NAME

Question types


Start with


Question limit

of 972 available terms

Print test

972 True/False questions

  1. ACRSee Advanced Communications Riser.

          

  2. netbookA non-routable network protocol suite for use only in small networks. (13)

          

  3. subkeySee customer premises equipment.

          

  4. subscriber connector (SC)A square snap coupling for fiber-optic cable, about 2.5 mm wide, used for cable-to-cable connections or to connect cables to network devices. It latches with a push-pull action similar to audio and video jacks. (13)

          

  5. Infrared (IR)Light waves in the infrared spectrum. (6)

          

  6. NetBEUIA dedicated computer that stores data and provides print services or other capabilities to network clients. (13)

          

  7. Type IA card that fits into the PC Card interface, including both PC Card and CardBus cards. This type measures 85.6 millimeters long by 54 millimeters wide and 3.3 millimeters thick. (6)

          

  8. heat sink compoundThe connecting point of a mounted drive to a folder on an NTFS volume. (10)

          

  9. EPROMErasable programmable read-only memory. A ROM chip that is erasable and reprogrammable through the use of specialized software. (2)

          

  10. radio frequency (RF)A specialized type of memory used only with video adapters. (2)

          

  11. APIPASee Automatic Private IP Address.

          

  12. notification areaSee systray.

          

  13. ECPSee enhanced capabilities port (ECP) mode.

          

  14. graphics tabletSee digitizing tablet.

          

  15. multi-monitorThe use of more than one monitor on a single computer. (3)

          

  16. InterNational Committee on Information Technology Standards (INCITS)A standards organization, of which the T10 SCSI committee maintains the SCSI standard. (4)

          

  17. RS-232 portA power supply and motherboard feature that allows software to turn off a computer rather than only using a physical switch. (3)

          

  18. registerMemory locations within a CPU that is used as a scratch pad for calculations. Modern CPUs have dedicated registers for specific functions and general-purpose registers for multiple purposes. (1)

          

  19. multimode fiber (MMF)Fiber-optic cable in which multiple light waves can pass simultaneously. Usually larger in diameter than single-mode fiber; and each wave uses a certain portion of the fiber cable for transmission. (13)

          

  20. CD-RW (CD-rewritable)A drive that can write either to CD-R discs or to specially designed CD-RW discs. In the case of the CD-RW discs, the drive can write more than once to the same portion of disc, overwriting old data. (1)

          

  21. PCI-EA command-line tool installed with the TCP/IP protocol suite that is used for testing communications between two hosts. (15)

          

  22. nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteriesIn an IP packet, a value field that shows how many routers the packet can cross before being discarded. (15)

          

  23. User Account Control (UAC)A security feature introduced in Windows Vista to prevent unauthorized changes to Windows. (8)

          

  24. RIPSee double-data rate (DDR) SDRAM.

          

  25. authorizationThe process that authenticates a user and verifies the user account's level of access to a resource. (16)

          

  26. track pointThe generic term for a pointing stick. (6)

          

  27. Serial Attached SCSI (SAS)A Windows command prompt utility that uses the WFP (Windows 2000 and Windows XP) or WRP (Windows Vista and Windows 7) service to scan and verify the versions of all protected system files after you restart your computer. (11)

          

  28. vertical positionAn LCD display setting that adjusts the viewable area of the display vertically. (3)

          

  29. Distributed File System (DFS)An area on the top left of the Windows XP Start menu containing shortcuts to Windows Update and programs for browsing the Internet and using e-mail. (8)

          

  30. single-sided (SS) DVDA special-purpose computer designed for a certain task and installed within a device. (2)

          

  31. status light indicatorOne or more lights (usually LEDs) on a device that indicate the device's operational status through the color of the light, by blinking or remaining steady or both. (5)

          

  32. random access memory (RAM)A type of solid-state storage that is commonly used in a variety of devices, such as digital cameras, which often use CompactFlash. (2)

          

  33. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)A protocol that transfers e-mail messages between mail servers. Clients also use this protocol to send e-mail to mail servers. (13)

          

  34. Mini PCIA standard used in laptops that is based on PCI. The biggest difference is that Mini PCI is much smaller than PCI—both the card and the slot. Mini PCI has a 32-bit data bus. (6)

          

  35. VoIPSee Voice over IP (VoIP).

          

  36. processorSee power-on self-test.

          

  37. digital video interface (DVI)In computer networking, a network located between a private network and the Internet with a firewall on both sides. A DMZ contains servers offering services to users on the Internet and inside the protected private network. (16)

          

  38. base priority levelIn a Wi-Fi network, the networking mode that allows peer-to-peer communications without the use of a centralized wireless hub, called a wireless access point (WAP). (14)

          

  39. MACSee direct current.

          

  40. moboSee Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.

          

  41. ultra-portableSee double-data rate (DDR) SDRAM.

          

  42. embedded systemsA special-purpose computer designed for a certain task and installed within a device. (2)

          

  43. writingIn the laser printing process, the step in which the laser beam creates a negative of the image that will eventually appear on the printout. Each place that the laser beam touches loses most of its charge, creating an image, whereas the rest of the drum remains highly negatively charged. (12)

          

  44. plain-old telephone service (POTS)The traditional wired telephone network. (13)

          

  45. cache controllerA CPU component that manages the CPU cache. (1)

          

  46. ATA Packet Interface (ATAPI)The protocol for connecting optical drives and tape drives to an ATA channel. (1)

          

  47. grounding matSee antistatic mat.

          

  48. fusingIn the laser printing process, the step at which the heat-sensitive toner is fused to the paper by heated fusing rollers. (12)

          

  49. component videoA video signaling method in which analog video information is transmitted as two or more discrete signals. Two general types of component video are RGB Video and S-Video. (3)

          

  50. synchronous dynamic RAMSee microcode.

          

  51. secure socket layer (SSL)A data encryption technology used for securing data transmitted over the Internet. (13)

          

  52. serial ATA (SATA)A drive interface for EIDE drives that transfers data serially at speeds between 150 MBps and 300 MBps and 6 Gbps, depending on the version of the standard. (1)

          

  53. Bubble JetA popular inkjet printer developed by Canon. (12)

          

  54. graywareA multi-GPU solution developed by ATI. (3)

          

  55. passwordSee Advanced Communications Riser.

          

  56. spywareSee Secure Digital (SD) Card.

          

  57. volumeThe term used for dynamic space allocation that can be formatted with a file system. (10)

          

  58. media baySee musical instrument digital interface.

          

  59. primary corona wireA multi-GPU solution developed by ATI. (3)

          

  60. DVD+RWDigital versatile disc (DVD) discs that can be rewritten to, and data can also be overwritten. This standard is newer than DVD-RW. This term also refers to the drives that can write to these discs. (2)

          

  61. Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA)A type of switched network used by phone companies. (13)

          

  62. material safety data sheet (MSDS)Fiber-optic cable that allows only a single light wave to pass down the cable. (13)

          

  63. parityShowing consideration for others. (18)

          

  64. card servicesA service on a laptop that configures a card after socket services has recognized it. (6)

          

  65. Compact Disc File System (CDFS)A file system used by operating systems for organizing, reading, and writing optical discs. (10)

          

  66. power managementA group of features in the system BIOS, the chipset, the operating system, device drivers, and the individual components that enable efficient use of power in a computer. (6)

          

  67. PPTPSee Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol.

          

  68. analog modemA modulator/demodulator device that allows computers to communicate with one another over existing phone lines. (2)

          

  69. memory controller chip (MCC)The portion of the chipset that controls communications between the CPU and system RAM. (1)

          

  70. LVDSA file operation in which the file or folder remains in the source location, and a duplicate is created in the target (destination) location. (10)

          

  71. S/PDIFSee Spam over Instant Messaging.

          

  72. VCSee double-data rate (DDR) SDRAM.

          

  73. direct memory access (DMA) channelA system resource that certain devices, such as sound cards and hard drives, can use to move data between the device and system RAM without involving the processor. (5)

          

  74. firewallSee Static RAM.

          

  75. slave driveThe role of the second EIDE drive on a PATA channel. (4)

          

  76. capture cardA category of adapter card that accepts and records video signals to a PC's hard drive. A TV tuner card is a type of capture card. (2)

          

  77. coaxial cableA category of adapter card that accepts and records video signals to a PC's hard drive. A TV tuner card is a type of capture card. (2)

          

  78. laser beamBIOS that can be electronically upgraded. (1)

          

  79. Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS)A service that manages Microsoft NetBIOS names for a Windows network. This service is becoming obsolete, as Windows has moved to DNS for naming and name service. (13)

          

  80. Audit PolicyIn Windows, one or more settings found in the Local Security Settings console. (16)

          

  81. ACESee access control entry.

          

  82. degaussingThe process of using an oscillating magnetic field to reduce and randomize the magnetic field that builds up on the shadow mask of a CRT monitor. (3)

          

  83. asymmetrical digital subscriber line (ADSL)A security feature of many Windows versions that allows it to encrypt files on an NTFS volume. (16)

          

  84. External Serial ATA (eSATA)An extension of the SATA standard for external SATA devices, with speeds triple that of USB 2.0. (1)

          

  85. Enable Boot LoggingSpecialized hardware used to create and manage a RAID array. (2)

          

  86. Device ManagerA Windows GUI utility that allows an administrator to view the status of devices and install, remove, and update device drivers. (8)

          

  87. parallel portThreats that are not truly malicious code, but can have indirect negative effects, such as decreasing performance or using up bandwidth. Grayware includes spyware, adware, spam, and spim. (16)

          

  88. Directory Services Restore ModeThe wireless nodes (including the WAP) communicating together in infrastructure mode. (14)

          

  89. parts grabberA server that manages DNS names. (13)

          

  90. file allocation table (FAT)The file system component in the FAT file system in which the OS creates a table that serves as a map of where files reside on disk. Also called the FAT table. (10)

          

  91. fast page mode (FPM)An early technology for increasing the performance of DRAM. (2)

          

  92. extended partitionA drive that is mapped to an empty folder on an NTFS volume and is assigned a drive path rather than drive letters. (10)

          

  93. analog LCD displayA power supply form factor that pairs with an ATX motherboard and case. (3)

          

  94. RAID 1The use of deceit and trickery to persuade someone to hand over money or valuables. (16)

          

  95. frame relayA compartment in a portable computer's case that holds a single media device that can be swapped with another. For instance, you may swap an optical drive, a secondary hard drive, or a floppy drive into and out of a single bay. (6)

          

  96. USBIn a computer, pathways that power, data, and control signals travel from one component to another within the system. (2)

          

  97. Wi-FiSee Wireless Fidelity.

          

  98. LANSee local area network.

          

  99. attended installationAn installation of Windows that is not automated, where the user is required to pay attention throughout the entire process to provide information and to respond to messages. Also called a manual installation. (9)

          

  100. DVD-5A 9-pin D-shell connector. (3)

          

  101. auto-switching power supplyAn LCD technology based on thin-film transistor (TFT) technology. An active matrix display has a transistor at every pixel, which enables much quicker display changes than passive matrix displays and produces a display quality comparable to a CRT. (3)

          

  102. bar code readerA specialized type of scanner that reads bar codes, which are patterns of bars of varying widths printed on labels or directly on items. The bar pattern is converted into a numeric code that is transmitted to a computer as data. (3)

          

  103. Type IIA card that fits into the PC Card interface, including both PC Card and CardBus cards. This type measures 85.6 millimeters long by 54 millimeters wide and 5.0 millimeters thick. (6)

          

  104. original equipment manufacturer (OEM)In regard to Windows operating systems, a version of Windows that is designed to work with a certain manufacturer's equipment. (9)

          

  105. serverThe Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, an international nonprofit organization that sets standards as part of its charter. (3)

          

  106. RAID 0A RAID array in which every time data is written to disk, a portion (block) is written to each disk in turn, creating a "stripe" of data across the member disks. RAID 0 uses the total disk space in the array for storage, without protecting the data from drive failure. (2)

          

  107. network operating system (NOS)The wireless nodes (including the WAP) communicating together in infrastructure mode. (14)

          

  108. StandbySee Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).

          

  109. power stateSoftware installed on a computer without permission that collects information about a user in order to display targeted advertisements, in the form of either inline banners or pop-ups. Inline banners are advertisements that run within the context of the current page, taking up screen real estate. (16)

          

  110. IEEE 1284A parallel interface standard that supports bidirectional communication and transfer rates of up to 2 MBps. (3)

          

  111. port replicatorA device, usually resembling a power strip, that protects equipment from power surges. (5)

          

  112. BDD WorkbenchIn reference to a memory module, how much information the processor can access from or write to memory in a single cycle. (2)

          

  113. DIP switchSee power-on self-test.

          

  114. activationThe process of informing the software manufacturer who the official owner or user of the product is, and providing contact information such as name, address, company, phone number, e-mail address, and so on, about them. Registration is usually a voluntary action. (9)

          

  115. WWWSee Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA).

          

  116. Balanced Technology eXtendedA CPU component that manages the CPU cache. (1)

          

  117. RIMMSee point-to-point protocol.

          

  118. dial-upThe use of deceit and trickery to persuade someone to hand over money or valuables. (16)

          

  119. local remote KVM switchThe traditional transmission system for television video signals, which combines the color and brightness information with the synchronization data into one signal. The TV circuitry then separates the two signals from the composite signal. (3)

          

  120. PCIe Mini CardThe successor to the Mini PCI. It has a 64-bit data bus and is half the size of a Mini PCI Card. (6)

          

  121. ROMSee read-only memory.

          

  122. LEDLight emitting diode, a tiny bulb light found on many devices, often used to indicate operational status. (5)

          

  123. IMAPSee Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP).

          

  124. real-time clock (RTC)A chip that keeps track of the date and time on a PC. Set the date and time through your operating system or in the BIOS Setup program. (4)

          

  125. multi-GPU solutionThe use of two or more video adapters (hence the term "GPU") to drive a single display for the purpose of increasing performance. (3)

          

  126. biometric logonThe use of a biometric for authentication. (16)

          

  127. CPU fanSee central processing unit.

          

  128. XGAA video mode with a maximum graphics resolution of 1024 × 768. (3)

          

  129. Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA)The worldwide network that carries traditional voice traffic. (13)

          

  130. Global System for Mobile communications (GSM)The cellular network standards used by AT&T and T-Mobile. (13)

          

  131. spimSee zero insertion force (ZIF) socket.

          

  132. Advanced Micro Devices (AMD)A part of the NTFS file system used to store a transaction-based database, with all file accesses treated as transactions, and if a transaction is not complete, NTFS will roll back to the last successful transaction.

          

  133. volatileSee video RAM.

          

  134. DVISee digital video interface.

          

  135. System Information (MSINFO32.EXE)This GUI utility will display a system summary of the hardware, operating system, and other software. (11)

          

  136. T1A level of service offered by the telephone companies over a T-carrier circuit that provides full-duplex transmissions at 1.544 Mbps, carrying digital voice, data, or video signals. (13)

          

  137. MicroDIMMSee single inline memory module.

          

  138. DXDIAGWindows run-line utility for testing the DirectX support. Launch this program when experiencing video problems and/or audio problems when running DirectX applications. (11)

          

  139. laser printerA type of solid-state storage that is portable, about the size of a flattened thumb, and usually has a USB interface. Also called a flash drive or jump drive. (2)

          

  140. AMRUnsolicited e-mail. (16)

          

  141. microcodeOne of many low-level instructions built into the control unit of a CPU. Also called a microprogram. (1)

          

  142. PCI ExpressSee PCIe.

          

  143. arithmetic logic unit (ALU)A strap designed to discharge static electricity from your body. One end attaches to the wrist, whereas the other end attaches to a grounded object. (5)

          

  144. reactivateTo renew a product activation, required when the activation program discovers significant changes in a computer or the activated product has been installed on a second computer. (9)

          

  145. emergency repair disk (ERD)A special disk used for recovering an OS failure in Windows 2000. It requires that you create the ERD while the system is healthy, and then use it, along with the Windows Setup CD, to repair Windows. (11)

          

  146. Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE)An early PC hard drive interface. (1)

          

  147. social engineeringA practice begun in Windows 2000 in which all of the operating system code is digitally signed to show that it has not been tampered with. (9)

          

  148. LPTSee Balanced Technology eXtended.

          

  149. HDDSee error-correcting code.

          

  150. malwareA dedicated computer that stores data and provides print services or other capabilities to network clients. (13)

          

  151. master file table (MFT)In an IP packet, a value field that shows how many routers the packet can cross before being discarded. (15)

          

  152. flash ROMSee audio modem riser.

          

  153. tape driveA magnetic mass storage device primarily used for backing up data from computers. (1)

          

  154. AGPSee accelerated graphics port.

          

  155. DDR RAMSee double-data rate (DDR) SDRAM.

          

  156. auditingSee security auditing.

          

  157. SCSI controllerA tool for testing if a cable can connect properly end-to-end and to determine if a cable has a short. These tools are available for a variety of cable types. (5)

          

  158. ASRSee automated system recovery.

          

  159. digital LCD displayEncrypted data placed in a file to guard against tampering. (9)

          

  160. memory addressA RAM standard that replaces the original DDR standard. Using far less power than DDR1, a stick of DDR2 SDRAM has 240 pins. (2)

          

  161. network interface card (NIC)In an access control list, a record containing just one user or group account name and the permissions assigned to that account. (16)

          

  162. root directoryThe style of partition on a basic disk, which includes primary and extended. (10)

          

  163. memoryA computer's temporary working space, usually in DRAM chips. (2)

          

  164. virusIn an operating system GUI, a tiny graphic representing an application, folder, disk, menu item, or other entity. (8)

          

  165. shortcutAn icon that represents a link to any object that an icon can represent. Activating a shortcut (by double-clicking it) is a quick way to access an object or to launch a program from the desktop without having to find the actual location of the object on your computer. (8)

          

  166. mounted driveA drive that is mapped to an empty folder on an NTFS volume and is assigned a drive path rather than drive letters. (10)

          

  167. CD-ROM driveThe read-only DVD discs sold at retail stores, containing video or software and having a maximum capacity of 15.9 GB of data. This term also applies to the drives that can only read DVDs. (2)

          

  168. war chalkingA mark on a building created by a war driver to specify where a hotspot exists. People "in the know" look for these marks to identify hotspots for their use. (16)

          

  169. surge suppressorA logical memory address defined in a processor's address bus that allows the system to access physical RAM or ROM memory locations. (3)

          

  170. OCRSee direct current.

          

  171. local area network (LAN)A network that covers a relatively small area, such as a building, home, office, or campus. The typical distances are measured in hundreds of meters. (13)

          

  172. shareOn a Microsoft Windows network, a resource, such as a file folder or printer, that is available on the network. (15)

          

  173. Gigabit EthernetAlso called 1000Base-T, this networking standard supports speeds up to 1 Gbps. (13)

          

  174. plug and play (PnP)A raised area on an optical disc that is alternated with depressed areas to be interpreted as data. (2)

          

  175. error-correcting code (ECC)A method of memory error-checking that is more sophisticated than parity checking. Like parity checking, it adds an extra bit per byte. In addition, software in the system memory controller uses an algorithm to both detect and correct errors. (2)

          

  176. Rambus Dynamic RAM (RDRAM)Memory chips that use a special Rambus channel that has a data transfer rate of 800 MHz. A double channel width results in a 1.6 GHz data transfer. RDRAM sticks use special RIMM slots. (2)

          

  177. Preboot eXecution EnvironmentThe order in which the BIOS will search devices for an operating system to start. (4)

          

  178. PC CardThe early standard developed by PCMCIA for credit-card-sized devices used in laptops. (6)

          

  179. flash BIOSBIOS that can be electronically upgraded. (1)

          

  180. chipsetSee Internet service provider.

          

  181. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)The oldest of the Wi-Fi encryption standards. It uses 64- or 128-bit encryption that is easily broken. It does not encrypt the actual data in a packet, and it does not perform user authentication on a packet. (16)

          

  182. Lucent connector (LC)A device, usually resembling a power strip, that protects equipment from power surges. (5)

          

  183. pop-up downloadA virus that downloads to a user's computer through a pop-up window that appears in a Web browser. It requires an action on the part of a user, such as clicking a button that implies acceptance of something like free information. (16)

          

  184. pointing stickA pointing device built into some laptop keyboards. It appears to be a very tiny joystick-type button that barely protrudes above the level of the keys. (6)

          

  185. S-VideoA video interface, also called Super Video, that transmits video using two signals—luminance, represented by a Y, and chrominance, represented by a C. S-video ports are round to accommodate a round plug with four pins. (3)

          

  186. DDR3See emergency repair disk.

          

  187. NLXSee time to live.

          

  188. MIDISee nickel-cadmium.

          

  189. KVM switchSee double-data rate (DDR) SDRAM.

          

  190. uninterruptible power supply (UPS)A file used with a scripted unattended installation along with an answer file. The UDF file provides settings that are unique for each computer. (9)

          

  191. internal cache memoryA Web browser created by Microsoft. (14)

          

  192. 1000Base-TSee Gigabit Ethernet.

          

  193. Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)A company in the business of providing Internet access to users. (13)

          

  194. BNCSee Advanced Technology eXtended.

          

  195. v-holdA CRT video setting, also known as vertical hold, that holds the image vertically on the screen. (3)

          

  196. system busSee expansion bus.

          

  197. logical block address (LBA)A wireless data encryption standard based on the IEEE 802.11i security standard. It issues keys per-user and per-session and includes encryption key integrity checking. It uses Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP). (16)

          

  198. clock speedThe location where a cable attaches to a computer. Alternatively, a connector on a motherboard for memory, CPUs, power, or other circuitry. (3)

          

  199. computer platformThe difference in value between a display's brightest white and darkest black. Modern LCD displays have a contrast ratio of 500:1 or greater. (3)

          

  200. Internet service provider (ISP)The wireless nodes (including the WAP) communicating together in infrastructure mode. (14)

          

  201. InternetA dedicated computer that stores data and provides print services or other capabilities to network clients. (13)

          

  202. eSATASee External Serial ATA.

          

  203. BIOSSee display power-management signaling.

          

  204. value entryThe amount of time it takes a packet to travel from one point to another. (13)

          

  205. power supply testerIn reference to IDE PATA drives, the master drive on the first channel. (4)

          

  206. smart phoneA cell phone with Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) functions built in. (6)

          

  207. Windows ExplorerA pen-sized tool that has a plunger at one end. When pressed, the plunger causes small, hooked prongs to extend from the other end of the tool for retrieving dropped objects from inside a computer. (5)

          

  208. sector translationThe conversion of data into a special format that cannot be read by anyone unless they have a software key to convert it back into its usable form. (13)

          

  209. FPMSee Static RAM.

          

  210. cellular WANData communications over the cellular telecommunications networks. (6)

          

  211. NICSee network interface card.

          

  212. external cacheIn a CPU, special memory that resides outside the CPU's core and is used to temporarily store instructions and data in order to increase the processing speed. Also called Level 2 (L2) cache and Level 3 (L3) cache, depending on the design of the CPU and motherboard. (1)

          

  213. active KVM switchA type of KVM switch that is controlled through a mechanical switch on the box. (3)

          

  214. power supply unit (PSU)See power supply.

          

  215. solid-state drive (SSD)See solid-state storage.

          

  216. expansion busA grouping of wires built into a PC that, based on certain protocols, transfers data, control signals, and power to printed circuit boards (adapter cards) that are plugged into connectors in the expansion bus. Technicians often use the termsexpansion bus, bus, and system bus interchangeably. (1)

          

  217. response timeAn LCD display characteristic that indicates the amount of time in milliseconds (ms) it takes for a single pixel to go from the active to the inactive state and back again. (3)

          

  218. virtual private network (VPN)Encrypted data placed in a file to guard against tampering. (9)

          

  219. permissionSee Integrated Service Digital Network.

          

  220. flashingThe act of electronically upgrading BIOS. (5)

          

  221. New Low-profile eXtended (NLX)An Intel standard for motherboards targeted to the low-end consumer market that includes built-in components, while saving space and fitting into a smaller case. (1)

          

  222. primary partitionA partition type on a basic disk that can have only one logical drive assigned to it encompassing the entire partition. This partition type is also the only type of partition on a basic disk that can be marked as active for booting up an operating system. (10)

          

  223. enhanced parallel port (EPP) modeA parallel port mode that has the same performance as ECP but is used with parallel devices other than printers and scanners. (4)

          

  224. versionA small device containing a microchip used to generate unique passwords for logging on to a computer or a network. (16)

          

  225. impact printerA type of printer that transfers ink to paper by causing a print head to strike a printer ribbon containing ink against the paper. (12)

          

  226. FATSee FAT file system.

          

  227. hibernateA Windows sleep mode that uses hard drive space to save all the programs and data that are in memory at the time you choose this mode. The computer then completely shuts down and requires no power while it is hibernating. (6)

          

  228. network address translation (NAT)A TCP/IP protocol developed as a solution to the dwindling number of IP addresses on the Internet and that also serves to hide IP addresses on a private network from the Internet. (16)

          

  229. DVI-IA DVI mode that supports both analog and digital video signals. (3)

          

  230. slot coverA metal strip used to cover an empty slot in order to preserve the correct air flow and keep dust out. (3)

          

  231. letterboxThe black box that appears around an image, such as a widescreen video when it is displayed on a screen with a 4:3 aspect ratio. (3)

          

  232. ICMPSee read-only memory.

          

  233. refresh rateSee IEEE 1394.

          

  234. fraudSee random access memory.

          

  235. routerA program that causes a modem to dial phone numbers surreptitiously. (16)

          

  236. displaySee pin grid array.

          

  237. internal busThe use of deceit and trickery to persuade someone to hand over money or valuables. (16)

          

  238. musical instrument digital interface (MIDI)A standard for interconnecting electronic musical instruments to communicate with computers and among themselves. (3)

          

  239. UXGAUltra extended graphics array, a video graphics mode with a maximum resolution of 1600 × 1200. (3)

          

  240. uniqueness database file (UDF)A file format for movie DVDs. (10)

          

  241. CardBusThe PCMCIA standard that succeeds the PC Card. (6)

          

  242. dynamic storageMemory chips that provide much slower access than SRAM chips but that can store several megabytes of data on a single chip (or hundreds of megabytes, or even gigabytes, when they are packaged together on a "stick"). (2)

          

  243. CSee error-correcting code.

          

  244. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)The protocol used by DHCP servers and clients. A DHCP server allocates IP addresses within the scope of addresses configured on the server by an administrator. DHCP clients request IP addresses and other IP configuration settings from DHCP Servers. (13)

          

  245. graphical user interface (GUI)A user interface that takes advantage of the video system's graphics capabilities for manipulated graphic elements that represent objects and tasks. (8)

          

  246. ACTA variation of the PGA CPU packaging that was used with Pentium CPUs. (4)

          

  247. SPGA (staggered pin grid array)An arrangement of pins on a processor in which the pins are offset in a way that allows for a higher pin density than PGA. (4)

          

  248. Extended Video Graphics Array (EVGA)An extension of the SATA standard for external SATA devices, with speeds triple that of USB 2.0. (1)

          

  249. rootkitMalware that hides itself from detection by antimalware programs; it is installed on a computer by someone who has privileged access to the computer. (16)

          

  250. pin-outA diagram showing the purpose of each wire in a connector. (4)

          

  251. WAPSee FAT file system.

          

  252. CDSee compact disc.

          

  253. answer fileA program file or some special data file that is part of the operating system and is very important to proper operation of the OS. (10)

          

  254. ATSee network address translation.

          

  255. continuity RIMM (CRIMM)A standard for hard drives that attach to the Parallel AT Attachment (PATA) interface. (1)

          

  256. bidirectional modeSee analog modem.

          

  257. caseSee Advanced Communications Riser.

          

  258. tracesThe fine copper lines that are the electronic circuits through which power, data, and control signals travel on a circuit board. (1)

          

  259. land-grid array (LGA)A specialized type of memory used only with video adapters. (2)

          

  260. universal data format (UDF)An external bus that connects into the PC's PCI bus. With USB, you can theoretically connect up to 127 devices to your computer. (3)

          

  261. single inline memory module (SIMM)An obsolete memory module standard that was produced in 30-pin and 72-pin sizes. Thirty-pin SIMMs are 8-bit, and 72-pin SIMMs are 32-bit. (1)

          

  262. Disable Automatic RestartAn area on the top left of the Windows XP Start menu containing shortcuts to Windows Update and programs for browsing the Internet and using e-mail. (8)

          

  263. WINSSee Windows Internet Naming Service.

          

  264. strong passwordA password that meets certain criteria in order to be difficult to crack. One definition of a strong password is one that contains at least eight characters, includes a combination of letters, numbers, and other symbols ( _, -, $, and so on) and is easy for you to remember but difficult for others to guess. (16)

          

  265. asynchronous transfer mode (ATM)A type of switched network used by phone companies. (13)

          

  266. security policyA set of rules and practices describing how an organization protects and manages sensitive information. A security policy applies to all employees. (16)

          

  267. system attributeA file attribute assigned to a file by the operating system to identify it as a system file. (10)

          

  268. multiplexingIn telecommunications, a technique that combines multiple messages or signals onto a single transmission channel. (13)

          

  269. Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)A protocol used with WPA wireless encryption that was broken by hackers. (16)

          

  270. stylusThe default Windows file system that includes many important features, including encryption and permissions. (10)

          

  271. Windows Update WebsiteThe Microsoft Website from which you can download updates to Windows. (9)

          

  272. busIn a computer, pathways that power, data, and control signals travel from one component to another within the system. (2)

          

  273. prank programThe IBM branded name for a pointing stick or track point. (6)

          

  274. P1 power connectorA printer that uses a light beam (laser) in the printing process. (12)

          

  275. TCP/IPSee Advanced Configuration and Power Interface.

          

  276. video RAM (VRAM)Circuitry in a PC on an adapter card, or directly on the motherboard, that controls the output from the PC to the display device. (3)

          

  277. nickel-cadmium (NiCD)The type of battery used in the first portable PCs, which was heavy and inefficient. (6)

          

  278. broadband WANA wide area network (WAN) connection that allows a large amount of data to be transmitted. Broadband WANs includes cellular, ISDN, DSL, cable, T-carrier, satellite, and fiber. (13)

          

  279. DDR SDRAMSee synchronous dynamic RAM.

          

  280. Web browserClient software for browsing and accessing the content on the World Wide Web. Examples include Internet Explorer and Firefox. (14)

          

  281. DLPSee Digital Light Processing.

          

  282. SASSee Serial Attached SCSI.

          

  283. mirroringSlang for motherboard. (1)

          

  284. distribution serverA server containing source files for installing software onto client computers. The shared folder containing these files is a software distribution point. (9)

          

  285. DIN connectorA round connector that gets its name from Deutsche Industrie Norm, a German standards organization. Normally a round connector with a circular or semicircle of pins. (3)

          

  286. denial of service (DoS) attackSee denial of service (DoS) attack.

          

  287. LCDSee Advanced Communications Riser.

          

  288. IPCONFIGA command-line utility installed on a Windows computer with the TCP/IP protocol suite; it's used to view the IP configuration of a network connection and to perform certain administrative tasks. (15)

          

  289. Trojan horseA command-line utility, installed with the TCP/IP protocol suite, that traces the route taken by packets to a destination. (15)

          

  290. hackerSee hacker.

          

  291. MSCONFIGThe filename for the System Configuration Utility, which allows you to test various scenarios for Windows startup for troubleshooting purposes. (11)

          

  292. IEEE 1394c-2006The third version of the IEEE 1394 standard; it is a departure from the old standards in that it uses Category 5e twisted pair cable with RJ-45 connectors, combining Ethernet and FireWire. (3)

          

  293. molex connectorSee boot record.

          

  294. SSLSee Universal Serial Bus.

          

  295. Microsoft Windows Vista Home PremiumA Windows Advanced Options menu choice that restores a group of registry keys containing system settings such as services and drivers. These are the last settings that worked, and you have only a narrow window of opportunity to use Last Known Good—on the first reboot after making a configuration change and before logging on. Also called Last Known Good (LKG). (11)

          

  296. Emergency Repair ProcessA Windows 2000 recovery tool requiring an up-to-date emergency repair disk (ERD) or recent emergency repair information stored on the local hard disk. (11)

          

  297. Media Access Control (MAC) addressThe hardware address of a network device, also called the Ethernet address (on Ethernet devices) or NIC address. (13)

          

  298. SLISee Scalable Link Interface.

          

  299. form factorA version of the FAT file system used by hard drives and some flash drives (thumb drives, etc.), using a 32-bit file allocation table. (10)

          

  300. phishingPersonal System/2, as in PS/2-style mice and keyboards and connectors. Also called mini-DIN connectors. (3)

          

  301. SGRAMSynchronous graphics random access memory is a type of RAM used on video adapters. (2)

          

  302. erasure lampThe digital versatile disc (DVD) encoding format used for data storage. (2)

          

  303. distribution shareA shared folder on a distribution server containing the source files for a remote installation. (9)

          

  304. RAMLight emitting diode, a tiny bulb light found on many devices, often used to indicate operational status. (5)

          

  305. RGB videoA simple type of component video signal that sends three separate signals—red, green, and blue—using three coaxial cables. (3)

          

  306. secondary slaveIn reference to a memory module, the number of memory modules required to match the data bus width of the processor. (2)

          

  307. RJ-11See radio frequency.

          

  308. System RestoreAn operating system recovery tool introduced in Windows Me and improved in later versions of Windows. System Restore creates restore points, which are snapshots of Windows, its configuration, and all installed programs. If your computer has nonfatal problems after you have made a change, you can use System Restore to roll it back to a restore point. (11)

          

  309. Fast EthernetBIOS that can be electronically upgraded. (1)

          

  310. bit widthA device that in its traditional configuration as a local KVM switch connects a single keyboard, video display, and mouse to two or more computer systems, allowing the user to switch control from one computer to another. (3)

          

  311. antistatic matA mat that provides a path to ground for a static charge and is designed for the desktop or floor of a workspace. One placed on the workbench reduces the risk of electrostatic discharge for components placed on it, while one placed on the floor provides the same protection for anyone standing on the mat. (5)

          

  312. HDMISee DDR2 SDRAM.

          

  313. UDFSee Integrated Drive Electronics.

          

  314. Mechanical Transfer Registered Jack (MT-RJ) connectorA fiber-optic connector that resembles an RJ-45 network connector and is less expensive and easier to work with than ST or SC connectors. (13)

          

  315. hub[1] A device that is the central connecting point of a LAN. A hub is little more than a multiport repeater taking incoming signals on one port and repeating them to all other ports. Ethernet hubs have been largely replaced by Ethernet switches. (13). [2] A multiport connecting device for USB devices. (4)

          

  316. electronic KVM switchSoftware that runs on the computers in a network and that receives services from servers. (13)

          

  317. Level 3 (L3) cacheThe third version of the IEEE 1394 standard; it is a departure from the old standards in that it uses Category 5e twisted pair cable with RJ-45 connectors, combining Ethernet and FireWire. (3)

          

  318. ECCSee error-correcting code.

          

  319. 10Base-TThe fine copper lines that are the electronic circuits through which power, data, and control signals travel on a circuit board. (1)

          

  320. odd parityThreats that are not truly malicious code, but can have indirect negative effects, such as decreasing performance or using up bandwidth. Grayware includes spyware, adware, spam, and spim. (16)

          

  321. DIMMSee dual inline memory module (DIMM).

          

  322. CSUSee arithmetic logic unit.

          

  323. sidebarIn Windows Vista, a vertical bar found by default on the right side of the desktop. Here, you will find gadgets and mini-programs. (8)

          

  324. NETSTATThe default Windows file system that includes many important features, including encryption and permissions. (10)

          

  325. bluesnarfingThe filename for the System Configuration Utility, which allows you to test various scenarios for Windows startup for troubleshooting purposes. (11)

          

  326. compact disc (CD)An optical disc created and read by a mechanism using a laser. (2)

          

  327. 100Base-TSee FAT file system.

          

  328. TRACERTThe memory space, program code, data, and system resources required by a running program. (11)

          

  329. ForeignA connector that contains two to four wires and usually attaches phone cables to modems and to wall-mounted phone jacks. (3)

          

  330. central processing unit (CPU)An operating system that runs on a network server and provides file sharing and access to other resources, account management, authentication, and authorization services. (13)

          

  331. RJ-45A connector that is slightly larger than an RJ-11 connector and contains eight wires. RJ-45 connectors most commonly attach twisted-pair cables to Ethernet network cards. (3)

          

  332. special groupOne of several groups that no user can create or modify. The membership of a special group is predefined, and it is available to you only when you assign permissions or rights. A few important special groups are Creator Owner, System, and Everyone. (16)

          

  333. registry keyA special modifier key on a laptop keyboard that when pressed together with certain alphanumeric keys, changes the output of the pressed key. It is often called the function key. (6)

          

  334. Last Known Good ConfigurationIn Windows, a security account that contains one or more local user accounts, and when a computer is a member of a Windows domain, may also contain domain user or group accounts. (16)

          

  335. dotted decimal notationA partition type on a basic disk that can have only one logical drive assigned to it encompassing the entire partition. This partition type is also the only type of partition on a basic disk that can be marked as active for booting up an operating system. (10)

          

  336. boot recordA plastic card, often the size of a credit card, that contains a microchip. The microchip can store information and perform functions, depending on the type of smart card. Some smart cards only store data, whereas others may have a variety of functions, including security cards for facilities or logging on to computers. (16)

          

  337. Display Brightness KeyA key on a laptop that, when pressed along with the FN key, changes the laptop display brightness at the hardware level. On some laptops, when this key combination is pressed, a small brightness control panel will display on the screen. Use the up (↑) or right (→) arrow key to increase the brightness, and use the left (←) or down (↓) arrow key to decrease the brightness. The DISPLAY BRIGHTNESS key is normally a function key, such as F5, that displays a sun-like symbol. (6)

          

  338. customer premises equipment (CPE)A part of the NTFS file system used to store a transaction-based database, with all file accesses treated as transactions, and if a transaction is not complete, NTFS will roll back to the last successful transaction.

          

  339. Integrated Access Device (IAD)Memory that is accessible in any (random) order. Most of the memory in a PC is RAM. (2)

          

  340. DC ControllerA device found in laptops that monitors and regulates power usage. The features vary by manufacturer, but typically, they provide short-circuit protection, give "low battery" warnings, and can be configured to shut down the computer automatically when the power is low. (6)

          

  341. driver signingThe practice of applying a digital signature to device driver code. (9)

          

  342. protocolIn networking, this is a set of rules for using network hardware and software. In most discussions about networks, this term is assigned to certain network software components. (13)

          

  343. moddingThe practice, mostly among gamers, of modifying a computer case. (1)

          

  344. direct current (DC)The type of electrical current delivered by a battery in which the electrons flow in only one direction. (3)

          

  345. CPESee customer premises equipment.

          

  346. SATASee serial ATA.

          

  347. MIMO (multiple input/multiple output)The use of two or more video adapters (hence the term "GPU") to drive a single display for the purpose of increasing performance. (3)

          

  348. IRQSee radio frequency.

          

  349. authenticationThe amount of time it takes a packet to travel from one point to another. (13)

          

  350. wireless access point (WAP)A set of technologies that allow voice transmission over an IP network—specifically used for placing phone calls over the Internet—rather than the public switched telephone network (PSTN), the worldwide network that carries traditional voice traffic. (13)

          

  351. trusted platform module (TPM)A TPM is a special microchip, installed on a motherboard, that stores passwords, keys, and digital certificates. Various services, such as BitLocker can store such security data in this chip. (16)

          

  352. super video graphics array (SVGA)A technology for LCD displays in which transistors are positioned at each pixel. (3)

          

  353. WAN connectionA 20- or 24- pin connector that supplies power from a PC's power supply to the motherboard. (3)

          

  354. PCIe (peripheral component interconnect express)A square snap coupling for fiber-optic cable, about 2.5 mm wide, used for cable-to-cable connections or to connect cables to network devices. It latches with a push-pull action similar to audio and video jacks. (13)

          

  355. video graphics array (VGA)An obsolete video standard introduced with IBM PS/2 computers in the late 1980s. VGA had a maximum resolution of 720 × 400 in text mode and 640 × 480 in graphics mode. (3)

          

  356. CrossFireA multi-GPU solution developed by ATI. (3)

          

  357. inkjetA type of printer that uses one of several technologies to apply wet ink to paper to create text or graphic printouts. The two most popular inkjet printer models are the InkJet, developed by Hewlett-Packard, and the Bubble Jet, developed by Canon. Epson uses the term "ink jet" (with a space), but it does not appear in the model names of their printers. (12)

          

  358. password crackerA printer that uses a light beam (laser) in the printing process. (12)

          

  359. interrupt request line (IRQ)A WAN connection that uses existing copper telephone wire for the communication circuit. To accomplish this, a DSL modem splits the existing phone line into two bands; voice transmission uses the frequencies below 4000 Hz, whereas data transmission uses everything else. (13)

          

  360. case fanA cooling fan mounted directly on the case, as opposed to a power supply fan, which is inside the power supply. (3)

          

  361. pinned items listAn area on the top left of the Windows XP Start menu containing shortcuts to Windows Update and programs for browsing the Internet and using e-mail. (8)

          

  362. WRAMErasable programmable read-only memory. A ROM chip that is erasable and reprogrammable through the use of specialized software. (2)

          

  363. NTFSSee nickel metal hydride.

          

  364. RFSee radio frequency.

          

  365. infrastructure modeA wireless mode requiring a wireless access point (WAP). (14)

          

  366. projectorIn networking, this is a set of rules for using network hardware and software. In most discussions about networks, this term is assigned to certain network software components. (13)

          

