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67 True/False questions

  1. TransaminationThe transfer of an amino group from and amino acid to an alpha-keto acid.

          

  2. Active TransportMovement of particles from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration; requires energy and enzymes.

          

  3. Parasympathetic Nervous SystemThe brain in the gut. A subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that controls the gastrointestinal organs.

          

  4. MasticationWidening of blood vessels.

          

  5. CarcinogenCancer-causing substance.

          

  6. EnterocytesLid-like cartilaginous structure suspended over the entrance of the larynx; swallowing closes the opening to the trachea by placing the larynx against the epiglottis.

          

  7. TriglycerideCompound with three molecules of fatty acids bound with one molecule of glycerol; the storage of fat in humans.

          

  8. PrebioticLive microorganisms that help to restore beneficial bacteria in the GI tract.

          

  9. AmylaseOf pancreatic and salivary origin, this enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis (splitting) of starch into smaller compounds.

          

  10. First Pass MetabolismProtrusion of the stomach through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm.

          

  11. MicrovilliSmall projections (singular villus) covering the surface of the mucous membrane lining the small intestine, through which nutrients and fluids are absorbed.

          

  12. CalorieAmount of energy required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by 1 degree Celsius; equal to 4184 Joules.

          

  13. GallbladderMuscular sac where bile is stored.

          

  14. GlycogenCancer-causing substance.

          

  15. Ketone BodyEither acetoacetic acid, acetone or beta-hydroxybutyric acid with a a carbonyl group attached to two carbon atoms.

          

  16. NeurotransmitterThe transfer of an amino group from and amino acid to an alpha-keto acid.

          

  17. EmesisVomiting.

          

  18. LipoproteinsLive microorganisms that help to restore beneficial bacteria in the GI tract.

          

  19. Monosaturated FatFatty acid containing one double or triple bond between carbons.

          

  20. pHMeasure of acidity and alkalinity; lower numbers are more acidic, higher numbers are more alkaline; 7 is neutral.

          

  21. Gastro-Intestinal (GI) TractThe long tube through the body composed of stomach and intestines.

          

  22. Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)Nucleotide produced in living cells; made up of adenosine and two phosphate groups, reversibly renewed to ATP for energy transfer.

          

  23. EpiglottisLid-like cartilaginous structure suspended over the entrance of the larynx; swallowing closes the opening to the trachea by placing the larynx against the epiglottis.

          

  24. ChymePartially digested food formed as a semi-fluid mass.

          

  25. SolubleA formed mass of soft, partially chewed food.

          

  26. BileFluid produced by the liver and stored in gallbladder, ultimately secreted into the small intestine to alkalinize and emulsify foodstuffs.

          

  27. OxidationIncrease of positive charges on an atom or the loss of negative charges; the opposite reaction is reduction.

          

  28. Lower Esophageal SphincterThick, muscular ring of mucous membrane surrounding the opening between the stomach and the duodenum.

          

  29. ExocrineSecretion, such as saliva or bile, released outside its source by a duct.

          

  30. Neuromuscular JunctionJunction of an efferent nerve fiber and the muscle fiber cell membrane.

          

  31. Facilitated DiffusionWidening of blood vessels.

          

  32. PancreasWaste discharged from the body through the anus.

          

  33. Organic MoleculesRelating to or containing carbon compounds.

          

  34. VilliFluid produced by the liver and stored in gallbladder, ultimately secreted into the small intestine to alkalinize and emulsify foodstuffs.

          

  35. Peptic UlcerWaves of involuntary muscle contractions moving the contents of the GI tract forward.

          

  36. General CirculationWhen blood travels from the heart to the arteries and capillaries, exchanging oxygen for carbon dioxide and returning to the heart for pulmonary circulation.

          

  37. EmulsificationTo disperse, convert and suspend one liquid as droplets into another.

          

  38. Inflammatory Bowel DiseaseOf pancreatic and salivary origin, this enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis (splitting) of starch into smaller compounds.

          

  39. Enteric Nervous SystemVeins that carry blood for the capillaries of the stomach, intestine, pancreas, and spleen to the liver.

          

  40. LipaseOf pancreatic and salivary origin, this enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis (splitting) of starch into smaller compounds.

          

  41. Ileocecal ValveTwo folds of mucous membrane that form a valve between the large intestine (cecum) and the small intestine (ileum).

          

  42. Blood Brain BarrierNatural barrier formed by brain capillaries that prevents susbstances from leaving the blood and entering brain tissue.

          

  43. Glucoregulatory HormoneHormone that balances blood glucose levels, such as glucagon or insulin.

          

  44. Hiatal HerniaCo-enzyme that plays a role in intermediary metabolism; can enter the Krebs cycle to produce energy and be used for fatty acid synthesis.

          

  45. HepatocyteLiver cell.

          

  46. Simple DiffusionTransport that requires a carrier molecule; occurs when diffusion of a substance on its own is not possible.

          

  47. Enterohepatic CirculationThe flow of blood throughout the entire body.

          

  48. VasodilationWidening of blood vessels.

          

  49. Pyloric SphincterThick, muscular ring of mucous membrane surrounding the opening between the stomach and the duodenum.

          

  50. ProbioticsLive microorganisms that help to restore beneficial bacteria in the GI tract.

          

  51. DeaminationTo grind, crush, and chew food.

          

  52. Food IntoleranceAdverse reaction induced by food.

          

  53. PeristalsisWaves of involuntary muscle contractions moving the contents of the GI tract forward.

          

  54. PharynxMeasure of acidity and alkalinity; lower numbers are more acidic, higher numbers are more alkaline; 7 is neutral.

          

  55. Hepatic Portal SystemThe brain in the gut. A subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that controls the gastrointestinal organs.

          

  56. Gastroesophageal Reflux (GERD)Condition in which acidic stomach contents flow back up into the esophagus.

          

  57. Concentration GradientThe transfer of an amino group from and amino acid to an alpha-keto acid.

          

  58. Systemic CirculationWhen blood travels from the heart to the arteries and capillaries, exchanging oxygen for carbon dioxide and returning to the heart for pulmonary circulation.

          

  59. Intestinal Brush BorderAll of the villi that form a brush like-border in the intestine.

          

  60. EndocrineSecretion, such as a hormone, distributed in the body by the bloodstream.

          

  61. FecesWaste discharged from the body through the anus.

          

  62. BicarbonateAmount of energy required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by 1 degree Celsius; equal to 4184 Joules.

          

  63. Hydrochloric AcidAmount of energy required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by 1 degree Celsius; equal to 4184 Joules.

          

  64. BolusWaste discharged from the body through the anus.

          

  65. Short Chain Fatty AcidFatty acid with fewer than eight carbons that is taken up directly through the portal vein, and produced while fiber is fermenting in the colon.

          

  66. Acetyl CoAWaste discharged from the body through the anus.

          

  67. Proteolytic EnzymeEnzyme that hydrolyzes (breaks down) protein or peptides.