Precision Nutrition - Chapter 9 Special Needs flashcards |

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  • Immuno-compromise

    Diminished immune response due to medications, illness, age, etc.

    URTI(s)

    Illness caused by an acute infection, which manifests in the upper respiratory tract.

    Nutritional Antigens

    Nutritional substance that causes the immune system to respond.

    Macrophage

    Type of white blood cell that fights pathogens.

    Nutrient Partitioning

    Allocation of nutrients to a particular destination based on the body's perceived requirements.

    Meal Spacing

    Amount of time between feedings.

    Nutritional Periodization

    Continuous nutrition plan that is manipulated to accommodate more or less aggressive nutrition goals.

    Cardiac Output

    Volume of blood pumped by the heart in one minute.

    The RICE Method

    Rest, ice, compression, elevation; used to control the inflammatory response of an acute injury.

    Hyperpermeable

    Increased penetration through a membrane.

    Vasodilation

    Widening of blood vessels.

    Fibroblast

    A cell that makes the structural fibers and ground substance of connective tissue.

    Scar Tissue

    Fibrous tissue that is formed as a result of wound healing.

    COX Enzyme Activity

    Either of two related enzymes that control the production of biological mediators from arachidonic acid.

    Plant Based Diets

    Diet that includes primarily foods of plant origin.

    Vegans

    Includes only foods from the plant/fungi kingdoms, devoid of all animal derived ingredients.

    Greenhouse Gases

    Gases that absorb the heat released by the surface of the earth and cause global warming (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, and water vapor).

    Rebound Intake

    A high intake of food after a period of restriction.

    Anorexia Nervosa

    1) Use of excessive exercise to control body weight 2) Self-induced starvation 3) Below 85% of normal body weight.

    Amenorrhea

    Abnormal suppression or absence of menstruation.

    Anorexia Athletica

    Use of excessive exercise to control body weight.

    Type I Diabetes

    An auto-immune disease that destroys pancreatic cells; results in little to no insulin production.

    Type II Diabetes

    When the body has become resistant to insulin, or does not produce it anymore; this is the more common form of diabetes mellitus.

    Glycation

    Binding of sugar molecule without the controlling action of an enzyme.

    Diabetic Retinopathy

    Damage to small blood vessels of the eyes due to glycation of the retina.

    Lifestyle-Related Disease

    Diseases that are caused by and/or affected by the way we live (e.g. amount of exercise, quality of nutrition, smoking, stress, etc.

    Atherosclerosis

    Development of plaque in the lumen (interior space) of blood vessels.

    Metabolic Syndrome

    A blend of conditions that often occur together, consisting of obesity, high blood sugar, high blood pressure, decreased HDL and high triglycerides.

    Statin Drugs

    Pharmaceutical agents that decrease cholesterol production within the body via downregulation of HMG-CoA reductase.

    Soluble Fiber

    Relatively indigestible water-soluble polysaccharides found in plants (e.g. psyllium, pectin) that undergo metabolic processing to enhance bowel health.

    Neural Tube Defects

    Birth defects of the brain and spinal cord.

    Pre-Eclampsia

    A condition in pregnancy characterized by high blood pressure, protein in the urine, and swelling.

    Bulimia

    Uncontrolled episodes of overeating followed by some form of purging.

    Binge Eating

    Uncontrollable consumption of excessive amounts of food in a very short period of time.

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