Energy stored within a physical system and has the potential to be converted into work.
Calorie (Large Calorie)
Amount of energy required to raise one kilogram of water by 1 degree Celsius; equal to 4184 Joules.
Calorie (Small Calorie)
Amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by 1 degree Celsius. Equal to 4.184 joules.
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Level of energy required to sustain the body's vital functions in the waking state. The number of calories required to sustain life without movement or digestive activity.
Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR)
Level of energy required to sustain the body's vital functions at rest.
Thermic Effect Of Feeding (TEF)
Metabolic response to the digestion of food and the uptake of nutrients in the blood.
Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT)
Spontaneous physical activity such as tapping feet and moving hands.
Estimation of energy expenditures via the measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. Obtained though mouthpiece and nose clip.
Direct measurement of heat output by the body; used an a index of energy expenditure. Performed in an air-tight chamber.
Respiratory Quotient (R/Q)
Rate of the volume of carbon dioxide expired to the volume of oxygen consumed in a given period of time, indicative of the substrates being used.
Fast-Twitch Muscle Fibers
Muscle fibers, characterized by fewer mitochondria and capillaries, which contract quickly and with relatively more force, yet fatigue more quickly than slow-twitch fibers; includes subgroups.
Slow-Twitch Muscle Fibers
Muscle fibers, rich in mitochondria and dense with capillaries, which are able to repeatedly contract for extended periods of time.