This set covers A Beka Book Physics Chapter 14: "Heat" (pages 206-221).

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• ### internal energy

term for the measure of an object's molecular kinetic energy and molecular potential energy

### heat

term for the transfer of internal energy from one object to another

### True

True or False: Heat always moves from a hotter object to a cooler object.

### thermometers

term for instruments that measure temperature

### thermometry

term for the process of measuring temperature

### thermal equilibrium

term for the state in which who objects are the same temperature

### triple point

term for the temperature at which the three phases of water achieve equilibrium

### 4.58 mm Hg and 0 degrees C

pressure and temperature of the triple point of water

### Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit

German physicist who invented the mercury thermometer in 1714

### Celsius scale

the standard termperature scale employed for scientific purposes

### 1/273

When the temperature of a gas rises one degree Celsius, the gas expands by about ___ of its volume at 0 degrees Celsius.

### absolute zero

term for the lowest obtainable temperature at which all gases should vanish

### -273.15

absolute zero in degrees Celsius

### absolute scale

The Kelvin scale of temperature is called a(n) ____ ____ because its lowest possible temperature has the value of 0 K.

### 0 degrees

the ice point on the Celsius scale

### 273.15

the ice point on the Kelvin scale

### Sir William Thomson (Lord Kelvin)

great nineteenth century physicist who devised the Kelvin scale of temperature

### expands

When its temperature rises, a solid ____ in every direction.

### linear expansion

term for the expansion along any line through a solid

### α

letter that represents the coefficient of linear expansion

### True

True or False: Heat causes greater expansion of liquids than of solids.

### calorie

a common unit of heat

### joule

the metric unit of heat

### 4.184

One calorie equals ___ Joule(s).

### one

In general, it takes about __ calorie(s) to raise a gram of water one degree Celsius.

### heat capacity

term for the heat required to raise a body's temperature by one degree

### specific heat

term for the heat required to raise the temperature of a unit mass by one degree

### -Q lost = Q gained

equation for the law of heat exchange

### melting

term for a solid changing into a liquid

### endothermic

Since a solid will not actually enter the liquid phase unless heat is supplied by an external source at the melting point, melting is a(n) _____ process.

### heat of fusion

term for the heat that must be absorbed per gram to melt a solid

### freezing

term for a liquid changing into a solid

### exothermic

Because heat is released spontaneously by a freezing liquid, freezing is a(n) _____ process.

### vaporization

term for a liquid changing into a gas

### heat of vaporization

term for the amount of energy a liquid absorbs at its boiling point to change into a gas

### condensation

term for a gas changing into a liquid (the opposite of vaporization)

### calorimeter

term for an insulated container in which scientists mix two substances

### calorimetry

term for the use of a calorimeter to meaure the equilibrium temperature of a mixture

### heat conduction

term for the transfer of heat energy from one part of a body to another

### thermal conductor

term for a material that conducts heat efficiently

### thermal insulator

term for a material that does not conduct heat efficiently

### heat flow

term for the amount of heat transferred from one end of a segment to the other per unit time

### thermal conductivity

term for the constant of proportionality, k

### conduction

the method of heat transfer in which agitated motion is transmitted between molecules in contact with each other

### convection

the method of heat tranfer in which heat is carried by moving material

the method of heat transfer in which a body at high temperature emits radiation that falls upon another body

the three methods of heat tranfer

Example: