This set covers all bold terms and important concepts in Abeka Physics Chapter 3: "The Liquid State" (pages 32-48).

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• ### hydrologic system

term for the water cycle

### surface tension

term for a liquid's resistance to increase its surface area

term for attraction between different kinds of molecules

### cohesion

term for attraction between the same kinds of molecules

### capillary tubes

tubes thin enough to show the effect of a higher final level of water

### capillarity

term for the tendency of a liquid to rise in a narrow tube

### meniscus

a curved surface of water inside a tube

### concave

Since the edges of water reach outward in a glass tube, the meniscus is ______.

### convex

Since the edges of mercury reach inward in a glass tube, the meniscus is ______.

### hydrostatics

term for the study of liquids at rest

### force

any push or pull on an object

### normal

The force exerted by a liquid on a surface is always ____, or perpendicular, to the surface.

### pressure

term for the amount of force brought to bear on a unit area

### P = F / A and P = pgh

formulas for pressure

### Fw = pvg

formula for the force of weight

### p = m/v

formula for density

### V = Ah

formula for the volume of a cylinder

### F = apgh and F = AP

formulas for force on the bottom of a container

### F = 1/2 Apgh

formula for force on the wall of a container

### P = 1/2 pgh

formula for pressure on the wall of a container

### law of liquid pressure

name for the equation P = pgh

term for the distance below the highest level of water in a connected system, represented by "h"

### Pascal's principle

principle that states that the pressure applied to any surface of a confined liquid is transmitted equally in every direction throughout the liquid

### hydraulic device

term for any device that uses a confined liquid to multiply force

### buoyant force

term for the difference between downward force and upward force on an object in a liquid

### Archimedes' principle

principle that states that the buoyant force acting on a body submerged in a liquid is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by that body

### hydrodynamics

term for the study of liquids in motion

### viscosity

term for a liquid's resistance to flow because of molecular attraction

### principle of viscosity

term for the inverse relationship between flow rate and viscosity

### poise

the units by which viscosity is measured

### cavitation

term for the production of tiny vapor bubbbles within a real liquid as it flows through a pipe

### laminar flow

term for an ideal liquid's tendency to flow in straight lines throughout the cross-sectional area

### eddy currents

term for the currents that swirl against the flow of a real liquid due to friction between the liquid and the pipe

### volume flow rate

measures the total volume of a liquid flowing past a point in one second, in m^3/s

### principle of continuity

principle that states that the volume flow rate at any two points in a pipe must be constant

### A1V1 = A2V2

formula for the principle of continutity

### lateral pressure

term for the pressure at the walls of a channel, or on any surface in contact with a moving liquid

### decreases

As lateral pressure increases, velocity squared _____.

### Bernoulli's principle

term for the inverse relationship between lateral pressure and velocity squared

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