This set covers A Beka Book Physics: The Foundational Science, Chapter 12: "Energy and Momentum."

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  • energy

    term for the capacity to do work

    kinetic energy

    term for energy of motion

    isolated, uniform

    The kinetic energy equation assumes that the object is ____ and has undergone _____ acceleration from rest.

    KE= 1/2mv^2

    the kinetic energy equation

    work-energy theorem

    term for the equation describing the relationship between work and energy

    Negative

    _______ work is done when a force is applied in the direction opposite to motion.

    Positive

    _______ work is done when a force is applied in the direction of motion.

    positive, stop

    Kinetic energy is equal to the _____ work that one object can do on another while coming to a ____.

    negative, stopped

    Kinetic energy is equal in magnitude to the _____ work required for one object to be _____ by another.

    potential energy

    term for the energy an object acquires when it is exposed to a force

    gravitational

    An object in the vicinity of the earth has ______ potential energy as a result of being under the influence of gravity.

    PE

    abbreviation for potential energy

    kinetic, potential

    As a ball is thrown up into the air, its ____ energy is converted to ____ energy.

    elastic force

    term for an internal restorative force

    F=-kx

    equation for Hooke's law

    conservative force

    term for a force that undergoes the same energy change regardless of its path

    gravitational force and elastic force

    two examples of a conservative force

    potential energy

    For any object under the influence of a conservative force, _____ ____ is easily defined.

    nonconservative force

    term for a force whose energy change varies according to the length of its path

    friction

    an example of a nonconservative force

    constant

    In a system where the motions of individual bodies are governed solely by a conservative force, the total kinetic and potential energy of the system is _____.

    dissipative force

    term for a force that causes an interacting system to lose energy in the form of heat which is absorbed by the environment

    friction

    an example of a dissipative force

    locations, path

    The work done in moving an object restrained by a conservative force depends only on the initial and final _______ of the object; the work does not depend on the ____ taken.

    mechanical energy

    term for energy due to movement and position

    law of conservation of mechanical energy

    law that states that the total mechanical energy of a system is constant

    True

    True or False: Energy is conserved even where a nonconservative force like friction is operating.

    law of conservation of energy

    law that says that energy can be transformed from one kind to another but cannot be created or destroyed

    False

    True or False: There are a few known exceptions to the law of conservation of energy.

    momentum

    term for the product of an object's mass and velocity

    momentum

    Newton's second law says that force is equal to the time rate of change in _____.

    masses

    If two objects are to be accelerated to the same velocity in the same time, the required force depends on their ____.

    opposite

    A negative sign indicates that the force is ____ to motion.

    inertia

    Newton's first law states that any material object has ____.

    False

    True or False: Inertia conserves velocity in a system of objects.

    law of conservation of momentum

    law which states that when the net force acting on a system is zero, the momentum of the whole system remains constant

    remains constant

    When the net force acting on a system is zero, the momentum of the whole system _____ _____.

    vector

    Is momentum a vector quantity or a scalar quantity?

    law of conservation of momentum

    law that can predict the exact outcome of a collision

    elastic collision

    term for a collision in which energy of motion may be transferred from one object to another, but remains energy of motion

    True

    True or False: Most collisions are inelastic.

    impulse

    term for a vector in the same direction as the applied force; found by multiplying force by time

    velocity change

    The longer a constant force is applied to an object of constant mass, the greater the ____ ____.

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