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40 True/False questions

  1. retinoidsthe layer of light-sensitive nerve cells lining the back of the inside of the eye; consists of rods and cones

          

  2. carotenoidspigments commonly found in plants and animals, some of which have vitamin A activity

          

  3. beta-carotenean orange vegetable pigment that the body can change into the active form of vitamin a, one of the antioxidant nutrients

          

  4. hemorrhagic diseasea disease characterized by excessive bleeding

          

  5. retinol-binding proteinchemically related compounds with biological activity similar to that of retinol; metabolites of retinol

          

  6. hemolytic anemiathe condition of having too few red blood cells as a result of erythrocyte hemolysis

          

  7. fibrocystic breast diseasea harmless condition in which the breasts develop lumps, sometimes associated with caffeine consumption. In some, it responds to abstinence from caffeine; in others, it can be treated with vitamin E

          

  8. remodelinga light-sensitive pigment of the retina; contains the retinal form of vitamin A and the protein opsin

          

  9. corneathe transparent membrane covering the outside of the eye

          

  10. vitamin A activitya term referring to both the active forms of vitamin A and the precursor forms in foods without distinguishing between them

          

  11. acnea chronic inflammation of the skin's follicles and oil producing glands, which leads to an accumulation of oils inside the ducts that surround hairs; usually associated with the maturation of young adults

          

  12. pigmenta molecule capable of absorbing certain wavelengths of light so that it reflects only those that we perceive as a certain color

          

  13. retinol activity equivalentsthe specific protein responsible for transporting retinol

          

  14. teratogeniccausing abnormal fetal development and birth defects

          

  15. xanthophyllsthe green pigment of plants, which absorbs light and transfers the energy to other molecules, thereby initiating photosynthesis

          

  16. cell differentiationaccumulation of keratin in a tissue; a sign of vitamin A deficiency

          

  17. mucous membranesthe membranes, composed of mucous-secreting cells, that line the surfaces of body tissues

          

  18. xerosisabnormal drying of the skin and mucous membranes; a sign of vitamin A deficiency

          

  19. intermittent claudicationaccumulation of keratin in a tissue; a sign of vitamin A deficiency

          

  20. keratina water-insoluble protein; the normal protein of hair and nails

          

  21. epithelial tissuethe layer of the body that serves as a selective barrier between the body's interior and the environment

          

  22. tocopherola general term for several chemically related compounds, one of which has vitamin E activity

          

  23. rhodopsinthe protein portion of the visual pigment molecule.

          

  24. ricketsa chronic inflammation of the skin's follicles and oil producing glands, which leads to an accumulation of oils inside the ducts that surround hairs; usually associated with the maturation of young adults

          

  25. vitamin Athe layer of light-sensitive nerve cells lining the back of the inside of the eye; consists of rods and cones

          

  26. muscular dystrophythe membranes, composed of mucous-secreting cells, that line the surfaces of body tissues

          

  27. alpha-tocopherola general term for several chemically related compounds, one of which has vitamin E activity

          

  28. keratinizationa water-insoluble protein; the normal protein of hair and nails

          

  29. hemophiliaa hereditary disease in which the blood is unable to clot because it lacks the ability to synthesize certain clotting factors

          

  30. chlorophyllthe green pigment of plants, which absorbs light and transfers the energy to other molecules, thereby initiating photosynthesis

          

  31. retinachemically related compounds with biological activity similar to that of retinol; metabolites of retinol

          

  32. sterilethe layer of light-sensitive nerve cells lining the back of the inside of the eye; consists of rods and cones

          

  33. keratomalaciasoftening of the cornea that leads to irreversible blindness; seen in severe vitamin A deficiency

          

  34. preformed vitamin Aall naturally occurring compounds with the biological activity of retinol

          

  35. epithelial cellscells on the surface of the skin and mucous membranes

          

  36. xerophthalmiaprogressive blindness caused by severe vitamin A deficiency

          

  37. night blindnessSlow recovery of vision after exposure to flashes of bright light at night; an early symptom of vitamin A deficiency.

          

  38. erythrocyte hemolysiscells on the surface of the skin and mucous membranes

          

  39. opsinthe protein portion of the visual pigment molecule.

          

  40. osteomalaciasoftening of the cornea that leads to irreversible blindness; seen in severe vitamin A deficiency