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51 True/False questions

  1. Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS)A method based on the amino acid requirements of young children that takes into consideration digestibility of the protein; a recently developed and preferred measure for determining the quality of a protein.

          

  2. Peptides Or Peptide ChainsShort polymer formed from linking amino acids.

          

  3. Salivary AmylaseEnzyme found in saliva that catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch.

          

  4. HydrocarbonsA lipoprotein that transports cholesterol and triglyceride from the small intestines to tissues in the body.

          

  5. Soluble FiberIndigestible, non-water soluble polysaccharides found in plants (e.g. wheat bran, nuts); increases stool bulk and enhances transit time.

          

  6. Pancreatic LipaseEnzyme secreted from the pancreas that hydrolyzes fat.

          

  7. ChylomicronA lipoprotein that transports cholesterol and triglyceride from the small intestines to tissues in the body.

          

  8. Unsaturated Fatty AcidsA fatty acid with no double bonds in the chain.

          

  9. Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA)An omega-3, polyunsaturated fatty acid, found mainly in fish and algae; can be formed from ALA.

          

  10. Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA)An omega-3, polyunsaturated fatty acid, found mainly in fish and algae.

          

  11. Glycemic Index (GI)Measure of the rate at which an ingested food causes the level of glucose in the blood to rise. The relative degree of blood sugar elevation after the consumption of 50 g carbohydrate coming from a specific test food.

          

  12. PolysaccharidesMore than about 10 linked monosaccharides that form a polymer. Starches, glycogen, fiber.

          

  13. Lipoprotein LipaseAn enzyme found in endothelial cells lining the capillaries; hydrolyzes lipids into fatty acid and glycerol.

          

  14. GlycogenolysisSugar alcohol that is the backbone of a triglyceride.

          

  15. AmylopectinA component of starch characterized by its highly branched chain structure and fast digestion.

          

  16. GlucoseA monosaccharide; less soluble and sweet than glucose.

          

  17. FructoseA monosaccharide that is very sweet; possesses a ketone rather than an aldehyde, which distinguishes it from glucose.

          

  18. Essential Amino AcidAmino acid that does not need to be included in the diet.

          

  19. Alpha-Linolenic Acid (ALA)Unsaturated omega-3 fatty acid considered essential to the human diet.

          

  20. Glycogen PhosphorylaseEnzyme necessary for the conversion of excess glucose into stored glycogen.

          

  21. Gastric Hydrochloric AcidProduced by parietal cells in the stomach, this acid liquid is necessary for digestion.

          

  22. OligosaccharidesSaccharide composed of a small number of monosaccharides.

          

  23. GLUT FamilySugar alcohol that is the backbone of a triglyceride.

          

  24. EicosanoidsFunctional groups (abbreviated as NH2) that contains a nitrogen atom.

          

  25. Non-Essential Amino AcidAmino acid that does not need to be included in the diet.

          

  26. GlycerolSugar alcohol that is the backbone of a triglyceride.

          

  27. Secondary, Tertiary, And Quaternary StructuresA fatty acid with no double bonds in the chain.

          

  28. Linoleic AcidUnsaturated omega-3 fatty acid considered essential to the human diet.

          

  29. PepsinA component of starch characterized by its highly branched chain structure and fast digestion.

          

  30. DeaminationDigestive protease released in the stomach to degrade food proteins to peptides.

          

  31. Insoluble FiberIndigestible, non-water soluble polysaccharides found in plants (e.g. wheat bran, nuts); increases stool bulk and enhances transit time.

          

  32. ProenzymeA monosaccharide that is very sweet; possesses a ketone rather than an aldehyde, which distinguishes it from glucose.

          

  33. Limiting Amino AcidAmino acid that must be included in the diet.

          

  34. Linolenic AcidUnsaturated omega-3 fatty acid considered essential to the human diet.

          

  35. MonosaccharidesMore than about 10 linked monosaccharides that form a polymer. Starches, glycogen, fiber.

          

  36. Plasma Amino Acid PoolReserve of amino acids found in blood plasma.

          

  37. Glycemic LoadSugar alcohol that is the backbone of a triglyceride.

          

  38. Fatty AcidFats that have been shown to improve overall health.

          

  39. GalactoseA monosaccharide; less soluble and sweet than glucose.

          

  40. Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA)Amino acids with alphatic side chain that is non-linear.

          

  41. AmyloseA component of starch characterized by straight chains of glucose units.

          

  42. SatietyThe state of being satisfactorily full.

          

  43. Healthy FatsChain of carbon atoms with a carboxylic acid and alphatic tail.

          

  44. Amino GroupsSignaling molecules of the body that control many systems.

          

  45. Saturated Fatty AcidA fatty acid with no double bonds in the chain.

          

  46. Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid RatioBalance of dietary fat intake; critical to overall health.

          

  47. Pancreatic AmylaseEnzyme found in pancreatic juice that catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch.

          

  48. Insulin Index (II)Measure of the rate of which an ingested food causes the level on insulin in the blood to rise.

          

  49. TriglyceridesCompound with three molecules of fatty acids bound with one molecule of glycerol; the storage form of fat in humans.

          

  50. Net Negative Protein BalanceNitrogen output that exceeds nitrogen intake.

          

  51. Glycogen SynthaseBreakdown of stored glycogen to glucose.