Precision Nutrition - Chapter 2 Food Intake, Digestion and Absorption flashcards |

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  • Soluble

    Disposed to being dissolved.

    General Circulation

    The flow of blood throughout the entire body.

    Monosaturated Fat

    Fatty acid containing one double or triple bond between carbons.

    Triglyceride

    Compound with three molecules of fatty acids bound with one molecule of glycerol; the storage of fat in humans.

    Oxidation

    Increase of positive charges on an atom or the loss of negative charges; the opposite reaction is reduction.

    Gastro-Intestinal (GI) Tract

    The long tube through the body composed of stomach and intestines.

    Calorie

    Amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by 1 degree Celsius; equal to 4184 Joules.

    Organic Molecules

    Relating to or containing carbon compounds.

    Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)

    Nucleotide produced in living cells; made up of adenosine and two phosphate groups, reversibly renewed to ATP for energy transfer.

    Mastication

    To grind, crush, and chew food.

    Bolus

    A formed mass of soft, partially chewed food.

    Bile

    Fluid produced by the liver and stored in gallbladder, ultimately secreted into the small intestine to alkalinize and emulsify foodstuffs.

    Enterocytes

    Absorptive cells of the intestine.

    Villi

    Small projections (singular villus) covering the surface of the mucous membrane lining the small intestine, through which nutrients and fluids are absorbed.

    Amylase

    Of pancreatic and salivary origin, this enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis (splitting) of starch into smaller compounds.

    Lipase

    Catalyzes the splitting of fats into glycerol and fatty acids.

    Pharynx

    Throat

    Epiglottis

    Lid-like cartilaginous structure suspended over the entrance of the larynx; swallowing closes the opening to the trachea by placing the larynx against the epiglottis.

    Lower Esophageal Sphincter

    Also known as the cardiac sphincter; a thick, muscular ring surrounding the opening between the esophagus and stomach.

    Gastroesophageal Reflux (GERD)

    Condition in which acidic stomach contents flow back up into the esophagus.

    Peristalsis

    Waves of involuntary muscle contractions moving the contents of the GI tract forward.

    Chyme

    Partially digested food formed as a semi-fluid mass.

    Pyloric Sphincter

    Thick, muscular ring of mucous membrane surrounding the opening between the stomach and the duodenum.

    Hiatal Hernia

    Protrusion of the stomach through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm.

    Hydrochloric Acid

    Solution of hydrogen chloride in water; found in gastric juice.

    pH

    Measure of acidity and alkalinity; lower numbers are more acidic, higher numbers are more alkaline; 7 is neutral.

    Ileocecal Valve

    Two folds of mucous membrane that form a valve between the large intestine (cecum) and the small intestine (ileum).

    Pancreas

    Large gland behind the stomach that secretes digestive enzymes and the hormones insulin and glucagon.

    Bicarbonate

    Organic salt (HCO3) that can neutralize acids.

    Proteolytic Enzyme

    Enzyme that hydrolyzes (breaks down) protein or peptides.

    Gallbladder

    Muscular sac where bile is stored.

    Emulsification

    To disperse, convert and suspend one liquid as droplets into another.

    Enterohepatic Circulation

    Circulation of substances such as bile salts between the intestine and the liver.

    Feces

    Waste discharged from the body through the anus.

    Short Chain Fatty Acid

    Fatty acid with fewer than eight carbons that is taken up directly through the portal vein, and produced while fiber is fermenting in the colon.

    Carcinogen

    Cancer-causing substance.

    Prebiotic

    Compound that is not digested but rather fermented by microflora and stimulates growth of healthy bacteria in the GI tract.

    Probiotics

    Live microorganisms that help to restore beneficial bacteria in the GI tract.

    Hepatic Portal System

    Veins that carry blood for the capillaries of the stomach, intestine, pancreas, and spleen to the liver.

    Exocrine

    Secretion, such as saliva or bile, released outside its source by a duct.

    Endocrine

    Secretion, such as a hormone, distributed in the body by the bloodstream.

    Glucoregulatory Hormone

    Hormone that balances blood glucose levels, such as glucagon or insulin.

    Neurotransmitter

    Substance that transmits nerve impulses across a synapse.

    Enteric Nervous System

    The brain in the gut. A subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that controls the gastrointestinal organs.

    Neuromuscular Junction

    Junction of an efferent nerve fiber and the muscle fiber cell membrane.

    Parasympathetic Nervous System

    Part of the autonomic nervous system that controls secretions and the tone of smooth muscle, along with cardiac muscle activity.

    Vasodilation

    Widening of blood vessels.

    Microvilli

    Microscopic hair structures that increase the surface area of cells; many are found in the GI tract (singular: microvillus)

    Intestinal Brush Border

    All of the villi that form a brush like-border in the intestine.

    Simple Diffusion

    Spontaneous movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

    Facilitated Diffusion

    Transport that requires a carrier molecule; occurs when diffusion of a substance on its own is not possible.

    Active Transport

    Movement of particles from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration; requires energy and enzymes.

    Concentration Gradient

    Difference in the concentration of solutes in a solution between two areas.

    Peptic Ulcer

    Found on the wall of duodenum or stomach, this ulcer results when gastric acids and H. pylori combine.

    Emesis

    Vomiting.

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Inflammation-based disorder of the intestinal tract, such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitus

    Food Intolerance

    Adverse reaction induced by food.

    Glycogen

    Chief source of stored glucose in selected tissues.

    Hepatocyte

    Liver cell.

    Deamination

    Removal of an amine group from a compound.

    Lipoproteins

    A class of proteins with hydrophobic core of triglycerides or cholesterol surrounded by hydrophilic phospholipids, apolipoproteins and cholesterol.

    First Pass Metabolism

    When a substance is swallowed and absorbed, it first travels through the hepatic portal system for metabolism by the liver; this first pass can reduce the availability of the structure to the body.

    Systemic Circulation

    When blood travels from the heart to the arteries and capillaries, exchanging oxygen for carbon dioxide and returning to the heart for pulmonary circulation.

    Transamination

    The transfer of an amino group from and amino acid to an alpha-keto acid.

    Acetyl CoA

    Co-enzyme that plays a role in intermediary metabolism; can enter the Krebs cycle to produce energy and be used for fatty acid synthesis.

    Ketone Body

    Either acetoacetic acid, acetone or beta-hydroxybutyric acid with a a carbonyl group attached to two carbon atoms.

    Blood Brain Barrier

    Natural barrier formed by brain capillaries that prevents susbstances from leaving the blood and entering brain tissue.

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