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  1. Systemic Circulation
  2. Glucoregulatory Hormone
  3. Parasympathetic Nervous System
  4. pH
  5. Hiatal Hernia
  6. Transamination
  7. Enterocytes
  8. Triglyceride
  9. Lipoproteins
  10. Lower Esophageal Sphincter
  11. Microvilli
  12. Ketone Body
  13. Enteric Nervous System
  14. Acetyl CoA
  15. Deamination
  16. Blood Brain Barrier
  17. Proteolytic Enzyme
  18. Hydrochloric Acid
  19. Short Chain Fatty Acid
  20. Concentration Gradient
  21. Lipase
  22. Vasodilation
  23. Intestinal Brush Border
  24. Ileocecal Valve
  25. Oxidation
  26. Soluble
  27. First Pass Metabolism
  28. General Circulation
  29. Pharynx
  30. Pancreas
  31. Probiotics
  32. Enterohepatic Circulation
  33. Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)
  34. Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  35. Bile
  36. Peptic Ulcer
  37. Facilitated Diffusion
  38. Peristalsis
  39. Hepatocyte
  40. Calorie
  41. Active Transport
  42. Food Intolerance
  43. Bolus
  44. Carcinogen
  45. Bicarbonate
  46. Neuromuscular Junction
  47. Simple Diffusion
  48. Amylase
  49. Villi
  50. Gastro-Intestinal (GI) Tract
  51. Emesis
  52. Emulsification
  53. Endocrine
  54. Monosaturated Fat
  55. Gallbladder
  56. Pyloric Sphincter
  57. Exocrine
  58. Feces
  59. Hepatic Portal System
  60. Prebiotic
  61. Chyme
  62. Organic Molecules
  63. Mastication
  64. Neurotransmitter
  65. Epiglottis
  66. Gastroesophageal Reflux (GERD)
  67. Glycogen
  1. a Amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by 1 degree Celsius; equal to 4184 Joules.
  2. b Also known as the cardiac sphincter; a thick, muscular ring surrounding the opening between the esophagus and stomach.
  3. c All of the villi that form a brush like-border in the intestine.
  4. d Found on the wall of duodenum or stomach, this ulcer results when gastric acids and H. pylori combine.
  5. e Secretion, such as a hormone, distributed in the body by the bloodstream.
  6. f Live microorganisms that help to restore beneficial bacteria in the GI tract.
  7. g Difference in the concentration of solutes in a solution between two areas.
  8. h Liver cell.
  9. i Natural barrier formed by brain capillaries that prevents susbstances from leaving the blood and entering brain tissue.
  10. j Waste discharged from the body through the anus.
  11. k Organic salt (HCO3) that can neutralize acids.
  12. l Vomiting.
  13. m Thick, muscular ring of mucous membrane surrounding the opening between the stomach and the duodenum.
  14. n Waves of involuntary muscle contractions moving the contents of the GI tract forward.
  15. o Solution of hydrogen chloride in water; found in gastric juice.
  16. p Spontaneous movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
  17. q Throat
  18. r Microscopic hair structures that increase the surface area of cells; many are found in the GI tract (singular: microvillus)
  19. s When blood travels from the heart to the arteries and capillaries, exchanging oxygen for carbon dioxide and returning to the heart for pulmonary circulation.
  20. t A formed mass of soft, partially chewed food.
  21. u Circulation of substances such as bile salts between the intestine and the liver.
  22. v Catalyzes the splitting of fats into glycerol and fatty acids.
  23. w Nucleotide produced in living cells; made up of adenosine and two phosphate groups, reversibly renewed to ATP for energy transfer.
  24. x Lid-like cartilaginous structure suspended over the entrance of the larynx; swallowing closes the opening to the trachea by placing the larynx against the epiglottis.
  25. y Removal of an amine group from a compound.
  26. z The transfer of an amino group from and amino acid to an alpha-keto acid.
  27. aa Absorptive cells of the intestine.
  28. ab Cancer-causing substance.
  29. ac Condition in which acidic stomach contents flow back up into the esophagus.
  30. ad Part of the autonomic nervous system that controls secretions and the tone of smooth muscle, along with cardiac muscle activity.
  31. ae Disposed to being dissolved.
  32. af Veins that carry blood for the capillaries of the stomach, intestine, pancreas, and spleen to the liver.
  33. ag The brain in the gut. A subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that controls the gastrointestinal organs.
  34. ah Junction of an efferent nerve fiber and the muscle fiber cell membrane.
  35. ai When a substance is swallowed and absorbed, it first travels through the hepatic portal system for metabolism by the liver; this first pass can reduce the availability of the structure to the body.
  36. aj Enzyme that hydrolyzes (breaks down) protein or peptides.
  37. ak Substance that transmits nerve impulses across a synapse.
  38. al Large gland behind the stomach that secretes digestive enzymes and the hormones insulin and glucagon.
  39. am Muscular sac where bile is stored.
  40. an Widening of blood vessels.
  41. ao Two folds of mucous membrane that form a valve between the large intestine (cecum) and the small intestine (ileum).
  42. ap Inflammation-based disorder of the intestinal tract, such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitus
  43. aq The flow of blood throughout the entire body.
  44. ar Of pancreatic and salivary origin, this enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis (splitting) of starch into smaller compounds.
  45. as Compound with three molecules of fatty acids bound with one molecule of glycerol; the storage of fat in humans.
  46. at Either acetoacetic acid, acetone or beta-hydroxybutyric acid with a a carbonyl group attached to two carbon atoms.
  47. au A class of proteins with hydrophobic core of triglycerides or cholesterol surrounded by hydrophilic phospholipids, apolipoproteins and cholesterol.
  48. av Partially digested food formed as a semi-fluid mass.
  49. aw Movement of particles from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration; requires energy and enzymes.
  50. ax Measure of acidity and alkalinity; lower numbers are more acidic, higher numbers are more alkaline; 7 is neutral.
  51. ay Relating to or containing carbon compounds.
  52. az Transport that requires a carrier molecule; occurs when diffusion of a substance on its own is not possible.
  53. ba Fatty acid with fewer than eight carbons that is taken up directly through the portal vein, and produced while fiber is fermenting in the colon.
  54. bb To grind, crush, and chew food.
  55. bc Small projections (singular villus) covering the surface of the mucous membrane lining the small intestine, through which nutrients and fluids are absorbed.
  56. bd Compound that is not digested but rather fermented by microflora and stimulates growth of healthy bacteria in the GI tract.
  57. be To disperse, convert and suspend one liquid as droplets into another.
  58. bf The long tube through the body composed of stomach and intestines.
  59. bg Protrusion of the stomach through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm.
  60. bh Hormone that balances blood glucose levels, such as glucagon or insulin.
  61. bi Chief source of stored glucose in selected tissues.
  62. bj Adverse reaction induced by food.
  63. bk Co-enzyme that plays a role in intermediary metabolism; can enter the Krebs cycle to produce energy and be used for fatty acid synthesis.
  64. bl Secretion, such as saliva or bile, released outside its source by a duct.
  65. bm Increase of positive charges on an atom or the loss of negative charges; the opposite reaction is reduction.
  66. bn Fluid produced by the liver and stored in gallbladder, ultimately secreted into the small intestine to alkalinize and emulsify foodstuffs.
  67. bo Fatty acid containing one double or triple bond between carbons.