable a measurement is; AKA How close to the same number each measurement is

    Dimension

    a mesurable extent of some kind

    Vector

    Deals with both magnitude and direction

    Scalar

    Describing with a single nimber
    gives magnitude only
    can be both positive and negative

    Resultant

    a vector that is the sum of two or more other vectors
    - the final point in the process

    Velocity

    speed in a given direction

    Speed

    The distance an object travels per unit of time

    Mass

    the amount of matter in an object

    Weigh

    how heavy something is

    Acceleration

    an increase in speed

    Displacement

    distance and direction of an object's change in position from the starting point

    Projectile Motion

    the curved path that an object follows when thrown, launched, or otherwise projected near the surface of Earth

    Force

    A push or pull exerted on an object

    Net Force

    the combination of all forces acting on an object

    Static Friction

    friction that acts on objects that are not moving
    - resists motion

    Kinetic Friction

    the force that opposes the movement of two surfaces that are in contact and are sliding over each other

    Inertia

    the tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion
    - a law

    Mechanical Energy

    the total energy

    Gravitational Potential Energy

    Potential energy that depends on the height of an object

    Elastic Potential Energy

    energy stored by something that can stretch or compress

    Kinetic Energy

    energy of motion

    Momentum

    the product of mass and velocity
    - inertia in motion

    Impulse

    product of force and time interval during which the force acts.
    - Impulse does NOT change in a collision; impulse is the change in momentum

    Elastic Collision

    When objects collide without being permanently deformed or without generating heat
    - Energy is NOT lost; there is no damage to either object

    Inelastic Collision

    When colliding objects become entangled or coupled together, thereby generating heat or disfigurement
    - Energy is lost during the collision (usually due to heat or friction); there is a change in shape

    What are the SI units for displacement, mass, time, velocity, acceleration, force, energy, momentum, and impulse?

    displacement: meter: m
    Mass: Kilogram: Kg
    Time: Seconds: s
    velocity: meters per sec: m/s
    acceleration: meters per sec squared: m/s2
    Force: Newtons: N
    Energy: Joule: J
    Momentum: kg * m/s
    Impulse: N*s

    What is the difference between distance and displacement? Which is a scalar and which is a vector?

    Distance- the total distance traveled
    Displacement- the shortest distance from point a to pint b?

    Know how to convert to SI units (metric conversions).

    G*MKHDDCM*ū*N

    What are the 5 steps to the scientific method?

    1. Question/ Recognize the Problem
    2. Hypothesis
    3. Predict consequences of hypothesis
    4. Conduct experiment and collect data
    5. Conclusion

    Give an example of when something is accurate, but not precise?

    when you hit the target in different places

    Is a fact objective of subjective? Is it usually quantitative or qualitative?

    Fact- Objective
    - quantitative

    Can you have constant velocity and constant acceleration at the same time? Why or why not?

    No, because acceleration is change in velocity
    - only when your velocity or acceleration ir both is zero

    What are 3 ways and object can change it's velocity.

    - speed up
    -slow down
    -chance direction

    What are 2 ways an object can have positive constant acceleration? What are 2 ways an object can have negative constant acceleration?

    1. speeding up
    2. slowing down in the negative direction
    1. slowing down
    2. speeding up in positive acceloration

    Why is acceleration due to gravity always negative?

    - it is pushing down

    What is a force?

    - a push or a pull

    What is inertia? Is inertia a force?

    - it is a law, the tendency of an object to stay in it's constant state, unless another force acts on it

    When the mass is increased, what happens to inertia?

    - it increases, directly proportional

    How can an object moving and still have inertia?

    .- when moving it will stay moving

    Why does your body want to keep going forward after an accident when the can has already stopped?

    - because of inertia

    What do forces produce?

    - acceleration

    If an object is moving with a constant velocity, what is the net force acting on it?

    - 0

    Give an example of something with no net force acting on it but still moving?

    - a ball rolling acros a frozen pond

    When you increase the mass of an object but apply the same amount of force, what happens to the acceleration?

    - the acceleration goes down

    When an object moves in a circle, in which direction does the force point? What is the name of that force?

    - out, centripetal force

    Why would you not require a seat belt to remain in your seat during a loop-de-loop on a roller coaster?

    - centripital force forces you out towered the tract into your seat

    What is friction?

    - a force that acts to resist motion of object, or material of contact

    Which will have a bigger coefficient of friction, rubber on a dry concreate or rubber on wet concreate?

    - dry

    What is a free body diagram and what is it used for?

    - a drawing with all forces, to show all fouces acting on it

    What forces are shown on a free body diagram?

    - all fouces, tention, norma, applied, friction, cintripial, weight

    What type of force is air resistance?

    - friction

    The force influenced by gravity is called what?

    - weight

    What is the name of the force that results from a surface pushing back on an object?

    - normal

    What is an object's net force when it is equilibrium?

    - 0

    List Newton's three laws of motion in YOUR OWN WORDS and gives examples of each.

    1. inertia, an object that moves will keep moving, and object at rest will not move, unless another force acts on it
    - a ball rolling across a frozen pond, it dose not slow down
    2. F=ma, acceleration and mass are directly proportional to force
    3. for every action there is an equal opposite reaction

    What is the normal force of an object in free fall.

    - 0

    What is the difference between static and kinetic friction?

    - static, non moving, the object it still
    - kinetic, moving

    What is the coefficient of friction? What are it's units? Is the coefficient of static and kinetic friction always bigger between two objects? Why?

    - mu
    - no units
    - static

    Name 3 action-reaction pairs?

    -a car pushing on the earth, the earthing pushing back on it
    - two people pushing off each other on ice
    - a gun shooting out a bullet

    If a truck and a car collide together, which has a bigger force? What has the bigger acceleration?

    - same force
    - car bigger acceleration

    What is the difference between mass and weight? Which one changes with location? Which one remains the same no matter what?

    - mass is amount of matter, reamins the stame
    - weigh relative to gravity, pushing down, changes with location

    What is projectile motion?

    the curved path that an object follows when thrown, launched, or otherwise projected near the surface of Earth

    Gibe 3 examples of projectiles?

    - a man being shot out a a cannon
    - a gun shooting out into the are
    - throwing a ball in the air

    If a bullet is fired horizontally and another is dropped from the same height, which bullet will hit the ground first?

    - same time, because same vertical speed

    In the vertical direction, is a projectile moving at a constant velocity or acceleration? Why?

    - constant acceleration

    In the horizontal direction, is a projectile moving at a constant velocity or acceleration? Why?

    - constant velocity

    What is the unit of energy?

    - J Joules

    What is the difference between apparent weigh and actual weight? What does a scale tell you?

    - apparent is based on normal weigh at the moment in time and place, scale tells you
    - actual weigh is just what you weigh no matter what

    As an elevator accelerates up to the top floor?, what happens to your actual weight? What about your apparent weigh?

    - it gets bigger apparent, same actual

    As an elevator moves with a constant velocity down towards the bottom floor, what happens to your actual weight?
    What about your apparent weigh?

    - actual stays the same
    - apparent weigh gets smaller

    What is kinetic energy?

    energy in motion

    If a car is traveling 30 mph needs 100 meters to stop, how much room does it need if it going at 60 mph? How about a 90 mph?

    60- 400
    90- 1600

    What is the difference between elastic and gravitational potential energy?

    elastic- the potential to be snap back
    gravitational potential energy- has potential to fall

    Does a stretched out slinky on a table have gravitational or elastic potential energy?

    - both

    If a rock in a sling-shot has 700 J of potential energy, what type of potential energy is it? How much kinetic energy will the sling-shot have after it is fired without air resistance? With air resistance?

    - elastic
    -700 J
    - less than 700 J

    Describe the energy transformations as a pendulum swings back and forth.

    - Ug to K

    Is momentum a scalar or a vector quantity?

    - vector

    What is impulse?

    product of force and time interval during which the force acts.
    - Impulse does NOT change in a collision; impulse is the change in momentum

    Compare the momentum of a large truck moving 30 mph to the momentum of the same truck moving at 90 mph.

    - 90 mph, 3 times grater

    How are impulse and momentum related?

    - impulse is change in momentum

    How does bouncing increase the impulse?

    - it does not

    What do you bend your knees when you land?

    - to increase time, and decrease force

    When would the momentum of a system not be conserved?

    - when energy is lost, due to outside forces acting on it, work is done

    If you are in space (frictionless) and you throw an object that is less massive than you, which will move away faster, you or the object? What if the object is more massive than you? What if the object is the same mass as you?

    - the object
    - you
    - both the same

    A 5 kg cart moves with a velocity of 4 m/s to the left. What is the momentum of the cart?

    - p=-20

    Compare elastic and inelastic collisions.

    elastic- no damage or hear, bounce
    inelastic - stick together, or warping, energy losy

    Which type of collision does not have conservation of mechanical energy? What happens to that energy then?

    - inelastic
    - it is lost to heat, energy

    What type of collision takes place with the Newton's Cradle? What type of collision takes place with car crashes?

    - elastic
    -inelastic

    Explain conservation of momentum in your own words.

    - momentum stays the same though a system, same in the beginning and end, unless outside forces

    If a ball has momentum, it must also have what type of energy?

    - kinetic

    If you fell through the center of earth what happens to your speed as you approach the Earth's center? What about as you move away?

    - less acceleration, less speed
    - acceleration decreases, less speed

    What is your weight in the middle of the earth?

    - 0 N

    Will you weigh more or less in an elevator accelerating up?

    - more

    Will you weigh more or less in an elevator moving at a constant speed up?

    - the smae

    What does weight really measure?

    - amount of gravity

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