  367. multifunction printers (MFDs)Fiber-optic cable in which multiple light waves can pass simultaneously. Usually larger in diameter than single-mode fiber; and each wave uses a certain portion of the fiber cable for transmission. (13)

          

  368. liquid cooling systemA shared folder on a distribution server containing the source files for a remote installation. (9)

          

  369. video adapter cardA circuit card in a PC that controls the output to the display device(s). (2)

          

  370. CD-ROMSee Compact Disc-Read-Only Memory.

          

  371. portable computerAny type of computer that you can easily transport and that contains an all-in-one component layout. (6)

          

  372. adwareSoftware installed on a computer without permission that collects information about a user in order to display targeted advertisements, in the form of either inline banners or pop-ups. Inline banners are advertisements that run within the context of the current page, taking up screen real estate. (16)

          

  373. single-mode fiber (SMF)Pertaining to a DVD drive and disc that can store data in two pitted layers on each data side, with each layer having a different reflectivity index. (1)

          

  374. master boot record (MBR)The first physical sector on a hard disk, which contains the initial boot program that the BIOS loads into memory during bootup. It also contains the partition table. (10)

          

  375. DVD-RSee emergency repair disk.

          

  376. peer-to-peer networkThe smallest laptop type, weighing less than 3 pounds. See also netbook and mini-notebook. (6)

          

  377. portA connection point on a device or computer, sometimes called a socket. (3)

          

  378. CRTSee cathode ray tube (CRT) monitor.

          

  379. HTTPSee Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).

          

  380. T-carrier systemA communications system, owned and operated by the telephone companies, that multiplexes voice and data signals onto digital transmission line. (13)

          

  381. inverterA device that converts DC current to AC. An inverter is required in a laptop to provide the AC current required by the display. (6)

          

  382. Universal Serial Bus (USB)An external bus that connects into the PC's PCI bus. With USB, you can theoretically connect up to 127 devices to your computer. (3)

          

  383. Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secure Sockets Layer (HTTPS)One of the main protocols of the TCP/IP protocol suite, IP manages logical addressing of network packets so routing protocols can route the packets over the network. (13)

          

  384. systrayAn area of the Windows taskbar used by programs and some hardware devices to display status icons. Also called thenotification area or system tray. (8)

          

  385. solid-state storageData storage technology with no moving mechanical parts that uses large-capacity, nonvolatile memory, commonly calledflash memory or solid-state drives. (2)

          

  386. terminalA process that places the logical structure of a file system on a partitioned volume. (4)

          

  387. 64-bitA small program, such as those that can be run from the Windows Sidebar. (8)

          

  388. P412VA single dot on a display screen. A contraction of "Picture Element." (3)

          

  389. WINS ServerA standard used in laptops that is based on PCI. The biggest difference is that Mini PCI is much smaller than PCI—both the card and the slot. Mini PCI has a 32-bit data bus. (6)

          

  390. NiCDSee nickel-cadmium.

          

  391. floppy diskA magnetic storage device that contains a thin internal plastic disk, capable of receiving magnetic charges contained in the thin magnetic coating on the disk. (1)

          

  392. system traySee systray.

          

  393. PCISee network interface card.

          

  394. Small Outline RIMM (SORIMM)A type of DIMM memory module used in laptops. (6)

          

  395. flash driveSee thumb drive.

          

  396. EEPROMSee RAMBUS Inline Memory Module.

          

  397. daughter cardA type of riser card that connects directly into a motherboard and adds no additional functionality of its own, but extends the expansion bus and allows expansion cards to be added in a different physical orientation. (2)

          

  398. VFATSee virtual file allocation table.

          

  399. time to live (TTL)In an IP packet, a value field that shows how many routers the packet can cross before being discarded. (15)

          

  400. processSee Post Office Protocol.

          

  401. FAT32A unit of measurement of actual delivered power, calculated by the formula watts = volts × amps. (3)

          

  402. demilitarized zone (DMZ)In computer networking, a network located between a private network and the Internet with a firewall on both sides. A DMZ contains servers offering services to users on the Internet and inside the protected private network. (16)

          

  403. optical character recognition (OCR)An option available in the Windows XP Backup program for recovering from damage that prevents the operating system from starting. It replaced the Emergency Repair Disk (ERD) process in Windows 2000. (11)

          

  404. tonerA long-established fiber-optic WAN technology. (13)

          

  405. unattended installationAn automated software installation that does not require a person be present to respond to prompts for information. (9)

          

  406. Blu-ray discThe act of covertly obtaining information broadcast from wireless devices using the Bluetooth standard. (16)

          

  407. half-duplexIn networks, when data can travel in either direction, but only in one direction at a time. (13)

          

  408. Start Windows NormallyAn Advanced Options menu choice that simply causes Windows to restart normally (if it can). (11)

          

  409. basic storageA storage type in Windows that uses the partition table in the master boot record (MBR) to define disk partitions. (10)

          

  410. Fn keyA special modifier key on a laptop keyboard that when pressed together with certain alphanumeric keys, changes the output of the pressed key. It is often called the function key. (6)

          

  411. Microsoft Windows XP Media CenterA computer that is not connected to a network of any kind. (13)

          

  412. dialerA program that causes a modem to dial phone numbers surreptitiously. (16)

          

  413. Automated System Recovery (ASR)An underlying protocol that supports Microsoft Remote Desktop. (11)

          

  414. redundant array of independent disks (RAID)A group of schemes designed to provide either better performance or improved data reliability through redundancy. (2)

          

  415. Enable VGA ModeStorage media that is removable, meaning the drive stays in place, while the media (disk, disc, or tape) is removed and replaced with another disk, disc, or tape. (2)

          

  416. striping with distributed paritySee RAID 5.

          

  417. Wireless LAN (WLAN)Local area networking using radio waves, with the most common based on the IEEE 802.11 group of standards (802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11n). (13)

          

  418. CMOSSee complementary metal-oxide semiconductor.

          

  419. EIDESee basic input/output system.

          

  420. process priority levelA value assigned to a process that controls the order in which the program code is executed in relation to other code. (11)

          

  421. encryptionThe conversion of data into a special format that cannot be read by anyone unless they have a software key to convert it back into its usable form. (13)

          

  422. magnetic mass storageIn Windows, an Advanced Options menu choice that starts Windows without several drivers and components and loads only very basic, non-vendor-specific drivers for mouse, video, keyboard, mass storage, and system services. Safe Mode also displays in low resolution. (11)

          

  423. DHCPSee Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.

          

  424. Scalable Link Interface (SLI)A multi-GPU solution developed by NVIDIA. (3)

          

  425. extending extractorSee parts grabber.

          

  426. PGA2See Post Office Protocol.

          

  427. even parityIn router configuration, a term that is used to describe traffic that is allowed, as in allowing traffic using a certain port number through the router. (16)

          

  428. Internet Protocol (IP)One of the main protocols of the TCP/IP protocol suite, IP manages logical addressing of network packets so routing protocols can route the packets over the network. (13)

          

  429. field replaceable unit (FRU)A component that you can install into a system onsite, such as memory modules, heat sinks, and CMOS batteries. (5)

          

  430. jumperIn a computer, pathways that power, data, and control signals travel from one component to another within the system. (2)

          

  431. loopback plugA plug designed for testing a specific port type (e.g., serial, parallel, or USB). The plug does not connect to a cable but reroutes the sending pins to the receiving pins. Using special software on the computer, a loopback test is performed in which signals are both sent and received. (5)

          

  432. Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi)A key on a laptop that is pressed along with the FN key to change display modes so the output will be only to the laptop's display, only to an external display, or simultaneously to both displays. The DISPLAY MODE key is normally a function key, such as F7, that displays a display symbol. (6)

          

  433. swap fileSee paging file.

          

  434. SODIMMSee Small Outline DIMM.

          

  435. Safe Mode With Command PromptIn Windows, an Advanced Options menu choice that will start Windows without the Windows GUI (EXPLORER.EXE) and with only a simple Command Prompt window from which you can launch Windows administrative utilities. (11)

          

  436. SORIMMSee Small Outline RIMM.

          

  437. Windows XP Files and Settings Transfer WizardA tool for migrating user data and settings from one Windows computer to a computer running Windows XP. (9)

          

  438. WPASee uninterruptible power supply.

          

  439. chargingThe use of words, often technical and uncommon, that both parties understand in the same way. (18)

          

  440. modeSee RAMBUS Inline Memory Module.

          

  441. EMPSee electromagnetic pulse.

          

  442. firmwareSoftware instructions stored in ROM chips. It exists on most PC components and on the motherboard. (1)

          

  443. pixelInformation organized as a unit into a container. The author (creator) of a file controls how much information the file contains. (10)

          

  444. Intel CorporationOne of the two prevailing CPU manufacturers. (1)

          

  445. dial-up modemSee analog modem.

          

  446. mirrored setTwo disk drives used for RAID 1, in which data is written to both drives at the same time, a practice called mirroring. (2)

          

  447. distributed denial of service (DDoS) attackThis attack occurs when a massive number (up to hundreds of thousands) of computers send DoS attacks to a server, making it unavailable. (16)

          

  448. NiMHSee nickel metal hydride.

          

  449. DVI-ASee video graphics array.

          

  450. virtual file allocation table (VFAT)A modified version of FAT12 and FAT16 used in Windows since Windows 95. (10)

          

  451. DNSSee Digital Light Processing.

          

  452. System MonitorA pixel that is permanently turned on, causing the pixel to show constantly as red, green, or blue. Also called a stuck pixel. (7)

          

  453. Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS)A small group of computers communicating wirelessly with one another without the use of a centralized wireless access point (WAP). (14)

          

  454. SVGASee permanent virtual circuit.

          

  455. Level 1 (L1) cacheIn the laser printing process, a blade that removes residual toner from the drum. (12)

          

  456. RFIRadio frequency interference. Radio signals that occur in proximity to equipment that is sensitive to these types of signals. (15)

          

  457. Tablet PCA laptop in which the display is an integrated digitizer. (6)

          

  458. BTXSee uninterruptible power supply.

          

  459. virtual circuit (VC) AA virtual communication circuit that is created and remains available between two endpoints, which are normally some form of data terminal equipment (DTE). Telecommunications companies provide PVC service to companies requiring a dedicated circuit between two sites that require communications that are always on. (13)

          

  460. Parallel AT Attachment (PATA)A hard drive interface that transfers data in parallel. EIDE and ATAPI drives attach to the PATA interface. (1)

          

  461. mini-notebookThe worldwide interconnection of networks that can be accessed with various Internet-based software. The World Wide Web is one of the many services of the Internet. (13)

          

  462. ATMSee Advanced Power Management.

          

  463. MSINFO32.EXESee System Information.

          

  464. IP packet filteringThe generic term for a pointing stick. (6)

          

  465. ALUSee digital linear tape.

          

  466. EVGASee Extended Video Graphics Array.

          

  467. adapter cardSee motherboard.

          

  468. taskbarIn the Windows GUI, a horizontal bar normally positioned across the bottom of the desktop containing a Start button, the Quick Launch toolbar, buttons for running programs, and at the far right, the notification area. Sometimes called the Start Bar. (8)

          

  469. DCSee Media Access Control (MAC) address.

          

  470. dot matrix printerSoftware that runs on the computers in a network and that receives services from servers. (13)

          

  471. jargonA laptop is a small, easily transported computer, generally weighing less than 7 pounds and with roughly the same dimensions as a 1- to 2-inch-thick stack of magazines. Laptops computers have an all-in-one layout in which the keyboard, and often the pointing device, is integrated into the computer chassis and an LCD display is in a hinged lid. (6)

          

  472. Safe Mode With NetworkingIn Windows, an Advanced Options menu choice that starts Windows without several drivers and components and loads only very basic, non-vendor-specific drivers for mouse, video, keyboard, mass storage, and system services. It also displays in low resolution. The difference between Safe Mode and Safe Mode With Networking is that the latter will launch networking components. (11)

          

  473. thermal wax transfer printerIn the laser printing process, a wire that passes a small positive charge to paper as it travels through the printer. This positive charge attracts the negatively charged toner particles on the drum to the paper. (12)

          

  474. switchDual inline package. A very tiny slide that indicates two states. Motherboard and other circuit cards often have one or more groupings of DIP switches for configuring options. (4)

          

  475. SCSI IDSee peripheral component interconnect.

          

  476. mainboardSee motherboard.

          

  477. PVCUsed to represent the chrominance signal in S-Video. (3)

          

  478. double-sided (DS) DVDA DVD of any type that can store data on both sides of the disc. (1)

          

  479. wormA generic reference to a PC's serial communications port, in which the x represents the port number. (5)

          

  480. ANSISee American National Standards Institute.

          

  481. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)A protocol that allows routers to update their list of routes dynamically. RIP dates to the 1980s and is considered obsolete; even though, it has been updated a few times and is still supported by most routers. (13)

          

  482. World Wide WebA type of printer that uses solid, rather than liquid, ink. (12)

          

  483. secure attention sequence (SAS)A rectangular connector with a locking clip on one side and a number designation that refers to the size rather than the number of wires. (3)

          

  484. laptopA laptop is a small, easily transported computer, generally weighing less than 7 pounds and with roughly the same dimensions as a 1- to 2-inch-thick stack of magazines. Laptops computers have an all-in-one layout in which the keyboard, and often the pointing device, is integrated into the computer chassis and an LCD display is in a hinged lid. (6)

          

  485. front side bus (FSB)An early technology for increasing the performance of DRAM. (2)

          

  486. system boardSee motherboard.

          

  487. thermal compoundAny type of computer that you can easily transport and that contains an all-in-one component layout. (6)

          

  488. Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)A data encryption technology used for securing data transmitted over the Internet. (13)

          

  489. AMDSee Advanced Micro Devices.

          

  490. DDoS AttackSee denial of service (DoS) attack.

          

  491. Windows UpdateA Windows program that launches Internet Explorer and connects to the Windows Update Website. (9)

          

  492. Basic Service Set (BSS)The wireless nodes (including the WAP) communicating together in infrastructure mode. (14)

          

  493. active listeningA set of skills, behaviors, and attitudes to use when listening to another person. (18)

          

  494. NTFS permissionsA connection over a wide area network. (13)

          

  495. intranetA private internetwork. (13)

          

  496. NTLDRDigital versatile disc (DVD) discs that can be written to, but data cannot be overwritten. This standard is newer than DVD-R. This term also refers to the drives that can write to these discs. (2)

          

  497. CNRSee automated system recovery.

          

  498. DVD-9A single-sided, double-layer digital versatile disc (DVD) that stores 8.54 GB of data, or over four hours of video. (2)

          

  499. Quick Launch barAn optional toolbar you can add to the taskbar just to the right of the Start button. Shortcuts on this bar launch with a single-click. (8)

          

  500. Video Electronics Standards Organization (VESA)An organization that created several PC standards, including the VGA connector. (3)

          

  501. BitLocker drive encryptionAn encryption technology introduced in Windows Vista Enterprise and Ultimate editions, Windows Server 2008, and also in Windows 7 Ultimate and Enterprise editions. It encrypts the entire boot volume. (16)

          

  502. electromagnetic pulse (EMP)A standard for hard drives that attach to the Parallel AT Attachment (PATA) interface. (1)

          

  503. cathode ray tube (CRT) monitorA display device that contains a cathode ray tube and uses an electron gun to activate phosphors behind the screen at the front of the tub. (3)

          

  504. active speakingSee security auditing.

          

  505. EPPSee enhanced parallel port (EPP) mode.

          

  506. point-to-point protocol (PPP)The style of partition on a basic disk, which includes primary and extended. (10)

          

  507. encrypted authenticationA device used with a laptop. The port replicator remains on the desktop with external devices connected to ports on it. A laptop then needs only one connection to the port replicator to have access to the peripherals. (6)

          

  508. FDDSee floppy disk drive.

          

  509. miniconnectorA common connector used to connect a power supply to floppy drives. (3)

          

  510. TWAINSee local area network.

          

  511. PGASee Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA).

          

  512. multimeterA handheld device used to measure electrical resistance, voltage, and/or current. (5)

          

  513. Static RAM (SRAM)A specialized type of memory used only with video adapters. (2)

          

  514. IEEE 1394bA dedicated computer that stores data and provides print services or other capabilities to network clients. (13)

          

  515. DVD-10A double-sided, single-layer digital versatile disc (DVD) that stores 9.4 GB of data, or over four hours of video. (2)

          

  516. thermal printerA type of printer that uses a matrix of pins striking paper through an ink ribbon to create dots on the paper, forming alphanumeric characters and graphic images. (12)

          

  517. power supplyThe component that provides power for all components on the motherboard and internal to the PC case. Also called a power supply unit (PSU). (3)

          

  518. twisted-pair cableCable that consists of pairs of wires twisted around each other. The twists help to boost each wire's signals and make them less susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI). (3)

          

  519. SIMMSee single inline memory module.

          

  520. LBASee logical block address.

          

  521. NorthbridgeSee thumb drive.

          

  522. DVD-ROMSee Small Outline DIMM.

          

  523. code signingA practice begun in Windows 2000 in which all of the operating system code is digitally signed to show that it has not been tampered with. (9)

          

  524. channel service unit (CSU)A service of the operating system on a laptop that detects when a card has been inserted. (6)

          

  525. direct thermal printerA type of thermal printer in which a heated print head burns dots into the surface of heat-sensitive paper. (12)

          

  526. DDR2 SDRAMSee double-data rate (DDR) SDRAM.

          

  527. DMZSee demilitarized zone.

          

  528. motherboardA portion of a program that can run separately from and concurrently with other portions of the program. Also called thread of execution. (1)

          

  529. data migrationSee floating-point unit.

          

  530. HTMLSee Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).

          

  531. DisplayPortA digital display interface standard developed by the Video Electronics Standards Association that supports both video and audio signals, contains HDCP copy protection, and is unique because it is royalty-free to manufacturers. (3)

          

  532. Automated System Recovery (ASR)An early PC hard drive interface. (1)

          

  533. memory bankAt first, a terminal was not much more than a display, a keyboard, and the minimal circuitry for connecting to the mainframe. Now, a terminal can be a computer running Windows or other operating system, plus terminal client emulation software that allows it to connect to a server in which a separate session is run for the client computer. (13)

          

  534. crackerSee hacker.

          

  535. Domain Name Service (DNS)The Internet service that manages access to Internet domain names and the naming system it uses for computers and resources connected to the Internet or in a private network. (13)

          

  536. math coprocessorSee floating-point unit.

          

  537. drive imageThe original digital versatile disc (DVD) encoding format used for movies sold at retail. (2)

          

  538. CentronicsA 36-pin connector mounted to a device's parallel interface. (3)

          

  539. Reliability and Performance MonitorA display device that contains a cathode ray tube and uses an electron gun to activate phosphors behind the screen at the front of the tub. (3)

          

  540. DDR2See DDR2 SDRAM.

          

  541. ink cartridgeA portion of a computer's chipset that controls communications between the CPU and such I/O busses as USB, IDE, PS2, SATA, and others. (1)

          

  542. chrominanceThe signal in a television transmission that contains the color of the image. (3)

          

  543. expansion cardIn a laser printer, a high-intensity lamp that, when shone on a portion of the electro-photosensitive drum, removes any remaining charge on that portion of the drum. (12)

          

  544. socketThe location where a cable attaches to a computer. Alternatively, a connector on a motherboard for memory, CPUs, power, or other circuitry. (3)

          

  545. FTPSee File Transfer Protocol (FTP).

          

  546. quad-core CPUThe original digital versatile disc (DVD) encoding format used for movies sold at retail. (2)

          

  547. Speaker Volume KeyA memory error-checking method in which the parity bit is used to ensure that the total number of 1s in the data stream is even. (2)

          

  548. CD-R (CD-Record)A drive that can write either to CD-R discs or to specially designed CD-RW discs. In the case of the CD-RW discs, the drive can write more than once to the same portion of disc, overwriting old data. (1)

          

  549. iconSee error-correcting code.

          

  550. war drivingThe act of moving through a neighborhood in a vehicle or on foot, using either a laptop equipped with Wi-Fi wireless network capability or a simple Wi-Fi sensor available for a few dollars from many sources. War drivers are searching for open hotspots—areas where a Wi-Fi network connects to the Internet without using security to keep out intruders. (16)

          

  551. file signature verificationA process applied to digitally signed code to unencrypt the signature data and use the information to verify the program code was not modified since the signature was added. (9)

          

  552. Advanced Technology (AT)A type of motherboard used in older PC systems; also refers to the 1984 IBM PC AT model. (1)

          

  553. antistatic wrist strapA mat that provides a path to ground for a static charge and is designed for the desktop or floor of a workspace. One placed on the workbench reduces the risk of electrostatic discharge for components placed on it, while one placed on the floor provides the same protection for anyone standing on the mat. (5)

          

  554. MBRSee Microsoft Management Console.

          

  555. wattsA version of the FAT file system used by MS-DOS for hard drives, using a 16-bit file allocation table. (10)

          

  556. jump driveThe role of the second EIDE drive on a PATA channel. (4)

          

  557. RDRAMSee random access memory.

          

  558. High-Bandwidth Digital Content Protection (HDCP)An optical semiconductor used in small projectors and in rear-projection televisions. (3)

          

  559. Start BarSee taskbar.

          

  560. root keyA perpetrator of malicious software attacks against computers and networks. Also called a cracker. (16)

          

  561. Spam over Instant Messaging (spim)See hyper threading.

          

  562. Start menuA cooling fan mounted directly on the case, as opposed to a power supply fan, which is inside the power supply. (3)

          

  563. POSTSee virtual file allocation table.

          

  564. Performance MonitorThe use of more than one monitor on a single computer. (3)

          

  565. Sony/Philips Digital Interface (S/PDIF)A single-pin RCA phone jack for transferring digital audio from CD and DVD players to amplifiers and speakers. (3)

          

  566. capacityIn power supplies, the amount of wattage the power supply can handle. (3)

          

  567. device driverWhen a mount point exists between a partition or volume to a folder on another volume, the drive path is the path (including a drive letter) to that partition or volume. (10)

          

  568. ATV12VSee compact disc.

          

  569. dual layer (DL)A popular inkjet printer developed by Canon. (12)

          

  570. default gatewayTo renew a product activation, required when the activation program discovers significant changes in a computer or the activated product has been installed on a second computer. (9)

          

  571. WEPSee Wired Equivalent Privacy.

          

  572. basic diskA number that identifies a device on a SCSI chain. (4)

          

  573. FAT tableSee file allocation table.

          

  574. background processThe first physical sector on a floppy disk or the first sector on a hard drive partition. The boot record contains information about the OS. The boot record on a primary active partition is used to start the operating system. Also called the boot sector. Do not confuse this with the master boot record. (10)

          

  575. CPUSee central processing unit.

          

  576. virus encyclopediaA generic term for a collection of information on known malware (not just viruses). (17)

          

  577. hyper threadingA CPU technology that allows two threads to execute at the same time within a single execution core. This technology is considered to be partially parallel execution. Intel introduced it in the Pentium 4 Xeon CPU. Also known as simultaneous multithreading (SMT). (1)

          

  578. composite videoIn Windows, an Advanced Options menu choice that starts Windows without several drivers and components and loads only very basic, non-vendor-specific drivers for mouse, video, keyboard, mass storage, and system services. Safe Mode also displays in low resolution. (11)

          

  579. remote KVM switchIn reference to IDE PATA drives, the master drive on the first channel. (4)

          

  580. High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI)An interface standard for use with DVD players, digital television (DTV) players, set-top cable or satellite service boxes, and other devices. It combines audio and video signals into an uncompressed signal and has a bandwidth of up to 5 GB/second. Only one specially designed cable is required where previously several were required. (3)

          

  581. network clientSoftware that runs on the computers in a network and that receives services from servers. (13)

          

  582. RAMBUS Inline Memory Module (RIMM)The Internet service that manages access to Internet domain names and the naming system it uses for computers and resources connected to the Internet or in a private network. (13)

          

  583. Ultra DMA (UDMA)A drive interface for EIDE drives that transfers data serially at speeds between 150 MBps and 300 MBps and 6 Gbps, depending on the version of the standard. (1)

          

  584. System Management Mode (SMM)A CPU power-saving mode that allows a CPU to reduce its speed without losing its place so it does not stop working altogether. SMM also allows the CPU to trigger power saving in other components. (6)

          

  585. SLDSee second-level domain.

          

  586. Small Outline DIMM (SODIMM)A type of DIMM memory module used in laptops. (6)

          

  587. hard disk driveThe role of the second EIDE drive on a PATA channel. (4)

          

  588. LPT1See fast page mode.

          

  589. monitorSee plain-old telephone service.

          

  590. ad hoc modeIn a Microsoft Windows network, an administrative organization with a centralized security accounts database maintained on one or more special servers called domain controllers. This centralized database contains accounts for users, groups, and computers participating in the domain, and it is used to authenticate a user for access to any resource in the domain. (13)

          

  591. toner cartridgeThe cartridge for a laser printer that contains both the medium (toner) and other printing components. (12)

          

  592. ISPSee Internet service provider.

          

  593. COMxA generic reference to a PC's serial communications port, in which the x represents the port number. (5)

          

  594. point stickA file used by Windows for virtual memory. Also called the swap file. The actual filename in Windows is PAGEFILE.SYS. (9)

          

  595. high-voltage power supply (HVPS)A power supply form factor that pairs with an ATX motherboard and case. (3)

          

  596. smart cardThe early standard developed by PCMCIA for credit-card-sized devices used in laptops. (6)

          

  597. secondary masterClient software for browsing and accessing the content on the World Wide Web. Examples include Internet Explorer and Firefox. (14)

          

  598. shared video memoryIn Windows Vista, a vertical bar found by default on the right side of the desktop. Here, you will find gadgets and mini-programs. (8)

          

  599. TTLSee time to live.

          

  600. Secure Digital (SD) CardEncrypted data placed in a file to guard against tampering. (9)

          

  601. keystroke loggerA hardware device or a program that monitors and records a user's every keystroke, usually without the user's knowledge. (16)

          

  602. SMTPSee demilitarized zone.

          

  603. metropolitan area network (MAN)A network that covers a metropolitan area, usually using high-speed fiber-optic cable (operating in the gigabits-per-second range). (13)

          

  604. back doorIn Windows, an Advanced Options menu choice that starts Windows without several drivers and components and loads only very basic, non-vendor-specific drivers for mouse, video, keyboard, mass storage, and system services. Safe Mode also displays in low resolution. (11)

          

  605. DVD-RAMDigital versatile disc (DVD) discs that can be written to, and data can also be overwritten. This term also refers to the drives that can write to these discs. (2)

          

  606. spamUnsolicited e-mail. (16)

          

  607. video adapterCircuitry in a PC on an adapter card, or directly on the motherboard, that controls the output from the PC to the display device. (3)

          

  608. registryA database of all configuration settings in Windows. (8)

          

  609. DDRSee master boot record.

          

  610. NATSee alternating current.

          

  611. DPMSSee display power-management signaling.

          

  612. industry standard architecture (ISA)A device that records video content to disk. (4)

          

  613. SCSI host adapterA computer circuit board that attaches to and controls SCSI devices. (4)

          

  614. pop-up blockerA program that blocks browser pop-ups. (17)

          

  615. HD-DVDA CRT video setting, also known at horizontal hold, that holds the image horizontally on the screen. (3)

          

  616. Advanced Communications Riser (ACR)A motherboard form factor introduced in 2003 by Intel as the successor to ATX. (1)

          

  617. boot sequenceA network service that handles the requests for Internet services, such as Web pages, files on an FTP server, and mail for a proxy client without exposing that client's IP address to the Internet. There is specific proxy server and client software for each type of service. (13)

          

  618. fusing rollersIn the laser printer, the heated rollers that fuse the toner to the paper. (12)

          

  619. transferringA coherent and concentrated light beam, also simply called a laser. (12)

          

  620. beam-on-blade connectorThe type of connector used in the ExpressCard interface. (6)

          

  621. local group accountIn Windows, a security account that contains one or more local user accounts, and when a computer is a member of a Windows domain, may also contain domain user or group accounts. (16)

          

  622. accelerated graphics port (AGP)A protocol for computer-to-computer (host-to-host) transfer of files over a TCP/IP network, regardless of the operating system in use. (13)

          

  623. ATASee audio modem riser.

          

  624. fileInformation organized as a unit into a container. The author (creator) of a file controls how much information the file contains. (10)

          

  625. ISDNSee Integrated Service Digital Network.

          

  626. process IDSee plain-old telephone service.

          

  627. Display Mode KeyThe graphical Internet consisting of a vast array of documents located on millions of specialized servers worldwide. The documents are created using HTML and other specialized languages, and transferred from servers to client computers using HTTP and related transport protocols. Client software for the World Wide Web is called a Web browser. (13)

          

  628. dynamic RAM (DRAM)A RAM standard that replaces the original DDR2 standard and requires far less power, while providing almost twice the bandwidth. A stick of DDR3 SDRAM has 240 pins, but is keyed so it will not fit into a socket designed for DDR2. DDR3 SO-DIMMs have 204 pins. (2)

          

  629. complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)A chip that retains system settings such as the time, keyboard settings, and boot sequence. (1)

          

  630. straight-tip (ST) connectorThings used for authentication, such as something you know, something you have, or something you are. Authentication involves one or more of these factors and can, therefore, be one-factor, two-factor, or three-factor authentication. (16)

          

  631. troubleshootingA card that fits into the PC Card interface, including both PC Card and CardBus cards. This type measures 85.6 millimeters long by 54 millimeters wide and 5.0 millimeters thick. (6)

          

  632. horizontal positionA setting on an LCD display that adjusts the viewable area of the display horizontally. (3)

          

  633. BluetoothA non-routable network protocol suite for use only in small networks. (13)

          

  634. PPPSee floating-point unit.

          

  635. dead pixelA dark spot on an LCD screen caused when a transistor is permanently off. (7)

          

  636. DVD-RWSee low-voltage differential (LVD).

          

  637. key fobA protocol developed in the 1980s by IBM for managing names on a network. Also used by Microsoft in early networking. Replaced by DNS on TCP/IP networks. (13)

          

  638. regional settingsThe process of informing the software manufacturer who the official owner or user of the product is, and providing contact information such as name, address, company, phone number, e-mail address, and so on, about them. Registration is usually a voluntary action. (9)

          

  639. heat sinkA heat dissipation device, usually a passive metal object with a flat surface attached to a component, such as a chip. (3)

          

  640. Remote AssistanceA device that in its traditional configuration as a local KVM switch connects a single keyboard, video display, and mouse to two or more computer systems, allowing the user to switch control from one computer to another. (3)

          

  641. TrackPointThe IBM branded name for a pointing stick or track point. (6)

          

  642. SD CardThe early standard developed by PCMCIA for credit-card-sized devices used in laptops. (6)

          

  643. alternating currentThe signal in a television transmission that contains the color of the image. (3)

          

  644. striping with interleave parityA drive interface for EIDE drives that transfers data serially at speeds between 150 MBps and 300 MBps and 6 Gbps, depending on the version of the standard. (1)

          

  645. Post Office Protocol (POP)The protocol used to allow client computers to pick up e-mail from mail servers. The current version is POP3. (13)

          

  646. registered jack (RJ)Data communications over the cellular telecommunications networks. (6)

          

  647. Return To OS Choices menuAn Advanced Options menu choice that appears under certain circumstances. When available, selecting this option will return to the OS Choices menu (OS Loader menu). (11)

          

  648. accessory bayIn a laptop, a compartment that holds a single media device that is switchable with another. (6)

          

  649. Super VideoSee S-Video.

          

  650. digital signatureThe original digital discs created in 1995 for storing video. (1)

          

  651. SRAMSee video RAM.

          

  652. Compact Disc-Read-Only Memory (CD-ROM)Laser discs sold at retail stores that contain music (audio CDs) or software (data CDs). (1)

          

  653. Service Set ID (SSID)An optical disc created and read by a mechanism using a laser. (2)

          

  654. electrostatic discharge (ESD)The sudden and uncontrolled movement of electricity from an object with a greater charge to one with a lesser charge. Also called static electricity. (18)

          

  655. cable selectAn EIDE drive setting that has the system select the drive's role (master or slave) based on the drive's position on the cable. If the drive is on the end of the cable, it is the master drive, and if it is in the middle of the cable, it is the slave drive. (4)

          

  656. datagramDigital versatile disc (DVD) discs that can be written to, but data cannot be overwritten. This standard is newer than DVD-R. This term also refers to the drives that can write to these discs. (2)

          

  657. DVD+RDigital versatile disc (DVD) discs that can be written to, but data cannot be overwritten. This standard is newer than DVD-R. This term also refers to the drives that can write to these discs. (2)

          

  658. I/O addressAn assigned address or range of addresses on a system's address bus that, together with an interrupt request line (IRQ), allows a device to be recognized by the processor. (5)

          

  659. 802.11bIn reference to the Windows operating systems, one that can utilize up to 4 GB of address space. (5)

          

  660. identity theftThis occurs when someone collects personal information belonging to another person and uses that information to fraudulently make purchases, open new credit accounts, and even obtain new driver's licenses and other forms of identification in the victim's name. (16)

          

  661. read/write headA reading and writing device in a floppy or hard drive that is mounted on an articulated arm that moves back and forth over the floppy disk or metal platter. (1)

          

  662. hot-swappable driveA type of solid-state storage that is portable, about the size of a flattened thumb, and usually has a USB interface. Also called a flash drive or jump drive. (2)

          

  663. digital versatile disc (DVD)An optical disc created and read by a mechanism using a laser. (2)

          

  664. local user accountA security account that exists in a local security accounts database. (16)

          

  665. Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP)A protocol for computer-to-computer (host-to-host) transfer of files over a TCP/IP network, regardless of the operating system in use. (13)

          

  666. DSLSee New Low-profile eXtended.

          

  667. Multilingual User Interface (MUI)Fiber-optic cable in which multiple light waves can pass simultaneously. Usually larger in diameter than single-mode fiber; and each wave uses a certain portion of the fiber cable for transmission. (13)

          

  668. ATXIn a computer, pathways that power, data, and control signals travel from one component to another within the system. (2)

          

  669. modemTraditionally, this term only applied to the type of device described in the definition for analog modem. Now, it is also used for the digital devices in DSL and cable data communications. (2)

          

  670. docking stationThe BIOS configuration settings, also called system settings, accessed via a special BIOS-based menu during system startup. (4)

          

  671. FSBSee Microsoft Management Console.

          

  672. Windows Easy Transfer (WET)A small expansion card introduced in the late 1990s that plugs into a special slot on a motherboard and uses the CPU to perform modem functions and sound functions. It is not plug and play compatible. (2)

          

  673. copyA file operation in which the file or folder remains in the source location, and a duplicate is created in the target (destination) location. (10)

          

  674. active partitionA primary partition that is marked for use by the system during startup. Windows operating systems can only be booted from an active partition. (10)

          

  675. recently used programs listA security account that exists in a local security accounts database. (16)

          

  676. primary masterA plastic card, often the size of a credit card, that contains a microchip. The microchip can store information and perform functions, depending on the type of smart card. Some smart cards only store data, whereas others may have a variety of functions, including security cards for facilities or logging on to computers. (16)

          

  677. cleaning bladeIn the laser printing process, a blade that removes residual toner from the drum. (12)

          

  678. second-level domain (SLD)In the domain name system, a name that is registered under a top-level domain, such as mcgraw-hill.com or microsoft.com. (15)

          

  679. Program Compatibility WizardA Windows display setting that allows you to adjust the number of colors, or color depth, used by the display. (3)

          

  680. hot spotA physical area where a Wi-Fi network connects to the Internet. (13)

          

  681. ACPISee Advanced Configuration and Power Interface.

          

  682. I/OA command-line tool installed with the TCP/IP protocol suite that is used for testing communications between two hosts. (15)

          

  683. security auditingA way to monitor security-related events. (16)

          

  684. access control list (ACL)A network connection device at the core of a wireless network. (13)

          

  685. Speaker On/Off keyA key on a laptop that is combined with the FN key to toggle the laptop's speaker on and off. The SPEAKER ON/OFF key is usually one of the standard function keys, such as F3, that displays a speaker symbol. (7)

          

  686. hardware abstraction layer (HAL)The file system component in the FAT file system in which the OS creates a table that serves as a map of where files reside on disk. Also called the FAT table. (10)

          

  687. DB-25A 25-pin D-shell connector. (3)

          

  688. socket servicesA service of the operating system on a laptop that detects when a card has been inserted. (6)

          

  689. voltage regulator module (VRM)A circuit on a motherboard through which incoming power passes. Several voltage regulators maintain a steady voltage as demand goes up and down, with one or more voltage regulators for the various voltages required (5 volts, 12 volts, 3.3 volts, etc.). (1)

          

  690. dynamic diskThe original digital versatile disc (DVD) encoding format used for movies sold at retail. (2)

          

  691. Digital Light Processing (DLP)An optical semiconductor used in small projectors and in rear-projection televisions. (3)

          

  692. overclockingSee Voice over IP (VoIP).

          

  693. transfer corona wireOne of the two prevailing CPU manufacturers. (1)

          

  694. power-on self-test (POST)An internal bus in a CPU that connects it to memory and video. (1)

          

  695. POPSee Post Office Protocol.

          

  696. stuck pixelSee lit pixel.

          

  697. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)A protocol that transfers e-mail messages between mail servers. Clients also use this protocol to send e-mail to mail servers. (13)

          

  698. thin-film transistor (TFT)A square snap coupling for fiber-optic cable, about 2.5 mm wide, used for cable-to-cable connections or to connect cables to network devices. It latches with a push-pull action similar to audio and video jacks. (13)

          

  699. simultaneous multithreading (SMT)The use of two or more video adapters (hence the term "GPU") to drive a single display for the purpose of increasing performance. (3)

          

  700. ERDSee electromagnetic pulse.

          

  701. service packA bundle of patches or updates released periodically by a software publisher. (8)

          

  702. VESASee Encrypting File System (EFS).

          

  703. discretionNot revealing information about someone that would be harmful to or embarrass him or her. (18)

          

  704. developingIn the laser printing process, this is the step in which the cover on the printer's toner cartridge is opened and the toner particles are attracted to the relatively less negatively charged areas of the drum. (12)

          

  705. PAGEFILE.SYSSee paging file.

          

  706. KVM over IPThe digital versatile disc (DVD) encoding format used for data storage. (2)

          

  707. Remote DesktopThe order in which the BIOS will search devices for an operating system to start. (4)

          

  708. workgroupA term used by Microsoft for a peer-to-peer network in which each computer can be either a client or a server or both. (13)

          

  709. zero insertion force (ZIF) socketA socket for a PGA CPU that has a retention lever as well as contacts to match the number of pins on the CPU. The lever is used to attach the CPU to the socket in a manner that does not require force to insert or to remove the CPU. (1)

          

  710. DVD-Data discsA drive on a computer that can play music CDs and read data CDs, but cannot write to CDs. (1)

          

  711. root folderThe top-level folder or directory in the file structure. This appears the same, regardless of the underlying file system. (10)

          

  712. 32-bitSee power-on self-test.

          

  713. h-holdA CRT video setting, also known at horizontal hold, that holds the image horizontally on the screen. (3)

          

  714. floppy disk driveA drive used for reading from and writing to removable floppy disks. Also called FDD. (1)

          

  715. x86See digital subscriber line.

          

  716. Debugging ModeIn the laser printer, the heated rollers that fuse the toner to the paper. (12)

          

  717. gadgetSee FAT file system.

          

  718. Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)A portable computer small enough to fit in your hand, also referred to as a "palmtop" computer. Because it is so small, a PDA does not have the functionality of a laptop or desktop computer. In other words, a typical PDA allows you to perform only a small number of functions. (6)

          

  719. file systemThe logical structure on disk that allows the operating system to save and retrieve files. Examples of file systems are FAT and NTFS. Both of these file system have different versions, such as FAT12, FAT16, FAT32, and NTFS 4.0 and NTFS 5.0. (10)

          

  720. cleaningIn the laser printing process, the stage in which the image is removed from the photosensitive drum so it can accept the next image. (12)

          

  721. PS/2Personal System/2, as in PS/2-style mice and keyboards and connectors. Also called mini-DIN connectors. (3)

          

  722. DVD-18See double-data rate (DDR) SDRAM.

          

  723. System File Checker (SFC)A Windows command prompt utility that uses the WFP (Windows 2000 and Windows XP) or WRP (Windows Vista and Windows 7) service to scan and verify the versions of all protected system files after you restart your computer. (11)

          

  724. fiber-optic cableA cable medium that transmits light pulses rather than electrical signals, so it is not susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI). (13)

          

  725. x86-64A term applied to a CPU, motherboard, or other components that conform to the newer 64-bit architecture. Also referred to as 64-bit. (5)

          

  726. extension magnetA set of behaviors for the workplace that includes how you interact with people and how you treat property. (18)

          

  727. VGASee video graphics array.

          

  728. biometric deviceA device that uses a measurement of a body part, such as a fingerprint or retina scan. (3)

          

  729. DRAMSee Static RAM.

          

  730. Advanced Technology eXtended (ATX)A type of motherboard and its variants most commonly used in recent PC systems. (1)

          

  731. basic input/output system (BIOS)An early technology for increasing the performance of DRAM. (2)

          

  732. peripheral component interconnect (PCI)A processor on a graphics adapter used to render graphics images for the display, saving the CPU for other functions. (1)

          

  733. low-voltage differential (LVD)A technology for transferring serial data at high speeds. Also known as low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS). (3)

          

  734. low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS)See low-voltage differential.

          

  735. SDRAMSee synchronous dynamic RAM.

          

  736. CompactFlashSee distributed denial of service attack.

          

  737. digital video recorder (DVR)A Web browser created by Microsoft. (14)

          

  738. IP routerSee Compact Disc-Read-Only Memory.

          

  739. audio modem riser (AMR)See double-data rate (DDR) SDRAM.

