This set covers Abeka Physics Chapter 2: "Matter" (pages 19-31).

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• ### matter

anything that has mass and takes up space

### inertia

matter's unique property of resisting any change in its present state of motion

### mass

term that represents how much inertia an object has, or how much force is required to change the object's state of motion

### weight

term that represents the amount of force the earth's gravity exerts on an object's mass

### density

the ratio of an object's mass to its volume

### density = mass / volume

formula for density

### specific gravity

term for the ratio of a given sample's density to a standard density

### specific gravity = density of sample / density of standard

formula for specific gravity

### molecule

a chemical combination of two or more atoms

### elemental molecule

a molecule in which all the elements are the same

### compound

a molecule in which the atoms are of different elements

### pure substance

a substance containing only one kind of atom or molecule

### mixture

a physical combination of two or more elements or compounds that can be easily separated

### homogeneous mixture

term for a mixture in which the particles of each substance are uniformly distributed

### heterogeneous mixture

term for a mixture that settles into layers of different particles or has large clumps of molecules

### solid

state of matter with a definite shape and volume that consists of low-energy particles packed closely together

### liquid

state of matter that has a definite volume but not a definite shape

### gas

state of matter with high-enery particles that will spread to fill its container

### plasma

state of matter that is a highly ionized gas and can only exist at very high temperatures

### atom

tiny particle that is the basic building block of all matter

### nucleus

collection of protons and neutrons in the center of an atom

### protons

positively charged particles in an atom that give the atom its identity as an element

### atomic number

The number of protons in a given element is called the ____ ____.

### neutron

the largest atomic particle that has a neutral charge

### mass number

the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus

### isotopes

term for atoms with the same atomic number but different mass numbers because of different numbers of neutrons

### atomic mass

term for the general mass of an element, found by weighted average

### atomic mass unit

unit that is one-twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom

### electrons

negatively charged particles that move about the nucleus

### ion

term for an atom whose charge is changed due to the loss or gain of electrons

### anion

a negatively charged ion with more electrons than protons

### cation

a positively charged ion with more protons than electrons

### element

term for any substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means into a simpler substance

### periods

name for the horizontal rows of elements on the Periodic Table

### groups

name for the vertical rows of elements on the Periodic Table

### valence electrons

electrons in the outermost electron layer

### E = mc^2

formula for energy

### m = E / c^2

formula for mass

### photons

tiny particles of light

### mass defect

the difference between the expected mass of a nucleus and the actual mass, caused by strong nuclear force

### subatomic particles

term for particles that are smaller than an atom

### elementary particles

term for particles that have no components, no building blocks, and no smaller parts

### quarks

the smaller particles that make up protons and neutrons

term for any substance believed to contain quarks

### mesons

term for hadrons that contain two quarks

### baryons

term for hadrons that contain three quarks

### gluon

the massless particle that binds quarks together

### leptons

term for particles such as electrons that do not contain any quarks

### neutrino

particle of matter that has virtually no mass and travels at the speed of light

### positron

term for a positively charged electron

When a photon of ____ _______ passes through a heavy material, such as lead, the photon suddenly vanishes and a pair of oppositely charged particles appear.

### pair production

the process in which a photon of gamma radiation passes through a heavy material, such as lead; the photon suddenly vanishes; and a pair of oppositely charged particles appear

term for any type of emitted energy

### antiparticles

term for the electron and positron that denotes the fact that they have the same characteristics, but opposite charges

### antimatter

term for particles like the positron, the antiproton, and the antineutron

### annihilation

occurs when a positron and electron collide and convert their combined masses into a form of energy, either a low-energy photon or gamma radiation

### orbital

term for a region of high likelihood for finding an electron as it travels around the nucleus

### electron capture

process in which an orbiting electron is absorbed by a proton as it travels close to the nucleus

### heavy atoms

term for atoms with a neutron to proton ratio greater than 1:1

the process in which the quarks of an atom's protons and neutrons shift and release energy

### alpha decay

process in which a nucleus emits a high-energy particle of two protons and two neutrons, causing a low amount of radiation

### alpha particle

a high-energy particle of two protons and two neutrons; a reactive helium cation

### beta decay

process that occurs when a neutron's down quark changes into an up quark, changing the neutron into a proton and forcing the emission of a high-energy electron

### half-life

term for the time required for half a radioactive substance's mass to decay into something else

Example: