This set covers A Beka Book Physics: The Foundational Science, Chapter 12: "Energy and Momentum."

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• ### energy

term for the capacity to do work

### kinetic energy

term for energy of motion

### isolated, uniform

The kinetic energy equation assumes that the object is ____ and has undergone _____ acceleration from rest.

### KE= 1/2mv^2

the kinetic energy equation

### work-energy theorem

term for the equation describing the relationship between work and energy

### Negative

_______ work is done when a force is applied in the direction opposite to motion.

### Positive

_______ work is done when a force is applied in the direction of motion.

### positive, stop

Kinetic energy is equal to the _____ work that one object can do on another while coming to a ____.

### negative, stopped

Kinetic energy is equal in magnitude to the _____ work required for one object to be _____ by another.

### potential energy

term for the energy an object acquires when it is exposed to a force

### gravitational

An object in the vicinity of the earth has ______ potential energy as a result of being under the influence of gravity.

### PE

abbreviation for potential energy

### kinetic, potential

As a ball is thrown up into the air, its ____ energy is converted to ____ energy.

### elastic force

term for an internal restorative force

### F=-kx

equation for Hooke's law

### conservative force

term for a force that undergoes the same energy change regardless of its path

### gravitational force and elastic force

two examples of a conservative force

### potential energy

For any object under the influence of a conservative force, _____ ____ is easily defined.

### nonconservative force

term for a force whose energy change varies according to the length of its path

### friction

an example of a nonconservative force

### constant

In a system where the motions of individual bodies are governed solely by a conservative force, the total kinetic and potential energy of the system is _____.

### dissipative force

term for a force that causes an interacting system to lose energy in the form of heat which is absorbed by the environment

### friction

an example of a dissipative force

### locations, path

The work done in moving an object restrained by a conservative force depends only on the initial and final _______ of the object; the work does not depend on the ____ taken.

### mechanical energy

term for energy due to movement and position

### law of conservation of mechanical energy

law that states that the total mechanical energy of a system is constant

### True

True or False: Energy is conserved even where a nonconservative force like friction is operating.

### law of conservation of energy

law that says that energy can be transformed from one kind to another but cannot be created or destroyed

### False

True or False: There are a few known exceptions to the law of conservation of energy.

### momentum

term for the product of an object's mass and velocity

### momentum

Newton's second law says that force is equal to the time rate of change in _____.

### masses

If two objects are to be accelerated to the same velocity in the same time, the required force depends on their ____.

### inertia

Newton's first law states that any material object has ____.

### False

True or False: Inertia conserves velocity in a system of objects.

### law of conservation of momentum

law which states that when the net force acting on a system is zero, the momentum of the whole system remains constant

### remains constant

When the net force acting on a system is zero, the momentum of the whole system _____ _____.

### vector

Is momentum a vector quantity or a scalar quantity?

### law of conservation of momentum

law that can predict the exact outcome of a collision

### elastic collision

term for a collision in which energy of motion may be transferred from one object to another, but remains energy of motion

### True

True or False: Most collisions are inelastic.

### impulse

term for a vector in the same direction as the applied force; found by multiplying force by time

### velocity change

The longer a constant force is applied to an object of constant mass, the greater the ____ ____.

Example: