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  • absorbed

    Light may strike a particle of matter and be ____ as it is transformed into vibrational or heat energy in the particle.


    Instead of being absorbed by a particle light may be ______, spreading randomly into many rays moving outward from the particle.


    If light crosses a boundary and travels through a new medium, the light is _____.


    If light reaches a boundary between mediums and returns to the medium it was previously passing through, the light is ____.


    term for the ratio of the reflected light to the total light falling on a surface


    Reflectance is highest for ____ surfaces.

    black, transparent

    Reflectance is lowest for ____ or _____ surfaces.

    specular reflection and diffuse reflection

    two kinds of reflection

    specular reflection (regular reflection)

    term for reflection that produces images like those you see in a mirror

    diffuse reflection

    term for reflection that is caused by unevenness in the reflecting surface and produces no clear images


    term for a line drawn perpendicular to the surface at the point where the light impinges on the surface

    first law of reflection

    law which states that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection

    second law of reflection

    law which states that the incident ray, the normal to the surface, and the reflected ray lie in the same plane

    plane mirror

    term for a mirror with a flat reflecting surface

    upright, enlarged, reduced, depth

    Three characteristics of a reflected image in a plane mirror:
    1.) It is ____.
    2.) It is neither _____ nor _____.
    3.) It has _____.

    virtual image

    term for an image through which no light can pass

    real image

    term for an image formed by light actually passing through a point, such as an image projected on a screen

    spherical mirrors

    term for curved mirrors forming a portion of a spherical surface


    A spherical mirror is ____ if the reflecting side is on the inside of the spherical surface.


    A spherical mirror is ____ if the reflecting side is on the outside of the spherical surface.


    term for the center of the mirror surface

    center of curvature

    term for the center of the sphere that contains the mirror surface

    principal axis

    term for the line that joins the vertex and the center of curvature

    secondary axis

    term for any line through C other than the principal axis, such as CD

    radius of curvature

    term for the length of any radius in a mirror surface


    term for the measure of the size of a mirror

    point source

    term for any object providing the light being reflected by a mirror

    focal point

    term for the point at which a screen properly situated would show an image of the light source

    focal length

    term for the distance between the focal point and vertex

    focal plane

    term for the focus of any bundle of parallel rays arriving at a small angle with the principal axis

    ray diagram

    While a beam of light is made up of an infinite number of light rays, the image can be located in a ___ ____.

    principal rays

    term for the ray diagram that is easiest to draw

    central ray

    term for the ray that follows a secondary axis through the center of curvature

    parallel ray

    term for a ray that follows a path parallel to the principal axis

    focal ray

    term for a ray that travels through a focal point to the mirror and reflects parallel to the principal axis

    point image

    term for the bright spot at the focal point

    spherical aberration

    term for the imperfect distinctness of the image formed by any spherical mirror, whether concave or convex

    parabolic mirror

    term for a mirror whose reflecting surface has the shape of a parabola

    parabolic mirror

    type of mirror that is used in radar receivers, satellite dishes, and reflecting telescopes

    mirror equation

    the equation that is generally used to determine where the image of a given object will be formed

    lateral magnification

    term for M, which tells whether an image is enlarged or reduced in relation to an object

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