Precision Nutrition - Chapter 4 Energy Balance In The Body flashcards |

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  • Potential Energy

    Energy stored within a physical system and has the potential to be converted into work.

    Kinetic Energy

    Energy generated by motion; work.


    Unit of energy; 4 joules equal 1 calorie.

    Calorie (Large Calorie)

    Amount of energy required to raise one kilogram of water by 1 degree Celsius; equal to 4184 Joules.

    Calorie (Small Calorie)

    Amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by 1 degree Celsius. Equal to 4.184 joules.


    Used to express food energy; represents a Calorie.

    Bomb Calorimeter

    A rigid vessel used for measuring heat of combustion.

    Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)

    Level of energy required to sustain the body's vital functions in the waking state. The number of calories required to sustain life without movement or digestive activity.

    Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR)

    Level of energy required to sustain the body's vital functions at rest.

    Thermic Effect Of Feeding (TEF)

    Metabolic response to the digestion of food and the uptake of nutrients in the blood.

    Exercise Activity

    Physical movement performed in structured sessions.

    Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT)

    Spontaneous physical activity such as tapping feet and moving hands.


    The process of heat production in the body.

    Indirect Calorimetry

    Estimation of energy expenditures via the measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. Obtained though mouthpiece and nose clip.

    Direct Calorimetry

    Direct measurement of heat output by the body; used an a index of energy expenditure. Performed in an air-tight chamber.

    Respiratory Quotient (R/Q)

    Rate of the volume of carbon dioxide expired to the volume of oxygen consumed in a given period of time, indicative of the substrates being used.

    Energy Imbalance

    When the amount of energy doesn't meet, or exceeds, the energy output.

    Fast-Twitch Muscle Fibers

    Muscle fibers, characterized by fewer mitochondria and capillaries, which contract quickly and with relatively more force, yet fatigue more quickly than slow-twitch fibers; includes subgroups.

    Slow-Twitch Muscle Fibers

    Muscle fibers, rich in mitochondria and dense with capillaries, which are able to repeatedly contract for extended periods of time.


    Painful menstruation.


    Abnormal suppression or absence of menstruation.

    Thyroid Hormone

    One of a group of metabolically active hormones stored in the thyroid gland


    Compound that when placed in a solution becomes an ion; regulates flow in and out of cells.

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