This set covers A Beka Book Physics Chapter 15: "The Laws of Thermodynamics" (pages 222-235).

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  • system

    term for any body or collection of bodies that can exchange energy with the surroundings

    surroundings

    term for anything outside a system

    False

    True or False: A system is required to exchange energy.

    open system

    term for a system that can exchange both mass and energy

    isolated system

    term for a closed system where not only can no mass cross the boundary, but also no energy can cross the boundary between the system and its surroundings

    positive

    Energy entering a system is _____ (positive, negative).

    negative

    Energy leaving a system is _____ (positive, negative).

    heat

    term for the energy that passses from one body to another

    work

    term for energy transfer caused by a force operating over a distance

    equilibrium

    If no energy tranfer (either in the form of heat or work) is ocurring among them, a system of bodies is at _____.

    internal energy

    term for the total molecular energy content of a physical system

    thermal energy

    term for the kinetic energy of particles as they vibrate or rush about

    False

    True or False: Work produces heat.

    4.184

    I calorie = ____ Joules

    mechanical equivalent of heat

    term for the amount of work equal to a unit of heat

    thermodynamics

    term for the study of the relationship between heat and work

    energy, heat, work

    According the the first law of thermodynamics, the change in internal _____ of a system equals the ___ added the the system minus the ____ that the system does on the surroundings.

    closed

    Apart from Q and W, a system for the first law of thermodynamics is assumed to be ____.

    adiabatic

    If no heat enters or leaves a system while its internal energy is changing, the process is _____.

    isothermal

    When the temperature of a gas is unchanged by compression, the compression is said to be ______.

    irreversible process

    term for a process that cannot be reversed after equilibrium is established to restore each quantity to its original value

    reversible process

    term for a process that can be reversed to regain the original quantities

    PV = nRT

    the ideal gas law

    entropy

    According to the second law of thermodynamics, in an isolated system, the direction of spontaneous change is always toward greater ____.

    entropy

    term for a measure of disorder

    disorder (entropy), energy

    A system always tends towards greater ____ and lower ____.

    thermal equilibrium

    term for the point at which two objects have the same thermal energy and no heat is transferred between them

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