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  • drift velocity

    term for the average velocity of an electron in the direction of current

    resistance

    term for the voltage required to produce a unit of current

    ohmic

    term that describes conductors whose resistance remains constant over a wide range of voltages

    nonohmic

    term that desribes conductors that fail to display constant resistance over a a wide range of voltages

    length

    The resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its ____.

    cross-sectional area

    The resistance of a conductor is inversely proportional to its ______ ____.

    resistivity

    term for the constant of proportionality in the resistance equations

    rheostat

    term for an adjustable resistor that is used wherever it is desirable to have manual control of the resistance in a circuit

    conductor

    term for a material that allows relatively free flow of electrons

    insulators

    term for materials composed of atoms that hold tightly to their electrons and are poorly suited to conduct a current

    semiconductors

    term for materials with intermediate values of resistivity

    superconductive

    When a material's resistivity drops to zero, the material becomes ______.

    circuit

    term for a pathway for current

    current source (battery)

    term for the part of a circuit that boosts the energy of a charge before sending it out at one terminal

    conductors

    term for the parts of a circuit that provide the pathway between the battery and the load

    load

    term for the part of a circuit that uses the charge's energy to do some type of work

    Conventional current

    _____ ____ treats electricity as a movement of positive charge from a positively charged region to a negatively charged region.

    Ohm's law

    term for the equation V = IR

    voltage

    term for the potential added to a positive charge moving through a battery

    IR drop

    term for the product IR, which specifies the potential drop over a pure resistance R carrying a current I

    equivalent resistance

    term for a single resistance with the same effect as other resistances in combination

    series

    If one resistor follows another directly so that current can follow only one pathway through both resistors, they are called ____ resistors.

    parallel

    If the current follows different pathways through the resistors, they are ____ resistors.

    network

    term for a circuit that contains any combination of series and parallel resistors

    internal resistance

    term for resistance within a battery

    open circuit

    term for a circuit which does not permit current because its resistance is essentially infinite

    open-circuit voltage

    The voltage listed on a battery is sometimes referred to as its _____ ____.

    closed circuit

    If R has a finite value other than zero, a circuit is described as a(n) ____ ____.

    closed-circuit voltage

    term for the voltage between terminals (the difference between the voltage supplied by a battery and the quantity IR)

    short circuit

    term for conducting wires with no loads and almost zero resistance

    multimeter

    term for a single device that contains an ammeter, voltmeter, and ohmmeter

    galvanometer

    term for a meter that measures small amounts of current

    ammeter

    term for a meter that measures the current through a resistor in the circuit's branch

    voltmeter

    term for a meter that measures the voltage (IR drop) across a resistor

    ohmmeter

    term for a meter that measures the resistance of a resistor

    junctions

    term for the points where the current diverges or converges

    principle of charge conservation

    the principle that states that charge can neither be created nor destroyed

    Kirchhoff's first law

    tha law that states that, at any circuit junction, the incoming current must equal the outgoing current

    Kirchhoff's second law

    the law that states that the sum of all the voltages around a full circuit must equal zero

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