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  • incandescence

    term for the production of visible light by a heated body

    blackbody

    term for an ideal absorber, which absorbs all the radiation that falls upon it

    radiancy

    term for the luminal energy emitted per unit time from a unit area

    Stefan-Boltzmann law

    term for the relationship betweent the radiated energy and the temperature of a blackbody

    Wien's law

    the law that states that the most strongly emitted wavelength is a function of temperature

    quanta

    the discrete amounts in which radiation is emitted, according to Planck

    quantum theory

    Max Planck's theory that radiation is emitted in discrete amounts when an electrically charged body oscillates

    photoelectric effect

    term for the ejection of electrons from a surface exposed to ultraviolet light or any other radiation

    photoelectrons

    term for the electrons ejected from a surface exposed to ultraviolet light or other radiation

    work function

    term for the amount of work that must be done to remove an electron from the outermost orbit of an outlying atom to a distance infinitely far away

    saturation potential

    term for a certain positive potential beyond which the current rises very little

    stopping potential

    term for a certain potential at which the current in a collector ceases

    threshold frequency

    term for the frequency above which photoemission occurs even if the light is extremely weak, and below which photemission never occurs

    photons

    term for the particles of which light consists

    Compton effect

    the effect that occurs when a block of graphite is placed in the path of a narrow beam of xrays, and the x-rays scatter in such a way that, at any angle of scattering, they are most intense at two wavelengths: the incident wavelength and a longer wavelength that increases as the scaterring angle increases

    de Broglie's equation

    the equation which states that the wavelength of any material particle or body is equal to Planck's constant divided by the product of mass and velocity

    matter waves

    When a property like wavelength is a factor, matter may be viewed as ___ ___.

    wave-particle duality

    the theory that matter exists simultaneously as both waves and particles, the particles moving in a manner dictated by the waves

    complementarity

    the concept that every quantum system exhibits both particle and wave properties, but the demonstration of one property limits the demonstration of the other at the same moment

    quantum numbers

    the four numbers that provide a statistical description of an electron's likelihood to be found in a given region where they will demonstrate observed characteristics

    Pauli exclusion principle

    the principle which states that no two electrons within an atom can have the same set of quantum numbers

    orbital

    term for the hollow, three-dimensional shape that shows positions of high probability for finding an electron around a nucleus

    principal

    The ____ quantum number (denoted n) indicates a specific energy level containing electrons at an average radius from the nucelus.

    subshell

    The ____ (denoted by l) indicates the possible orbitals within a given energy level.

    node

    term for the space beween two shells-- a place of low probablility for containing an electron

    magnetic

    The ____ quantum number (denoted m1) indicates the spatial orientation of an orbital.

    spin

    The ___ quantum number (denoted ms) differentiates the two electrons in the same orientation within the same orbital within the same energy level.

    line emission spectra

    term for the specific frequencies of radiation emitted by elements or compounds in gaseous form, which increase in intensity as a function of temperature

    line absorption spectrum

    term for the spectrum whose prominent lines are identical in location to the two prominent lines in the line emission spectrum of the same element

    wavelengths

    A gas emits the same ____ that is absorbs.

    model

    term for a theoretical picture of something

    Niels Bohr

    the Danish physicist who constructed a model of a hydrogen atom in order to predict the behavior of its electron

    vary continuously

    Bohr stated that the energy of a hydrogen atom's electron does not ___ ____.

    quantized

    term signifying that all the electrons within any atom are restricted to specific energy states

    higher, lower

    Bohr postulated that light is emitted by the hydrogen electron only when it moves from a ___ energy state to a ___ one.

    visible light, radiation

    Bohr proposed that light emited by the hydrogen electron during transition to a lower energy state takes the form a of a single photon with a frequency of ___ ___ or of ___ elsewhere on the spectrum.

    unpredictable

    Bohr claimed that the jumps of the hydrogen electron are esentially ____.

    ground state

    term for the lowest possible energy state of an electron

    excited state

    term for the higher energy state of an electron

    wave mechanical model

    Schrodinger's model which related an electron's energy state to a cyclical standing wave

    wave function

    According to the wave equation, ψ gives the value of the ___ ___ under a given set of conditions.

    uncertainty principle

    Heisenberg's principle which states that we know either an electron's position or momentum, but not both at the same time

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