This set covers A Beka Book Physics Chapter 15: "The Laws of Thermodynamics" (pages 222-235).

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• ### system

term for any body or collection of bodies that can exchange energy with the surroundings

### surroundings

term for anything outside a system

### False

True or False: A system is required to exchange energy.

### open system

term for a system that can exchange both mass and energy

### isolated system

term for a closed system where not only can no mass cross the boundary, but also no energy can cross the boundary between the system and its surroundings

### positive

Energy entering a system is _____ (positive, negative).

### negative

Energy leaving a system is _____ (positive, negative).

### heat

term for the energy that passses from one body to another

### work

term for energy transfer caused by a force operating over a distance

### equilibrium

If no energy tranfer (either in the form of heat or work) is ocurring among them, a system of bodies is at _____.

### internal energy

term for the total molecular energy content of a physical system

### thermal energy

term for the kinetic energy of particles as they vibrate or rush about

### False

True or False: Work produces heat.

### 4.184

I calorie = ____ Joules

### mechanical equivalent of heat

term for the amount of work equal to a unit of heat

### thermodynamics

term for the study of the relationship between heat and work

### energy, heat, work

According the the first law of thermodynamics, the change in internal _____ of a system equals the ___ added the the system minus the ____ that the system does on the surroundings.

### closed

Apart from Q and W, a system for the first law of thermodynamics is assumed to be ____.

If no heat enters or leaves a system while its internal energy is changing, the process is _____.

### isothermal

When the temperature of a gas is unchanged by compression, the compression is said to be ______.

### irreversible process

term for a process that cannot be reversed after equilibrium is established to restore each quantity to its original value

### reversible process

term for a process that can be reversed to regain the original quantities

### PV = nRT

the ideal gas law

### entropy

According to the second law of thermodynamics, in an isolated system, the direction of spontaneous change is always toward greater ____.

### entropy

term for a measure of disorder

### disorder (entropy), energy

A system always tends towards greater ____ and lower ____.

### thermal equilibrium

term for the point at which two objects have the same thermal energy and no heat is transferred between them

Example: