Precision Nutrition - Chapter 6 Macronutrients flashcards |

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  • Monosaccharides

    The simplest form of carbohydrates.

    Oligosaccharides

    Saccharide composed of a small number of monosaccharides.

    Polysaccharides

    More than about 10 linked monosaccharides that form a polymer. Starches, glycogen, fiber.

    Glucose

    A monosaccharide found in food and blood; the end product of carbohydrate metabolism and the major source of energy for humans.

    Galactose

    A monosaccharide; less soluble and sweet than glucose.

    Amylose

    A component of starch characterized by straight chains of glucose units.

    Amylopectin

    A component of starch characterized by its highly branched chain structure and fast digestion.

    Salivary Amylase

    Enzyme found in saliva that catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch.

    Pancreatic Amylase

    Enzyme found in pancreatic juice that catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch.

    Glycemic Index (GI)

    Measure of the rate at which an ingested food causes the level of glucose in the blood to rise. The relative degree of blood sugar elevation after the consumption of 50 g carbohydrate coming from a specific test food.

    Glycemic Load

    Equal to the glycemic index of a food times the number of grams of carbohydrates in the serving.

    Insulin Index (II)

    Measure of the rate of which an ingested food causes the level on insulin in the blood to rise.

    GLUT Family

    Group of membrane proteins that transport glucose from the blood into cells.

    Glycogen Synthase

    Enzyme necessary for the conversion of excess glucose into stored glycogen.

    Glycogenolysis

    Breakdown of stored glycogen to glucose.

    Glycogen Phosphorylase

    Enzyme necessary for glycogenolysis. Breaks glycogen into glucose units.

    Satiety

    The state of being satisfactorily full.

    Soluble Fiber

    Relatively indigestible, water-soluble polysaccharides found in plants (e.g. psyllium, pectin) that undergo metabolic processing to enhance bowel health.

    Insoluble Fiber

    Indigestible, non-water soluble polysaccharides found in plants (e.g. wheat bran, nuts); increases stool bulk and enhances transit time.

    Hydrocarbons

    Organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen.

    Fatty Acid

    Chain of carbon atoms with a carboxylic acid and alphatic tail.

    Saturated Fatty Acid

    A fatty acid with no double bonds in the chain.

    Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    Double bonds between carbons in fatty acid chain.

    Triglycerides

    Compound with three molecules of fatty acids bound with one molecule of glycerol; the storage form of fat in humans.

    Glycerol

    Sugar alcohol that is the backbone of a triglyceride.

    Pancreatic Lipase

    Enzyme secreted from the pancreas that hydrolyzes fat.

    Chylomicron

    A lipoprotein that transports cholesterol and triglyceride from the small intestines to tissues in the body.

    Lipoprotein Lipase

    An enzyme found in endothelial cells lining the capillaries; hydrolyzes lipids into fatty acid and glycerol.

    Linoleic Acid

    Unsaturated omega-6 fatty acid considered essential to the human diet.

    Linolenic Acid

    Unsaturated omega-3 fatty acid considered essential to the human diet.

    Fructose

    A monosaccharide that is very sweet; possesses a ketone rather than an aldehyde, which distinguishes it from glucose.

    Healthy Fats

    Fats that have been shown to improve overall health.

    Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio

    Balance of dietary fat intake; critical to overall health.

    Eicosanoids

    Signaling molecules of the body that control many systems.

    Alpha-Linolenic Acid (ALA)

    Unsaturated omega-3 fatty acid, see linolenic acid.

    Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA)

    An omega-3, polyunsaturated fatty acid, found mainly in fish and algae; can be formed from ALA.

    Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA)

    An omega-3, polyunsaturated fatty acid, found mainly in fish and algae.

    Amino Groups

    Functional groups (abbreviated as NH2) that contains a nitrogen atom.

    Peptides Or Peptide Chains

    Short polymer formed from linking amino acids.

    Secondary, Tertiary, And Quaternary Structures

    Shape/formation that a protein takes depending on its biological function.

    Gastric Hydrochloric Acid

    Produced by parietal cells in the stomach, this acid liquid is necessary for digestion.

    Pepsin

    Digestive protease released in the stomach to degrade food proteins to peptides.

    Proenzyme

    Inactive enzyme; precursor that requires a biochemical change to become active.

    Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA)

    Amino acids with alphatic side chain that is non-linear.

    Plasma Amino Acid Pool

    Reserve of amino acids found in blood plasma.

    Deamination

    Removal of an amine group from a compound.

    Net Negative Protein Balance

    Nitrogen output that exceeds nitrogen intake.

    Non-Essential Amino Acid

    Amino acid that does not need to be included in the diet.

    Essential Amino Acid

    Amino acid that must be included in the diet.

    Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS)

    A method based on the amino acid requirements of young children that takes into consideration digestibility of the protein; a recently developed and preferred measure for determining the quality of a protein.

    Limiting Amino Acid

    The essential amino acid found in the smallest quantity in the food.

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