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• ### drift velocity

term for the average velocity of an electron in the direction of current

### resistance

term for the voltage required to produce a unit of current

### ohmic

term that describes conductors whose resistance remains constant over a wide range of voltages

### nonohmic

term that desribes conductors that fail to display constant resistance over a a wide range of voltages

### length

The resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its ____.

### cross-sectional area

The resistance of a conductor is inversely proportional to its ______ ____.

### resistivity

term for the constant of proportionality in the resistance equations

### rheostat

term for an adjustable resistor that is used wherever it is desirable to have manual control of the resistance in a circuit

### conductor

term for a material that allows relatively free flow of electrons

### insulators

term for materials composed of atoms that hold tightly to their electrons and are poorly suited to conduct a current

### semiconductors

term for materials with intermediate values of resistivity

### superconductive

When a material's resistivity drops to zero, the material becomes ______.

### circuit

term for a pathway for current

### current source (battery)

term for the part of a circuit that boosts the energy of a charge before sending it out at one terminal

### conductors

term for the parts of a circuit that provide the pathway between the battery and the load

term for the part of a circuit that uses the charge's energy to do some type of work

### Conventional current

_____ ____ treats electricity as a movement of positive charge from a positively charged region to a negatively charged region.

### Ohm's law

term for the equation V = IR

### voltage

term for the potential added to a positive charge moving through a battery

### IR drop

term for the product IR, which specifies the potential drop over a pure resistance R carrying a current I

### equivalent resistance

term for a single resistance with the same effect as other resistances in combination

### series

If one resistor follows another directly so that current can follow only one pathway through both resistors, they are called ____ resistors.

### parallel

If the current follows different pathways through the resistors, they are ____ resistors.

### network

term for a circuit that contains any combination of series and parallel resistors

### internal resistance

term for resistance within a battery

### open circuit

term for a circuit which does not permit current because its resistance is essentially infinite

### open-circuit voltage

The voltage listed on a battery is sometimes referred to as its _____ ____.

### closed circuit

If R has a finite value other than zero, a circuit is described as a(n) ____ ____.

### closed-circuit voltage

term for the voltage between terminals (the difference between the voltage supplied by a battery and the quantity IR)

### short circuit

term for conducting wires with no loads and almost zero resistance

### multimeter

term for a single device that contains an ammeter, voltmeter, and ohmmeter

### galvanometer

term for a meter that measures small amounts of current

### ammeter

term for a meter that measures the current through a resistor in the circuit's branch

### voltmeter

term for a meter that measures the voltage (IR drop) across a resistor

### ohmmeter

term for a meter that measures the resistance of a resistor

### junctions

term for the points where the current diverges or converges

### principle of charge conservation

the principle that states that charge can neither be created nor destroyed

### Kirchhoff's first law

tha law that states that, at any circuit junction, the incoming current must equal the outgoing current

### Kirchhoff's second law

the law that states that the sum of all the voltages around a full circuit must equal zero

Example: