More than about 10 linked monosaccharides that form a polymer. Starches, glycogen, fiber.
A monosaccharide found in food and blood; the end product of carbohydrate metabolism and the major source of energy for humans.
A component of starch characterized by its highly branched chain structure and fast digestion.
Glycemic Index (GI)
Measure of the rate at which an ingested food causes the level of glucose in the blood to rise. The relative degree of blood sugar elevation after the consumption of 50 g carbohydrate coming from a specific test food.
Equal to the glycemic index of a food times the number of grams of carbohydrates in the serving.
Insulin Index (II)
Measure of the rate of which an ingested food causes the level on insulin in the blood to rise.
Relatively indigestible, water-soluble polysaccharides found in plants (e.g. psyllium, pectin) that undergo metabolic processing to enhance bowel health.
Indigestible, non-water soluble polysaccharides found in plants (e.g. wheat bran, nuts); increases stool bulk and enhances transit time.
Compound with three molecules of fatty acids bound with one molecule of glycerol; the storage form of fat in humans.
A lipoprotein that transports cholesterol and triglyceride from the small intestines to tissues in the body.
An enzyme found in endothelial cells lining the capillaries; hydrolyzes lipids into fatty acid and glycerol.
A monosaccharide that is very sweet; possesses a ketone rather than an aldehyde, which distinguishes it from glucose.
Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA)
An omega-3, polyunsaturated fatty acid, found mainly in fish and algae; can be formed from ALA.
Secondary, Tertiary, And Quaternary Structures
Shape/formation that a protein takes depending on its biological function.
Gastric Hydrochloric Acid
Produced by parietal cells in the stomach, this acid liquid is necessary for digestion.
Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS)
A method based on the amino acid requirements of young children that takes into consideration digestibility of the protein; a recently developed and preferred measure for determining the quality of a protein.