Laws Of Thermodynamics
Principles that govern energy exchange, including heat exchange and the performance of work.
Composed of ATP and phosphocreatine, this system replenishes energy without the use of oxygen.
Isoenzyme found in muscle and brain tissue that catalyzes the formation of ATP; higher after tissue injury.
The cation of acids; consists of a hydrogen atom whose electron has been transferred to the anion of the acid.
Co-enzyme of dehydrogenases; plays a role in intermediary metabolism as an oxidizing agent or reducing agent for metabolites.
An organic byproduct of the anaerobic metabolism; derived from pyruvic acid; can be used as an energy source for cells.
A major metabolic pathway that involves a series of enzymatic reactions that convert pyruvate acid from food to acetyl-CoA for energy.
Co-enzyme that plays a role in intermediary metabolism, can enter the Krebs cycle to produce energy and be used for fatty acid synthesis.
Particle with a positive charge, usually regarded as a hydrogen ion; when the protein gradient shifts in the electron transport chain, energy conversion occurs.
Central part of the adrenal gland that secretes epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
Series of reactions in the cytosol that converts glucose into pyruvic acid and ultimately ATP.
Liquid component of blood that suspends blood cells; contains water, glucose, proteins and hormones.
Conversion of non-carbohydrate compounds (i.e. amino acids, pyruvate, glycerol) to glucose.
Anabolic hormone that causes growth and cell reproduction; also known as somatotropin.
Very Low Density Lipoprotein Particles (VLDL)
Particles used in lipid transport, assembled in the liver by cholesterol and apolipoproteins, converted to LDL.
Family of unsaturated fatty acids characterized by a carbon-carbon double bond three spaces in from the methyl end.
Unsaturated omega-6 fatty acids characterized by a carbon-carbon double bond six spaces from the methyl end.
A lipoprotein that transports cholesterol and triglyceride from the small intestines to tissues of the body.
A class of proteins with hydrophobic core of triglycerides or cholesterol surrounded by hydrophilic phospholipids, apolipoproteins and cholesterol.
Lipid/sterol contained in the body's cells and fluids that acts as a precursor to hormones and bodily structures.
Pharmaceutical agents that decrease cholesterol production within the body via downregulation of HMG-CoA reductase.
A lipoprotein that transports triglyceride and cholesterol from the liver to body tissues.
A lipoprotein that transports fatty acids and cholesterol from the body tissues to the liver.
Lecithin-Cholesterol Acyltransferase (LCAT)
An enzyme that is used to convert cholesterol to a transportable form for lipoproteins.
Water soluble final nitrogenous excretion product synthesized from ammonia and carbon dioxide, found in urine.