Precision Nutrition - Chapter 3 Energy Tranformation and Metabolism flashcards |

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  • Laws Of Thermodynamics

    Principles that govern energy exchange, including heat exchange and the performance of work.

    Energy Transfer

    Movement of ATP from one compound to another so that it can be used.

    Hepatocytes

    Liver cells.

    Myocytes

    Muscle cells.

    Adipocytes

    Fat cells.

    ATP/PCr System

    Composed of ATP and phosphocreatine, this system replenishes energy without the use of oxygen.

    Creatine Kinase

    Isoenzyme found in muscle and brain tissue that catalyzes the formation of ATP; higher after tissue injury.

    Phosphocreatine (PCR)

    Compound of creatine (Cr) and phosphoric acid (P) found in muscle.

    Glycolytic System

    Process of breaking down glucose for energy; can be fast or slow.

    Pyruvate

    Salt of pyruvic acid; the end product of glycolysis.

    NADH

    Reduced form of NAD; used to transfer electrons.

    Hydrogen Ion

    The cation of acids; consists of a hydrogen atom whose electron has been transferred to the anion of the acid.

    NAD+

    Co-enzyme of dehydrogenases; plays a role in intermediary metabolism as an oxidizing agent or reducing agent for metabolites.

    Lactic acid

    An organic byproduct of the anaerobic metabolism; derived from pyruvic acid; can be used as an energy source for cells.

    Oxidative Phosphorylation

    The phosphorylation of ATP coupled to the electron transport system.

    Muscle Acidity

    An acidic environment created when the pH level of the muscle cells falls below 7.

    Krebs Cycle

    A major metabolic pathway that involves a series of enzymatic reactions that convert pyruvate acid from food to acetyl-CoA for energy.

    Electron Transport Chain

    Set of compounds that transfers electrons to a donor that creates energy.

    Acetyl-CoA

    Co-enzyme that plays a role in intermediary metabolism, can enter the Krebs cycle to produce energy and be used for fatty acid synthesis.

    Beta Oxidation

    Breakdown of fatty acids that takes place in the mitochondria and peroxisomes.

    FAD+

    Riboflavin derived hydrogen acceptor in the Krebs cycle.

    FADH2

    The reduced form of FAD+.

    Cytochrome

    Protein found in mitochondria (inner membrane) that transports electrons.

    Proton

    Particle with a positive charge, usually regarded as a hydrogen ion; when the protein gradient shifts in the electron transport chain, energy conversion occurs.

    Glycogenesis

    Synthesis of glycogen.

    Glucose-6 Phosphate

    Phosphorylated form of glucose that won't diffuse out of a cell.

    Glycogen Synthase

    Enzyme necessary for the conversion of excess glucose into stored glycogen.

    Epinephrine

    Hormone and neurotransmitter; also known as adrenaline.

    Norepinephrine

    Hormone and neurotransmitter; also known as noradrenaline.

    Glycogen Phosphorylase

    Enzyme necessary for glycogenolysis; breaks glycogen into glucose units.

    Creatine

    Nitrogenous substance; derived from arginine, glycine, methionine, found in muscle tissue.

    Glycogenolysis

    Breakdown of stored glycogen to glucose.

    Glucagon

    Hormone secreted by the pancreas to increase blood glucose.

    a-Cells

    Endocrine cells of the pancreas that secrete glucagon.

    Adrenal Medula

    Central part of the adrenal gland that secretes epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine.

    Glycolysis

    Series of reactions in the cytosol that converts glucose into pyruvic acid and ultimately ATP.

    Anaerobic Threshold

    The point at which lactic acid begins to accumulate in the bloodstream.

    Oxaloacetate

    Intermediate that couples with acetyl Co-A to form citrate.

    Fat Adaptation

    A higher capacity to oxidize fat.

    Plasma

    Liquid component of blood that suspends blood cells; contains water, glucose, proteins and hormones.

    Gluconeogenesis

    Conversion of non-carbohydrate compounds (i.e. amino acids, pyruvate, glycerol) to glucose.

    Cori Cycle

    Use of lactate produced in the muscles by the liver for the production of glucose.

    Adipose Tissue

    Fat tissue.

    Lipolysis

    Breakdown of fatty acids into acids and glycerol.

    Hormone Sensitive Lipase

    Enzyme of the cytosol that frees fatty acid and glycerol.

    Growth Hormone

    Anabolic hormone that causes growth and cell reproduction; also known as somatotropin.

    Anaerobic

    Without oxygen present.

    Monoglyceride

    A glycerol with one fatty acid chain.

    Diglyceride

    A glycerol with two fatty acid chains.

    Fatty Acid Synthase

    System of enzymes involved in the synthesis of fatty acids.

    Elongation

    Addition of carbons on a fatty acid.

    Saturated Fatty Acid

    A fatty acid with no double bonds in the chain.

    Desaturation

    Removal of hydrogen atom(s) to form a double bond.

    Monosaturated Fatty Acid

    A single double bond in the fatty acid chain.

    Very Low Density Lipoprotein Particles (VLDL)

    Particles used in lipid transport, assembled in the liver by cholesterol and apolipoproteins, converted to LDL.

    Lipogenic Enzyme

    Enzyme involved with the synthesis of fat.

    Alpha Linolenic Acid (ALA)

    Unsaturated omega-3 fatty acid; see linolenic acid.

    Omega-3

    Family of unsaturated fatty acids characterized by a carbon-carbon double bond three spaces in from the methyl end.

    Linoleic Acid

    Unsaturated omega-6 fatty acids characterized by a carbon-carbon double bond six spaces from the methyl end.

    Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid

    A fatty acid with multiple double bonds in the chain.

    Chylomicron

    A lipoprotein that transports cholesterol and triglyceride from the small intestines to tissues of the body.

    Lipoproteins

    A class of proteins with hydrophobic core of triglycerides or cholesterol surrounded by hydrophilic phospholipids, apolipoproteins and cholesterol.

    Cholesterol

    Lipid/sterol contained in the body's cells and fluids that acts as a precursor to hormones and bodily structures.

    Statin Drugs

    Pharmaceutical agents that decrease cholesterol production within the body via downregulation of HMG-CoA reductase.

    Apolipoprotein

    Lipid binding protein that is part of a lipoprotein.

    LDL Cholesterol

    A lipoprotein that transports triglyceride and cholesterol from the liver to body tissues.

    HDL Cholesterol

    A lipoprotein that transports fatty acids and cholesterol from the body tissues to the liver.

    Lecithin-Cholesterol Acyltransferase (LCAT)

    An enzyme that is used to convert cholesterol to a transportable form for lipoproteins.

    Atherosclerosis

    Development of plaque in the lumen (interior space) of blood vessels.

    Plasma Pool Of Amino Acids

    Reserve of amino acids found in blood plasma.

    Non-essential Amino Acid

    Amino acid that does not need to be included in the diet.

    Essential Amino Acid

    Amino acid that must be included in the diet.

    Peptide Chain

    Short polymer formed from linking amino acids.

    Deamination

    Removal of an amine group from a compound.

    Branched Chain Amino Acid (BCAA)

    Amino acid with alphatic side chain that is non-linear.

    Carbon Skeleton

    Chains, branches or rings of carbon atoms that form organic molecules.

    Amine

    One of a group of organic nitrogen compounds.

    Ammonia

    Also known as NH3, a very basic end product of protein metabolism.

    Urea Cycle

    Cycle that takes place in the liver and creates urea from ammonia and carbon dioxide.

    Urea

    Water soluble final nitrogenous excretion product synthesized from ammonia and carbon dioxide, found in urine.

    a-ketoacid

    An organic acid containing a functional ketone group and a carboxylic acid.

    Transamination

    The transfer of an amino group from an amino acid to an alpha-keto acid.

    Protein Turnover

    Balance between protein synthesis and breakdown.

    Protein Synthesis

    (Re)building of proteins.

    Protein Breakdown

    Degradation of proteins.

    Lipid Mobilization

    Using lipids as a fuel source.

    Complete Protein

    A source of protein that contains an adequate proportion of all nine of the essential amino acids necessary for the dietary needs of humans or other animals.

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