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87 True/False questions

  1. ApolipoproteinLipid binding protein that is part of a lipoprotein.

          

  2. TransaminationThe transfer of an amino group from an amino acid to an alpha-keto acid.

          

  3. MonoglycerideA glycerol with one fatty acid chain.

          

  4. LipoproteinsLipid binding protein that is part of a lipoprotein.

          

  5. NAD+Reduced form of NAD; used to transfer electrons.

          

  6. Fatty Acid Synthase(Re)building of proteins.

          

  7. Glycogen PhosphorylaseEnzyme necessary for the conversion of excess glucose into stored glycogen.

          

  8. Peptide ChainShort polymer formed from linking amino acids.

          

  9. ChylomicronA lipoprotein that transports cholesterol and triglyceride from the small intestines to tissues of the body.

          

  10. AdipocytesBreakdown of fatty acids into acids and glycerol.

          

  11. Hormone Sensitive LipaseIsoenzyme found in muscle and brain tissue that catalyzes the formation of ATP; higher after tissue injury.

          

  12. GlycolysisSeries of reactions in the cytosol that converts glucose into pyruvic acid and ultimately ATP.

          

  13. Monosaturated Fatty AcidA single double bond in the fatty acid chain.

          

  14. a-ketoacidAn organic acid containing a functional ketone group and a carboxylic acid.

          

  15. GlucagonLiquid component of blood that suspends blood cells; contains water, glucose, proteins and hormones.

          

  16. LDL CholesterolSynthesis of glycogen.

          

  17. Beta OxidationRemoval of hydrogen atom(s) to form a double bond.

          

  18. Lipogenic EnzymeUnsaturated omega-6 fatty acids characterized by a carbon-carbon double bond six spaces from the methyl end.

          

  19. Statin DrugsFat cells.

          

  20. AtherosclerosisDevelopment of plaque in the lumen (interior space) of blood vessels.

          

  21. Laws Of ThermodynamicsPrinciples that govern energy exchange, including heat exchange and the performance of work.

          

  22. LipolysisFat cells.

          

  23. AmineAlso known as NH3, a very basic end product of protein metabolism.

          

  24. Krebs CycleCycle that takes place in the liver and creates urea from ammonia and carbon dioxide.

          

  25. Adipose TissueA class of proteins with hydrophobic core of triglycerides or cholesterol surrounded by hydrophilic phospholipids, apolipoproteins and cholesterol.

          

  26. CreatineNitrogenous substance; derived from arginine, glycine, methionine, found in muscle tissue.

          

  27. Polyunsaturated Fatty AcidA single double bond in the fatty acid chain.

          

  28. Hydrogen IonThe cation of acids; consists of a hydrogen atom whose electron has been transferred to the anion of the acid.

          

  29. Muscle AcidityAn organic acid containing a functional ketone group and a carboxylic acid.

          

  30. AmmoniaOne of a group of organic nitrogen compounds.

          

  31. ProtonParticle with a positive charge, usually regarded as a hydrogen ion; when the protein gradient shifts in the electron transport chain, energy conversion occurs.

          

  32. Branched Chain Amino Acid (BCAA)Amino acid with alphatic side chain that is non-linear.

          

  33. Growth HormoneNitrogenous substance; derived from arginine, glycine, methionine, found in muscle tissue.

          

  34. Electron Transport ChainShort polymer formed from linking amino acids.

          

  35. PyruvateSalt of pyruvic acid; the end product of glycolysis.

          

  36. HepatocytesFat cells.

          

  37. Energy TransferBalance between protein synthesis and breakdown.

          

  38. Protein SynthesisBalance between protein synthesis and breakdown.

          

  39. NADHRiboflavin derived hydrogen acceptor in the Krebs cycle.

          

  40. Plasma Pool Of Amino AcidsReserve of amino acids found in blood plasma.

          

  41. Glycogen SynthaseBreakdown of stored glycogen to glucose.

          

  42. Protein TurnoverBalance between protein synthesis and breakdown.

          

  43. UreaCo-enzyme of dehydrogenases; plays a role in intermediary metabolism as an oxidizing agent or reducing agent for metabolites.

          

  44. DesaturationRemoval of an amine group from a compound.

          

  45. Creatine KinaseIsoenzyme found in muscle and brain tissue that catalyzes the formation of ATP; higher after tissue injury.

          

  46. ElongationRemoval of an amine group from a compound.

          

  47. GlycogenesisBreakdown of stored glycogen to glucose.

          

  48. MyocytesFat cells.

          

  49. Complete ProteinA source of protein that contains an adequate proportion of all nine of the essential amino acids necessary for the dietary needs of humans or other animals.

          

  50. Protein Breakdown(Re)building of proteins.

          

  51. Anaerobic ThresholdThe point at which lactic acid begins to accumulate in the bloodstream.

          

  52. Omega-3Reduced form of NAD; used to transfer electrons.

          

  53. Glycolytic SystemSeries of reactions in the cytosol that converts glucose into pyruvic acid and ultimately ATP.

          

  54. Cori CycleA major metabolic pathway that involves a series of enzymatic reactions that convert pyruvate acid from food to acetyl-CoA for energy.

          

  55. Lipid MobilizationUsing lipids as a fuel source.

          

  56. AnaerobicWithout oxygen present.

          

  57. FADH2Riboflavin derived hydrogen acceptor in the Krebs cycle.

          

  58. Acetyl-CoACo-enzyme that plays a role in intermediary metabolism, can enter the Krebs cycle to produce energy and be used for fatty acid synthesis.

          

  59. Fat AdaptationA higher capacity to oxidize fat.

          

  60. Alpha Linolenic Acid (ALA)Amino acid with alphatic side chain that is non-linear.

          

  61. DeaminationRemoval of an amine group from a compound.

          

  62. Lactic acidAn organic byproduct of the anaerobic metabolism; derived from pyruvic acid; can be used as an energy source for cells.

          

  63. FAD+Riboflavin derived hydrogen acceptor in the Krebs cycle.

          

  64. CholesterolLipid/sterol contained in the body's cells and fluids that acts as a precursor to hormones and bodily structures.

          

  65. Lecithin-Cholesterol Acyltransferase (LCAT)An enzyme that is used to convert cholesterol to a transportable form for lipoproteins.

          

  66. Adrenal MedulaCycle that takes place in the liver and creates urea from ammonia and carbon dioxide.

          

  67. Very Low Density Lipoprotein Particles (VLDL)Particles used in lipid transport, assembled in the liver by cholesterol and apolipoproteins, converted to LDL.

          

  68. Non-essential Amino AcidAmino acid that must be included in the diet.

          

  69. Phosphocreatine (PCR)Nitrogenous substance; derived from arginine, glycine, methionine, found in muscle tissue.

          

  70. CytochromeMuscle cells.

          

  71. Essential Amino AcidAmino acid that does not need to be included in the diet.

          

  72. GlycogenolysisConversion of non-carbohydrate compounds (i.e. amino acids, pyruvate, glycerol) to glucose.

          

  73. Linoleic AcidAn organic byproduct of the anaerobic metabolism; derived from pyruvic acid; can be used as an energy source for cells.

          

  74. Glucose-6 PhosphateEnzyme necessary for the conversion of excess glucose into stored glycogen.

          

  75. Saturated Fatty AcidA fatty acid with no double bonds in the chain.

          

  76. ATP/PCr SystemComposed of ATP and phosphocreatine, this system replenishes energy without the use of oxygen.

          

  77. OxaloacetateIntermediate that couples with acetyl Co-A to form citrate.

          

  78. HDL CholesterolA lipoprotein that transports fatty acids and cholesterol from the body tissues to the liver.

          

  79. EpinephrineHormone and neurotransmitter; also known as noradrenaline.

          

  80. Carbon SkeletonChains, branches or rings of carbon atoms that form organic molecules.

          

  81. GluconeogenesisConversion of non-carbohydrate compounds (i.e. amino acids, pyruvate, glycerol) to glucose.

          

  82. Urea CycleA major metabolic pathway that involves a series of enzymatic reactions that convert pyruvate acid from food to acetyl-CoA for energy.

          

  83. PlasmaWater soluble final nitrogenous excretion product synthesized from ammonia and carbon dioxide, found in urine.

          

  84. NorepinephrineHormone and neurotransmitter; also known as noradrenaline.

          

  85. a-CellsMuscle cells.

          

  86. DiglycerideA glycerol with two fatty acid chains.

          

  87. Oxidative PhosphorylationEnzyme necessary for glycogenolysis; breaks glycogen into glucose units.