This set covers Abeka Physics Chapter 4: "The Gaseous State" (pages 49-67).

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  • nitrogen

    the most abundant gas in earth's atmosphere

    air pressure

    term for the pressure created when air molecules hit each other and any surface exposed to them

    vacuum

    term for the total absence of air or any other matter

    atmospheric pressure

    term for gravity's pull on air molecules

    True

    True or False: Air has weight.

    fluids

    Gases and liquids are both ____-- that is, they both flow.

    Archimedes' principle

    principle that states that the weight lost by an object suspended in a fluid equals the weight of the displaced fluid

    Bernoulli's principle

    principle that states that lateral pressure decreases as the rate of flow increases

    airfoil

    term for any object with surfaces designed to create lift into the air

    narrower, velocity

    According to the principle of continuity, a fluid funneled into a _____ channel gains _____.

    "horror vacui"

    the ancient scientific principle that states that a vacuum is impossible to create because nature immediately fills any empty space with the nearest matter it can find

    Aristotle

    Greek philosopher who taught "horror vacui"

    No

    Is the principle of "horror vacui" true?

    Evangelista Torricelli

    scientist credited with inventing the first barometer

    mercury barometer

    preferred instrument that measures atmospheric pressure using mercury

    Blaise Pascal

    Christian physicist and philosopher who discovered that there was a lower column of mercury in a barometer at a higher elevation

    standard atmospheric pressure

    term for the pressure that will support a mercury column exactly 460 mm tall at 0 degrees C

    1.0 atm, 760 mm Hg, 760 torr

    Give standard atmospheric pressure in atm, mm Hg, and torr, respectively.

    manometer

    pressure gauge that measures atmospheric pressure by comparing it to the pressure of a gas under investigation

    gauge pressure

    term for the difference in height between the columns of an open-ended manometer

    absolute pressure

    term for the pressure due only to a gas itself

    Add or subtract the gauge pressure from the atmospheric pressure.

    How can one find absolute pressure using the gauge pressure from a manometer?

    aneroid barometer

    instrument that measures atmospheric pressure without mercury and is widely used

    inverse proportion

    type of relationship in which on quantity increases as another decreases

    Boyles's Law

    law that states that at a constant temperature the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its pressure

    P1V1 = P2V2

    equation for Boyles's Law

    absolute zero (0 K)

    the lowest temperature at which matter can exist

    absolute temperature

    term for temperature expressed in Kelvin

    direct proportion

    type of relationship in which one quantity increases and another increases by the same factor

    Charles's Law

    law that states that at constant pressure, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature

    V1/T1 = V2/T2

    formula for Charles's Law

    P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2

    equation for the combined gas law

    Avogadro's Law

    law that states that at a given temperature and pressure, two gases of the same volume have the same number of molecules

    mole

    unit that represents approximately 6.022 x 10^23 molecules

    R

    letter that represents the universal gas constant

    0.0821 L atm/K mole

    the value of the universal gas constant (with units)

    PV = nRT

    formula for the ideal gas law

    pneumatic device

    term for any device that transports air or that is driven by air pressure

    entrained

    Fluid that is caught up and carried along by a fluid stream nearby is said to be _____.

    siphon

    term for a simple device for transferring liquid from a higher container to a lower container

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