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  • use strict;

    stops code when a problem is encountered. Intended to stop endless loops which could cause computer to malfunction.

    use warnings;

    gives a warning that a problem exists


    prints a variable, string, etc


    allows for comments that are not executed

    " " or ' '

    "" can be used to make system check for scalers, arrays, etc in string for printings; '' can be used to print literal strings


    makes a new line


    concatenates two objects


    a single value (string, int, or float). Set them up as: my $variable = x


    default variable, can be used for inputs (parameters) when in array form ex: my$original = $_[];


    a list of values (strings, ints, floats). Set them up as: my @array = (0,1,2,3). Since arrays are indexed, to call an element, set it up as: print $array[1]; to get the first element (0)


    a key/value pair. set them ups as: my %fruit_color = (
    apple => "red",
    banana => "yellow",
    call an element by writing:
    $fruit_color{"apple"}; #to receive "red"

    return statement

    breaks a function and returns the indicated value


    when a function repeats a block of code until a condition is met ex. for loops, while loops, foreach loops (iterate upon a set of values)


    repetitive process (like iteration) where a function is created that calls itself until it terminates


    puts string into lowercase


    puts string into uppercase


    finds the length of a string

    type casting

    can turn string into int or int into string: str 5; int "10.0";


    consumes a string and a substring and returns the location of the substring within the string (if it is in the string). Alternatively, it returns a negative 1


    takes a string separated by a predictable separator (ex. a comma) and returns individual pieces of the string that are separated by the specified seperator

    my $data = 'Becky Alcorn,25,female,Melbourne';

    my @values = split(',', $data);

    to split everything in the string

    my @string_as_array = split( ' ', $mystring );

    constructor methods

    methods that set up the object using specific parameters --> define/instantiate an object

    e.x. turtle (Jim, Twelve, Red) would return a red twelve year old turtle named jim

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