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65 True/False questions

  1. Lock-And-Key ModelModel that suggests enzymes are rather flexible structures. The enzyme and chemical substrate undergo structural changes when close to one another.

          

  2. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)Various substances formed as a byproduct of metabolism that are highly reactive due to the unpaired electron shell.

          

  3. Induced Fit ModelModel that suggests enzymes are rather flexible structures. The enzyme and chemical substrate undergo structural changes when close to one another.

          

  4. MicronutrientNutrient the body requires in large amounts ( i.e. protein, fat, carbohydrate)

          

  5. Co-EnzymeA particular sequence in DNA or RNA that controls the expression of a protein, and by extension influences the characteristics of an organism.

          

  6. CristaeFlattened membrane disc of Golgi apparatus

          

  7. MicroorganismFluid medium inside of the cell, but outside the nucleus, that surrounds the organelles.

          

  8. SubstrateInternal compartments of the mitochondria. Folds in which the enzymes and structures responsible for making ATP are located., An in folding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.

          

  9. HormoneCompound created by one cell that travels to and stimulates another cell.

          

  10. DetoxifyInternal fluid portion of the cell.

          

  11. Connective TissueSupportive tissue, such as ligaments, tendons, and fascia, formed from a fibrous matrix.

          

  12. Signal TransductionConversion of one signal to another by a cell.

          

  13. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)Model that suggests enzymes are rather flexible structures. The enzyme and chemical substrate undergo structural changes when close to one another.

          

  14. Mitochondrial DensitySpecific attributes of mitochondria.

          

  15. GlycoproteinLarge and complex molecule consisting of amino acids ( which contain nitrogen) that are essential for living cells.

          

  16. DiurnalDaily cycle, e.g.,
    of hormone release.

          

  17. CatalyzeInitiate or increase the rate of a chemical reaction.

          

  18. Genetic PolymorphismVariation in the form of one or a sequence of genes.

          

  19. PhospholipidOrganic compound that is insoluble in water, provides structure, storage, and messenger functions in the body.

          

  20. ChromosomesOrganized structure of DNA, found within cells, that contains the genes of an organism.

          

  21. InsulinLarge and complex molecule consisting of amino acids ( which contain nitrogen) that are essential for living cells.

          

  22. CholesterolInternal fluid portion of the cell.

          

  23. ProteinLarge and complex molecule consisting of amino acids ( which contain nitrogen) that are essential for living cells.

          

  24. Golgi ApparatusOrganic compound that is insoluble in water, provides structure, storage, and messenger functions in the body.

          

  25. Plasma MembraneLipid bylayer that is permeable to certain compounds that contains the cell.

          

  26. Muscle TissuesOrganelle where genetic material is housed.

          

  27. Endoplasmic ReticulumCytoplasmic membrane that translates proteins.

          

  28. MitochondriaOrganic compound the body requires in very small amounts ( i.e. vitamins and minerals)

          

  29. GeneticsSpecific, inherited DNA of an organism, which influences what they become, although environment also plays a key role in the expression of an organism's genetic code.

          

  30. Transport ProteinProtein that moves compounds across a membrane.

          

  31. TranslationForming a protein molecule based on the information contained in the mRNA.

          

  32. PathogenInternal fluid portion of the cell.

          

  33. LigandOrganic compound that is insoluble in water, provides structure, storage, and messenger functions in the body.

          

  34. Mitochondrial QualityQuantity of mitochondria per unit volume.

          

  35. Active TransportMovements of particles from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration; requires energy and enzymes.

          

  36. LysosomesOrganized structure of DNA, found within cells, that contains the genes of an organism.

          

  37. PhytochemicalChemical substance obtained from plants that is biologically active but non-nutritive.

          

  38. MacronutrientNutrient the body requires in large amounts ( i.e. protein, fat, carbohydrate)

          

  39. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)Adenosine molecule with three phosphate groups that supplies energy for the cell.

          

  40. Facilitated DiffusionOrganelle where genetic material is housed.

          

  41. CytosolInternal fluid portion of the cell.

          

  42. OxidizeInternal compartments of the mitochondria. Folds in which the enzymes and structures responsible for making ATP are located., An in folding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.

          

  43. CytoplasmFluid medium inside of the cell, but outside the nucleus, that surrounds the organelles.

          

  44. TranscriptionConstruction of mRNA from a DNA molecule.

          

  45. Co-FactorNon-protein compound that interacts with another substance to facilitate a transformation.

          

  46. NucleusOrganelle where genetic material is housed.

          

  47. MetabolismSum of reactions that take place to build up and break down the body.

          

  48. GeneA particular sequence in DNA or RNA that controls the expression of a protein, and by extension influences the characteristics of an organism.

          

  49. Epithelial TissuesTissues consisting of bundles of cells that contract when stimulated.

          

  50. OrganelleA particular sequence in DNA or RNA that controls the expression of a protein, and by extension influences the characteristics of an organism.

          

  51. CisternaDaily cycle, e.g.,
    of hormone release.

          

  52. Second MessengerSubstance that mediates intercellular activity by relaying a signal from an extracellular molecule.

          

  53. HomeostasisThe body's ability to maintain a stable and constant internal condition. The state of balanced function in the body.

          

  54. VesicleA particular sequence in DNA or RNA that controls the expression of a protein, and by extension influences the characteristics of an organism.

          

  55. NutrigenomicsSpecific, inherited DNA of an organism, which influences what they become, although environment also plays a key role in the expression of an organism's genetic code.

          

  56. PeroxisomeA complex rich in RNA and protein found in cells.

          

  57. Free RadicalReactive atom with one or more electrons.

          

  58. DNAA particular sequence in DNA or RNA that controls the expression of a protein, and by extension influences the characteristics of an organism.

          

  59. Nervous TissueTissues consisting of bundles of cells that contract when stimulated.

          

  60. HydrophilicLack of affinity for water.

          

  61. RibosomeOrganelle containing hydrolytic enzymes. "Cellular garbage disposals" that help in the process of cellular renewal and/or protection.

          

  62. LipidTo combine with oxygen.

          

  63. Receptor-Ligand-Binding ComplexA complex formed between a receptor and a substance to allow for further cellular activity.

          

  64. HydrophobicLack of affinity for water.

          

  65. Potential EnergyInitiate or increase the rate of a chemical reaction.