This set covers Abeka Physics Chapter 2: "Matter" (pages 19-31).

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  • matter

    anything that has mass and takes up space

    inertia

    matter's unique property of resisting any change in its present state of motion

    mass

    term that represents how much inertia an object has, or how much force is required to change the object's state of motion

    weight

    term that represents the amount of force the earth's gravity exerts on an object's mass

    density

    the ratio of an object's mass to its volume

    density = mass / volume

    formula for density

    specific gravity

    term for the ratio of a given sample's density to a standard density

    specific gravity = density of sample / density of standard

    formula for specific gravity

    molecule

    a chemical combination of two or more atoms

    elemental molecule

    a molecule in which all the elements are the same

    compound

    a molecule in which the atoms are of different elements

    pure substance

    a substance containing only one kind of atom or molecule

    mixture

    a physical combination of two or more elements or compounds that can be easily separated

    homogeneous mixture

    term for a mixture in which the particles of each substance are uniformly distributed

    heterogeneous mixture

    term for a mixture that settles into layers of different particles or has large clumps of molecules

    solid

    state of matter with a definite shape and volume that consists of low-energy particles packed closely together

    liquid

    state of matter that has a definite volume but not a definite shape

    gas

    state of matter with high-enery particles that will spread to fill its container

    plasma

    state of matter that is a highly ionized gas and can only exist at very high temperatures

    atom

    tiny particle that is the basic building block of all matter

    nucleus

    collection of protons and neutrons in the center of an atom

    protons

    positively charged particles in an atom that give the atom its identity as an element

    atomic number

    The number of protons in a given element is called the ____ ____.

    neutron

    the largest atomic particle that has a neutral charge

    mass number

    the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus

    isotopes

    term for atoms with the same atomic number but different mass numbers because of different numbers of neutrons

    atomic mass

    term for the general mass of an element, found by weighted average

    atomic mass unit

    unit that is one-twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom

    electrons

    negatively charged particles that move about the nucleus

    ion

    term for an atom whose charge is changed due to the loss or gain of electrons

    anion

    a negatively charged ion with more electrons than protons

    cation

    a positively charged ion with more protons than electrons

    element

    term for any substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means into a simpler substance

    periods

    name for the horizontal rows of elements on the Periodic Table

    groups

    name for the vertical rows of elements on the Periodic Table

    valence electrons

    electrons in the outermost electron layer

    E = mc^2

    formula for energy

    m = E / c^2

    formula for mass

    photons

    tiny particles of light

    mass defect

    the difference between the expected mass of a nucleus and the actual mass, caused by strong nuclear force

    subatomic particles

    term for particles that are smaller than an atom

    elementary particles

    term for particles that have no components, no building blocks, and no smaller parts

    quarks

    the smaller particles that make up protons and neutrons

    hadron

    term for any substance believed to contain quarks

    mesons

    term for hadrons that contain two quarks

    baryons

    term for hadrons that contain three quarks

    gluon

    the massless particle that binds quarks together

    leptons

    term for particles such as electrons that do not contain any quarks

    neutrino

    particle of matter that has virtually no mass and travels at the speed of light

    positron

    term for a positively charged electron

    gamma radiation

    When a photon of ____ _______ passes through a heavy material, such as lead, the photon suddenly vanishes and a pair of oppositely charged particles appear.

    pair production

    the process in which a photon of gamma radiation passes through a heavy material, such as lead; the photon suddenly vanishes; and a pair of oppositely charged particles appear

    electromagnetic radiation

    term for any type of emitted energy

    antiparticles

    term for the electron and positron that denotes the fact that they have the same characteristics, but opposite charges

    antimatter

    term for particles like the positron, the antiproton, and the antineutron

    annihilation

    occurs when a positron and electron collide and convert their combined masses into a form of energy, either a low-energy photon or gamma radiation

    orbital

    term for a region of high likelihood for finding an electron as it travels around the nucleus

    electron capture

    process in which an orbiting electron is absorbed by a proton as it travels close to the nucleus

    heavy atoms

    term for atoms with a neutron to proton ratio greater than 1:1

    radioactive decay

    the process in which the quarks of an atom's protons and neutrons shift and release energy

    alpha decay

    process in which a nucleus emits a high-energy particle of two protons and two neutrons, causing a low amount of radiation

    alpha particle

    a high-energy particle of two protons and two neutrons; a reactive helium cation

    beta decay

    process that occurs when a neutron's down quark changes into an up quark, changing the neutron into a proton and forcing the emission of a high-energy electron

    half-life

    term for the time required for half a radioactive substance's mass to decay into something else

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