          

  740. UPSSee Balanced Technology eXtended.

          

  741. pin grid array (PGA)A term used for CPU packaging that indicates that a chip has columns and rows of pins. (1)

          

  742. terminating resistorA pointing device built into some laptop keyboards. It appears to be a very tiny joystick-type button that barely protrudes above the level of the keys. (6)

          

  743. DB-9See Balanced Technology eXtended.

          

  744. DHCP ServerA server running the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service. This server allocates IP addresses to DHCP client computers. (13)

          

  745. satellite communicationsA primary partition that is marked for use by the system during startup. Windows operating systems can only be booted from an active partition. (10)

          

  746. RAID 5Also called striping with distributed parity or striping with interleave parity, this RAID method involves a set of disks in which every time data is written to disk, a portion is written to each disk in turn, creating a "stripe" of data across the member disks. However, in each stripe, the portion on one disk is not the actual data, but the result of an algorithm performed on the data contained in the other blocks in the stripe. This block is called the parity block, and because of the space required, the total disk space in the array available for data storage is equal to the total disk space less one entire disk. (2)

          

  747. partition typeThe style of partition on a basic disk, which includes primary and extended. (10)

          

  748. system fileSee paging file.

          

  749. registrationThe process of informing the software manufacturer who the official owner or user of the product is, and providing contact information such as name, address, company, phone number, e-mail address, and so on, about them. Registration is usually a voluntary action. (9)

          

  750. Automatic Private IP Address (APIPA)An address that a DHCP client will assign to itself after requesting an address and failing to receive one from a DHCP server. The address it will assign is in the 169.254 /16 network, which is the range of addresses from 169.254.0.1 to 169.254.255.254. (13)

          

  751. DDR3 SDRAMSee synchronous dynamic RAM.

          

  752. fixed input power supplyA power supply that only accepts one input power voltage. (6)

          

  753. AC adapterA type of power supply that converts AC power to voltages needed for a device. AC adapters are generally used for portable PC systems and other devices. (6)

          

  754. full-duplexA special modifier key on a laptop keyboard that when pressed together with certain alphanumeric keys, changes the output of the pressed key. It is often called the function key. (6)

          

  755. 802.11gSee Domain Name Service.

          

  756. control unitA card that fits into the PC Card interface, including both PC Card and CardBus cards. This type measures 85.6 millimeters long by 54 millimeters wide and 3.3 millimeters thick. (6)

          

  757. Type IIIA card that fits into the PC Card interface, including both PC Card and CardBus cards. This type measures 85.6 millimeters long by 54 millimeters wide and measures 10.5 mm thick. (6)

          

  758. SONETTraditionally, this term only applied to the type of device described in the definition for analog modem. Now, it is also used for the digital devices in DSL and cable data communications. (2)

          

  759. system areaA program file or some special data file that is part of the operating system and is very important to proper operation of the OS. (10)

          

  760. hidden attributeA file attribute that is given to a file to indicate it should not be visible in Windows Explorer unless View settings override the attribute and allow the file to be shown.

          

  761. electromagnetic interference (EMI)The disruption of signal transmission caused by the radiation of electrical and magnetic fields. Electric motors are a common source of EMI. (18)

          

  762. System Configuration UtilityThe moving of data from one storage device to another. (9)

          

  763. IDESee Integrated Drive Electronics.

          

  764. tactShowing consideration for others. (18)

          

  765. touchpadSee hard disk drive.

          

  766. Microsoft Product Activation (MPA)Microsoft's product activation program. (9)

          

  767. TLDSee floppy disk drive.

          

  768. routing information protocol (RIP)The information transfer protocol of the World Wide Web (WWW). Included in HTTP are the commands Web browsers use to request Web pages from Web servers and then display them on the screen of the local computer. (13)

          

  769. passive matrix displaySee systray.

          

  770. archive attributeAn exact duplicate of an entire hard drive's contents, including the OS and all installed software. (9)

          

  771. backup mediaAny writable mass storage device, removable or fixed in place. (2)

          

  772. Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN)A virtual tunnel created between two endpoints over an untrusted network. The tunnel is created by encapsulating the packets within special packets for the tunnel. Other security methods are also usually applied to a VPN, such as encrypting the data before encapsulating it, along with encrypted authentication. (13)

          

  773. Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI)A power management standard that includes all the power states of APM, plus two more. It also supports soft power. (6)

          

  774. dual-core CPUA CPU containing two CPU cores. (1)

          

  775. fusing lampIn a laser printer, the lamp that heats the fusing rollers. (12)

          

  776. SXGASuper XGA, a video graphics mode with a maximum resolution of 1280 × 1024. (3)

          

  777. single-layer (SL)Pertaining to a DVD drive or disc that can store data in a single layer of pits on each data side. (1)

          

  778. MMCA connector used to attach coaxial cables to computers and network equipment. Origin of the term may be "Bayonet-Neill-Concelman" or "British Naval Connector." (2)

          

  779. APMSee automated system recovery.

          

  780. vertical holdAn identifier assigned to a process when it starts. (11)

          

  781. ATX power supplyA power supply form factor that pairs with an ATX motherboard and case. (3)

          

  782. patchA level of service offered by the telephone companies over a T-carrier circuit that provides full-duplex transmissions at 1.544 Mbps, carrying digital voice, data, or video signals. (13)

          

  783. flat panel display (FPD)A small expansion card introduced in the late 1990s that plugs into a special slot on a motherboard and uses the CPU to perform modem functions and sound functions. It is not plug and play compatible. (2)

          

  784. planar boardSee motherboard.

          

  785. touch screenA type of display device that includes a touch-sensitive face to accept input from the user. (3)

          

  786. line printerA printer that uses a light beam (laser) in the printing process. (12)

          

  787. contrast ratioThe difference in value between a display's brightest white and darkest black. Modern LCD displays have a contrast ratio of 500:1 or greater. (3)

          

  788. L1 cacheSee internal cache memory.

          

  789. access controlA device found in laptops that monitors and regulates power usage. The features vary by manufacturer, but typically, they provide short-circuit protection, give "low battery" warnings, and can be configured to shut down the computer automatically when the power is low. (6)

          

  790. Internet Explorer (IE)A Web browser created by Microsoft. (14)

          

  791. top-level domain (TLD)The role of the second EIDE drive on a PATA channel. (4)

          

  792. TV tuner cardSee systray.

          

  793. ARPSee enhanced capabilities port (ECP) mode.

          

  794. User Datagram Protocol (UDP)A subprotocol of TCP/IP used for connectionless communications in which each packet is sent without establishing a connection. (13)

          

  795. DVD-VideoA video interface, also called Super Video, that transmits video using two signals—luminance, represented by a Y, and chrominance, represented by a C. S-video ports are round to accommodate a round plug with four pins. (3)

          

  796. flash memoryA type of solid-state storage that is commonly used in a variety of devices, such as digital cameras, which often use CompactFlash. (2)

          

  797. thread of executionA partition type that can exist on a basic disk and have one or more logical drive letters assigned to it. A Windows operating system cannot boot from an extended partition. (10)

          

  798. address busAn identifier assigned to a process when it starts. (11)

          

  799. processor busA set of wires used by data traveling into and out of a processor. (1)

          

  800. Voice over IP (VoIP)The practice of forcing a CPU or other computer component to run at a higher clock rate than the manufacturer intended. (1)

          

  801. WUXGARadio frequency interference. Radio signals that occur in proximity to equipment that is sensitive to these types of signals. (15)

          

  802. PINGA command-line tool installed with the TCP/IP protocol suite that is used for testing communications between two hosts. (15)

          

  803. ATAPISee ATA Packet Interface.

          

  804. EthernetA utility that provides remote terminal emulation for connecting to computers and network devices running server software that can respond, without needing to be concerned with the actual operating system running on either system. (13)

          

  805. editionA diagram showing the purpose of each wire in a connector. (4)

          

  806. port triggeringThe style of partition on a basic disk, which includes primary and extended. (10)

          

  807. latencySee Integrated Drive Electronics.

          

  808. IEEE 1394aA wireless network standard that uses the 2.4 GHz band at a speed of up to 10 Mbps. (13)

          

  809. subtreeSee network address translation.

          

  810. DoS AttackSee denial of service (DoS) attack.

          

  811. ACSee access control list.

          

  812. DLTSee New Low-profile eXtended.

          

  813. Enhanced IDE (EIDE)A standard for hard drives that attach to the Parallel AT Attachment (PATA) interface. (1)

          

  814. read-only memory (ROM)An early technology for increasing the performance of DRAM. (2)

          

  815. liquid crystal display (LCD)A display device that uses liquid crystals to display images. (3)

          

  816. primary slaveA pointing device built into some laptop keyboards. It appears to be a very tiny joystick-type button that barely protrudes above the level of the keys. (6)

          

  817. lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteryA type of rechargeable battery used in laptops and other portable devices. (6)

          

  818. mini-DIN-6In the laser printing process, the step at which the heat-sensitive toner is fused to the paper by heated fusing rollers. (12)

          

  819. LVDSee low-voltage differential (LVD).

          

  820. authentication factorSee security auditing.

          

  821. hot swappingThe act of moving through a neighborhood in a vehicle or on foot, using either a laptop equipped with Wi-Fi wireless network capability or a simple Wi-Fi sensor available for a few dollars from many sources. War drivers are searching for open hotspots—areas where a Wi-Fi network connects to the Internet without using security to keep out intruders. (16)

          

  822. BIOS settingsA physical area where a Wi-Fi network connects to the Internet. (13)

          

  823. Level 2 (L2) cacheA cable medium that transmits light pulses rather than electrical signals, so it is not susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI). (13)

          

  824. Microsoft Management Console (MMC)Introduced in Windows 2000, a user interface for Windows administration tools that is flexible and configurable. (8)

          

  825. solid inkA type of printer that uses solid, rather than liquid, ink. (12)

          

  826. system resourcesA finite set of resources controlled by the operating system and critical to the use of all computer components. (5)

          

  827. master driveThe role of the first EIDE drive on a PATA channel. (4)

          

  828. nonvolatile memoryThe use by the operating system of a portion of hard disk as memory. (9)

          

  829. 802.11nA double-sided, single-layer digital versatile disc (DVD) that stores 9.4 GB of data, or over four hours of video. (2)

          

  830. amperes (amps)A measurement of the volume of electrons, also called current. It is calculated with the formula amps = watts / volts. (3)

          

  831. bridgeIn a disk drive, the rotating shaft used to spin the disks. (1)

          

  832. mini-audio connectorAudio connectors that use a 1/8" single pin plug. (3)

          

  833. FireWireA dedicated computer that stores data and provides print services or other capabilities to network clients. (13)

          

  834. domainIn a Microsoft Windows network, an administrative organization with a centralized security accounts database maintained on one or more special servers called domain controllers. This centralized database contains accounts for users, groups, and computers participating in the domain, and it is used to authenticate a user for access to any resource in the domain. (13)

          

  835. RAID arrayA RAM standard that replaces the original DDR2 standard and requires far less power, while providing almost twice the bandwidth. A stick of DDR3 SDRAM has 240 pins, but is keyed so it will not fit into a socket designed for DDR2. DDR3 SO-DIMMs have 204 pins. (2)

          

  836. repeaterMemory locations within a CPU that is used as a scratch pad for calculations. Modern CPUs have dedicated registers for specific functions and general-purpose registers for multiple purposes. (1)

          

  837. connectorThe boot loader file in Windows 2000 and Windows XP. During the boot loader phase, NTLDR takes control of the system, switches the CPU to protected mode, starts the file system, and reads the BOOT.INI file. (10)

          

  838. ZIFSee radio frequency.

          

  839. Task SchedulerA Windows utility that allows you to create tasks that run automatically at the times you select. (11)

          

  840. thermal pasteA power-usage level. (6)

          

  841. soft powerA cell phone with Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) functions built in. (6)

          

  842. clusterThe minimum disk space that a file can use, allocated in the file system. (10)

          

  843. partitionA subpackaging of a Windows revision that contains the core OS plus a special set of features that is offered as a separate product targeted to a certain type of end user. (8)

          

  844. local KVM switchSee KVM switch.

          

  845. digital video discsThe original digital discs created in 1995 for storing video. (1)

          

  846. spindleIn a disk drive, the rotating shaft used to spin the disks. (1)

          

  847. Control PanelThe area at the beginning of a disk formatted with the FAT file system. This area contains the boot record, FAT table, and root directory. (10)

          

  848. inactive KVM switchA type of KVM switch that is controlled through a mechanical switch on the box. (3)

          

  849. client/server-based networkA network in which dedicated computers called servers store data and provide print services or other capabilities to computers running the appropriate client service or services. (13)

          

  850. IEEESee network address translation.

          

  851. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)A protocol for computer-to-computer (host-to-host) transfer of files over a TCP/IP network, regardless of the operating system in use. (13)

          

  852. Safe ModeIn Windows, an Advanced Options menu choice that starts Windows without several drivers and components and loads only very basic, non-vendor-specific drivers for mouse, video, keyboard, mass storage, and system services. Safe Mode also displays in low resolution. (11)

          

  853. color depthThe number of colors used by a display. (3)

          

  854. display power-management signaling (DPMS)Introduced in Windows 2000, a user interface for Windows administration tools that is flexible and configurable. (8)

          

  855. ACLSee access control list.

          

  856. digitizing tabletThe bus within a CPU that connects the CPU to external components. (1)

          

  857. drive lock passwordA Windows service designed to allow a user to invite someone to help troubleshoot a problem. (11)

          

  858. Li-ionSee Automatic Private IP Address.

          

  859. lit pixelA pixel that is permanently turned on, causing the pixel to show constantly as red, green, or blue. Also called a stuck pixel. (7)

          

  860. ExpressCardA category of software that runs surreptitiously on a user's computer in order to gather information without the user's permission and then sends that information to the people who requested it. (16)

          

  861. Multimedia Terminal Adapter (MTA)Memory chips that provide much slower access than SRAM chips but that can store several megabytes of data on a single chip (or hundreds of megabytes, or even gigabytes, when they are packaged together on a "stick"). (2)

          

  862. S/PDIFSee network interface card.

          

  863. riser cardIn a low-profile PC case, a card that plugs into a motherboard to allow other cards to be inserted at a right angle to the riser card and parallel to the motherboard. Also, a single expansion card containing multiple functions, such as modem, sound, and network. (1)

          

  864. LPT2See cathode ray tube (CRT) monitor.

          

  865. bandwidthSee hard disk drive.

          

  866. landSee Advanced Power Management.

          

  867. electro-photosensitive drumIn a laser printer, a metal drum with an electro-photosensitive coating to which a charge can be applied by a laser beam. (12)

          

  868. smart card readerThe role of the second EIDE drive on a PATA channel. (4)

          

  869. Encrypting File System (EFS)A security feature of many Windows versions that allows it to encrypt files on an NTFS volume. (16)

          

  870. EFSSee Encrypting File System (EFS).

          

  871. microprogramOne of many low-level instructions built into the control unit of a CPU. Also called a microprogram. (1)

          

  872. enhanced capability port (ECP) modeA mode for parallel ports that allows access to special features in the PC called DMA channels. This mode is approximately ten times faster than regular bidirectional mode and is designed for printers and scanners. (4)

          

  873. stand-alone computerA computer that is not connected to a network of any kind. (13)

          

  874. proxy serverA dedicated computer that stores data and provides print services or other capabilities to network clients. (13)

          

  875. FAT12See serial ATA.

          

  876. professionalismA set of behaviors for the workplace that includes how you interact with people and how you treat property. (18)

          

  877. RAID controllerSpecialized hardware used to create and manage a RAID array. (2)

          

  878. pitA name used by the Windows operating systems to identify any parallel port. (5)

          

  879. thumb driveA type of solid-state storage that is portable, about the size of a flattened thumb, and usually has a USB interface. Also called a flash drive or jump drive. (2)

          

  880. VRAMSee video RAM.

          

  881. DVD-ROM driveA DVD drive that cannot write to but can read DVD discs. (2)

          

  882. digitizerSee digitizing tablet.

          

  883. SCSISee alternating current.

          

  884. subscription channel (SC)A paid television subscription service offered by cable television providers. (13)

          

  885. threadWindows run-line utility for testing the DirectX support. Launch this program when experiencing video problems and/or audio problems when running DirectX applications. (11)

          

  886. IEC-320 connectorA slide switch on the exterior of a PC power supply used to switch between two input voltages.

          

  887. personal firewallSee software firewall.

          

  888. YUsed to represent the luminance signal in S-Video. (3)

          

  889. sub-mini audio connectorA 3/32" audio connector. (3)

          

  890. POTSSee plain-old telephone service.

          

  891. virtual memoryThe use by the operating system of a portion of hard disk as memory. (9)

          

  892. aspect ratioThe proportion between an image's width and height. Traditional CRT monitors have an aspect ratio of 4:3. Widescreen displays have an aspect ratio of 16:9. (3)

          

  893. processor boardAnother name for a motherboard in a laptop. (6)

          

  894. dual inline memory module (DIMM)A memory module (stick) that installs into matching DIMM sockets found on many motherboards. The word "dual" refers to the separate pins or connections on both sides of the module and socket. (1)

          

  895. VGA ModeA video mode that most often consists of a combination of 640 × 480 pixels display resolution and 16 colors. VGA can produce around 16 million different colors, but can display only up to 256 different colors at a time. (3)

          

  896. DDR1Software installed on a computer without permission that collects information about a user in order to display targeted advertisements, in the form of either inline banners or pop-ups. Inline banners are advertisements that run within the context of the current page, taking up screen real estate. (16)

          

  897. cookiesSee continuity RIMM.

          

  898. 802.11aSee logical block address.

          

  899. DVDSee second-level domain.

          

  900. updateIn Microsoft terminology, software that contains one or more software fixes or changes to the operating system. (8)

          

  901. graphical processing unit (GPU)A component that you can install into a system onsite, such as memory modules, heat sinks, and CMOS batteries. (5)

          

  902. shadow maskSee Secure Digital (SD) Card.

          

  903. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)One of the two main protocols of the TCP/IP protocol suite, TCP breaks the data into chunks, called datagrams. Each datagram also contains information, stored in a header, which is used by the TCP protocol on the receiving end to reassemble the chunks of data into the original message. (13)

          

  904. CMOS settingsThe filename for the System Configuration Utility, which allows you to test various scenarios for Windows startup for troubleshooting purposes. (11)

          

  905. universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART)A chip that works with a serial port, converting outgoing data from parallel to serial and incoming data from serial to parallel. (3)

          

  906. permanent virtual circuit (PVC)A virtual communication circuit that is created and remains available between two endpoints, which are normally some form of data terminal equipment (DTE). Telecommunications companies provide PVC service to companies requiring a dedicated circuit between two sites that require communications that are always on. (13)

          

  907. WPA2See Wi-Fi Protected Access 2.

          

  908. IEEE 1394An external serial bus standardized by the IEEE. Apple first developed it as FireWire. Other manufacturers call it i.link or Lynx. It can support up to 63 daisy-chained devices. Since the introduction of the faster update, IEEE 1394b, the original standard is called IEEE 1394a. (3)

          

  909. FPUSee floating-point unit.

          

  910. public switched telephone network (PSTN)An option available in the Windows XP Backup program for recovering from damage that prevents the operating system from starting. It replaced the Emergency Repair Disk (ERD) process in Windows 2000. (11)

          

  911. internetworkAn interconnected network. The Internet is the largest example. (13)

          

  912. floating-point unit (FPU)In reference to computers, the pathways or methods for what goes into a computer in the form of data and instructions and similarly what comes out of the computer in many forms, including an onscreen display, a printout sent to a printer, or data sent to another device or computer. (1)

          

  913. double-data rate (DDR) SDRAMA printed circuit card that you add to the motherboard to enhance functionality. Also called an expansion card. Video adapters and network interface cards (NICs) are examples of adapter cards. (2)

          

  914. FAT file systemAn EIDE drive setting that has the system select the drive's role (master or slave) based on the drive's position on the cable. If the drive is on the end of the cable, it is the master drive, and if it is in the middle of the cable, it is the slave drive. (4)

          

  915. digital linear tape (DLT)A technology developed in the 1980s for storing data. Variations of this format are in use today. (2)

          

  916. American National Standards Institute (ANSI)A technical standards organization. (3)

          

  917. mass storage deviceA storage type in Windows that uses the partition table in the master boot record (MBR) to define disk partitions. (10)

          

  918. unidirectional modeA parallel port mode in which the signals can be transmitted in both directions between the PC and parallel devices connected to the computer. (4)

          

  919. File Transfer Protocol (FTP)A protocol for computer-to-computer (host-to-host) transfer of files over a TCP/IP network, regardless of the operating system in use. (13)

          

  920. software firewallA firewall consisting of software that you can install on any computer, as opposed to the software built into a hardware firewall. Also called personal firewalls because they are designed to be installed on individual desktop computers. (16)

          

  921. User State Migration Tool (USMT)A virtual tunnel created between two endpoints over an untrusted network. The tunnel is created by encapsulating the packets within special packets for the tunnel. Other security methods are also usually applied to a VPN, such as encrypting the data before encapsulating it, along with encrypted authentication. (13)

          

  922. voltsSee power-on self-test.

          

  923. Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2)An improved version of WPA that does not support older network cards and offers both secure authentication and data encryption. It uses EAP for a variety of authentication methods—most often EAP-PSK. (16)

          

  924. long filename (LFN)A file or folder name that breaks the 8.3 file-naming convention used in the FAT file system. This term continues to be used on newer file systems. (10)

          

  925. biometricA measurement of a body part, such as a fingerprint or retina scan. (16)

          

  926. Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)A wireless data encryption standard based on the IEEE 802.11i security standard. It issues keys per-user and per-session and includes encryption key integrity checking. It uses Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP). (16)

          

  927. TelnetSee access control entry.

          

  928. CRIMMSee continuity RIMM.

          

  929. multifunction device (MFD)A device that uses a measurement of a body part, such as a fingerprint or retina scan. (3)

          

  930. Infrared Data Association (IrDA)The moving of data from one storage device to another. (9)

          

  931. active matrix displayAn LCD display that uses a DB-15 connector, which means that it accepts analog signals that it converts to digital. (3)

          

  932. DMA controllerA device found in laptops that monitors and regulates power usage. The features vary by manufacturer, but typically, they provide short-circuit protection, give "low battery" warnings, and can be configured to shut down the computer automatically when the power is low. (6)

          

  933. SouthbridgeA protocol developed in the 1980s by IBM for managing names on a network. Also used by Microsoft in early networking. Replaced by DNS on TCP/IP networks. (13)

          

  934. DVI-DA single-sided, single-layer digital versatile disc (DVD) that stores 4.7 GB of data, or over two hours of video. (2)

          

  935. formatA process that places the logical structure of a file system on a partitioned volume. (4)

          

  936. luminanceA type of printer that uses one of several technologies to apply wet ink to paper to create text or graphic printouts. The two most popular inkjet printer models are the InkJet, developed by Hewlett-Packard, and the Bubble Jet, developed by Canon. Epson uses the term "ink jet" (with a space), but it does not appear in the model names of their printers. (12)

          

  937. drive-by downloadA round connector that gets its name from Deutsche Industrie Norm, a German standards organization. Normally a round connector with a circular or semicircle of pins. (3)

          

  938. Advanced Power Management (APM)A power management standard, introduced by Intel in 1992, that defines four power-usage operating levels. (6)

          

  939. vertical refresh rateThe difference in value between a display's brightest white and darkest black. Modern LCD displays have a contrast ratio of 500:1 or greater. (3)

          

  940. 8-bit high colorDescribes the VGA mode color setting that, although it can produce around 16 million different colors, can only display up to 256 different colors at a time. (3)

          

  941. Intel x86 SpecificationAn Intel specification for the PC 32-bit architecture defining CPUs, motherboards, and other components. (5)

          

  942. cable testerA tool for testing if a cable can connect properly end-to-end and to determine if a cable has a short. These tools are available for a variety of cable types. (5)

          

  943. Color QualityA Windows display setting that allows you to adjust the number of colors, or color depth, used by the display. (3)

          

  944. digital subscriber line (DSL)A WAN connection that uses existing copper telephone wire for the communication circuit. To accomplish this, a DSL modem splits the existing phone line into two bands; voice transmission uses the frequencies below 4000 Hz, whereas data transmission uses everything else. (13)

          

  945. Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)An interface standard developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), it is used for both internal and external hard drives and optical drives as well as devices such as printers, modems, scanners, and many other peripherals. (3)

          

  946. DNS ServerA server that manages DNS names. (13)

          

  947. POST cardA printed circuit card that you add to the motherboard to enhance functionality. Also called an expansion card. Video adapters and network interface cards (NICs) are examples of adapter cards. (2)

          

  948. PROMProgrammable ROM. A ROM chip that can have programs added to it. (2)

          

  949. wide area network (WAN)A network connection over long distances, traditionally using phone lines or satellite communications. (13)

          

  950. boot sectorIn the Windows GUI, a horizontal bar normally positioned across the bottom of the desktop containing a Start button, the Quick Launch toolbar, buttons for running programs, and at the far right, the notification area. Sometimes called the Start Bar. (8)

          

  951. access control entry (ACE)In an access control list, a record containing just one user or group account name and the permissions assigned to that account. (16)

          

  952. input/out (I/O)In reference to computers, the pathways or methods for what goes into a computer in the form of data and instructions and similarly what comes out of the computer in many forms, including an onscreen display, a printout sent to a printer, or data sent to another device or computer. (1)

          

  953. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)The cellular network standards used by Verizon and Sprint-Nextel. (13)

          

  954. NSLOOKUPA scaled-down laptop in the ultra-portable category, designed for Internet access. See also ultra-portable and mini-notebook. (6)

          

  955. optical driveA magnetic mass storage device primarily used for backing up data from computers. (1)

          

  956. transport layer security (TLS)A marriage of SCSI and Serial ATA, this uses a serial interface to a SCSI bus. (3)

          

  957. personal area network (PAN)Light waves in the infrared spectrum. (6)

          

  958. Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)A subprotocol of IP that detects and reports problems that can cause errors. (15)

          

  959. communication network riser (CNR)A small expansion card introduced in the late 1990s that plugs into a special slot on a motherboard and uses the CPU to perform modem functions and sound functions. It is not plug and play compatible. (2)

          

  960. exceptionIn router configuration, a term that is used to describe traffic that is allowed, as in allowing traffic using a certain port number through the router. (16)

          

  961. paging fileInformation organized as a unit into a container. The author (creator) of a file controls how much information the file contains. (10)

          

  962. removable storageStorage media that is removable, meaning the drive stays in place, while the media (disk, disc, or tape) is removed and replaced with another disk, disc, or tape. (2)

          

  963. system requirementsThe specific requirements for the level of CPU, amount of memory, and size of the hard disk for the computer on which an operating system can be installed. (8)

          

  964. Enable Low Resolution VideoIn Windows Vista and Windows 7, an Advanced Options menu choice that starts Windows normally, except that the video mode is changed to the lowest resolution, using the currently installed video driver. This option does not switch to the basic Windows video driver. (11)

          

  965. active communicationAn early method for addressing the disparity between the drive geometry supported by PC BIOSs and the physical geometry of drives. (1)

          

  966. FAT16See FAT file system.

          

  967. mount pointA word used to describe memory that cannot work without a steady supply of power. (2)

          

  968. drive pathA DVI mode that supports downward compatibility with analog displays. (3)

          

  969. NetBIOSSee uninterruptible power supply.

          

  970. surge protectorA device, usually resembling a power strip, that protects equipment from power surges. (5)

          

  971. switching mode power supplyA power supply that converts between alternating current and direct current. (3)

          

  972. display resolutionThe displayable number of pixels, expressed as x and y numbers, such as 1024 × 768, 1152 × 864, and 1280 × 1024. (3)