Precision Nutrition - Chapter 1 Cell Structure and Function flashcards |

This is a Free Service provided by Why Fund Inc. (a 501 C3 NonProfit) We thank you for your donation!


(1. Click on the course Study Set you wish to learn.) (2. If you wish you can click on "Print" and print the test page.) (3. When you want to take a test...click on anyone of the tests for that Study Set.) (4. Click on "Check Answers" and it will score your test and correct your answers.) (5. You can take all the tests as many times as you choose until you get an "A"!) (6. Automated college courses created from lecture notes, class exams, text books, reading materials from many colleges and universities.)

New

Long-Term Learning

Learn efficiently and remember over time.

Start Long-Term Learning

Get personalized study reminders at intervals optimized for better retention.
Track your progress on this set by creating a folder
Or add to an existing folder

Add this set to a folder

  • Metabolism

    Sum of reactions that take place to build up and break down the body.

    Homeostasis

    The body's ability to maintain a stable and constant internal condition. The state of balanced function in the body.

    Protein

    Large and complex molecule consisting of amino acids ( which contain nitrogen) that are essential for living cells.

    Pathogen

    Disease causing agent, usually bacteria, virus or fungi.

    Epithelial Tissues

    Tissues composed of cellular levels that protect outer surfaces of the human body such as skin, mucosa, and intestinal lining.

    Connective Tissue

    Supportive tissue, such as ligaments, tendons, and fascia, formed from a fibrous matrix.

    Muscle Tissues

    Tissues consisting of bundles of cells that contract when stimulated.

    Nervous Tissue

    Tissue capable of conducting impulses that help to connect and communicate signals to other parts of the body.

    Organelle

    Component of the cell that is responsible for a specific task.

    Cytoplasm

    Fluid medium inside of the cell, but outside the nucleus, that surrounds the organelles.

    Macronutrient

    Nutrient the body requires in large amounts ( i.e. protein, fat, carbohydrate)

    Micronutrient

    Organic compound the body requires in very small amounts ( i.e. vitamins and minerals)

    Potential Energy

    Energy stored within a physical system.

    Phytochemical

    Chemical substance obtained from plants that is biologically active but non-nutritive.

    Co-Factor

    Non-protein compound that interacts with another substance to facilitate a transformation.

    Hormone

    Compound created by one cell that travels to and stimulates another cell.

    Genetics

    Specific, inherited DNA of an organism, which influences what they become, although environment also plays a key role in the expression of an organism's genetic code.

    DNA

    Nucleic acids that contain instructions for heredity.

    Nucleus

    Organelle where genetic material is housed.

    Gene

    A particular sequence in DNA or RNA that controls the expression of a protein, and by extension influences the characteristics of an organism.

    Genetic Polymorphism

    Variation in the form of one or a sequence of genes.

    Nutrigenomics

    Study of how genes respond to nutritional intake.

    Diurnal

    Daily cycle, e.g.,
    of hormone release.

    Insulin

    Protein hormone released from the pancreas; necessary for the metabolism of nutrients.

    Plasma Membrane

    Lipid bylayer that is permeable to certain compounds that contains the cell.

    Lipid

    Organic compound that is insoluble in water, provides structure, storage, and messenger functions in the body.

    Cholesterol

    Lipid/sterol contained in the body's cells and fluids that act as a precursor to hormones and bodily structures.

    Phospholipid

    A type of lipid with a hydrophilic phosphate group "head" and a hydrophobic fatty acid "tail" that forms cell membranes.

    Hydrophilic

    Strong affinity for water.

    Hydrophobic

    Lack of affinity for water.

    Cytosol

    Internal fluid portion of the cell.

    Mitochondria

    Organelles that supply the cells' energy/ATP

    Oxidize

    To combine with oxygen.

    Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

    Adenosine molecule with three phosphate groups that supplies energy for the cell.

    Mitochondrial Density

    Quantity of mitochondria per unit volume.

    Mitochondrial Quality

    Specific attributes of mitochondria.

    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)

    Various substances formed as a byproduct of metabolism that are highly reactive due to the unpaired electron shell.

    Free Radical

    Reactive atom with one or more electrons.

    Chromosomes

    Organized structure of DNA, found within cells, that contains the genes of an organism.

    Transcription

    Construction of mRNA from a DNA molecule.

    Translation

    Forming a protein molecule based on the information contained in the mRNA.

    Endoplasmic Reticulum

    Cytoplasmic membrane that translates proteins.

    Golgi Apparatus

    Cytoplasmic organelle necessary for the modification and transport of proteins.

    Ribosome

    A complex rich in RNA and protein found in cells.

    Glycoprotein

    Protein that contains a carbohydrate group, involved in membrane integrity.

    Cisterna

    Flattened membrane disc of Golgi apparatus

    Vesicle

    Fluid filled pouch/sac that can transport and store compounds.

    Lysosomes

    Organelle containing hydrolytic enzymes. "Cellular garbage disposals" that help in the process of cellular renewal and/or protection.

    Peroxisome

    Cytoplasmic organelle with enzymes that help with the breakdown of fatty acids and other macronutrients. Detoxify harmful substances that enter cells.

    Detoxify

    To remove a toxin or poison from the body.

    Receptor-Ligand-Binding Complex

    A complex formed between a receptor and a substance to allow for further cellular activity.

    Signal Transduction

    Conversion of one signal to another by a cell.

    Second Messenger

    Substance that mediates intercellular activity by relaying a signal from an extracellular molecule.

    Ligand

    Any substance that binds specifically and reversibly to another chemical entity to form a larger complex.

    Transport Protein

    Protein that moves compounds across a membrane.

    Facilitated Diffusion

    Transport that requires a carrier molecule; occurs when diffusion of a substance on its own is not possible.

    Active Transport

    Movements of particles from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration; requires energy and enzymes.

    Substrate

    Substance acted upon by an enzyme.

    Lock-And-Key Model

    Model that explains enzyme specificity. The enzyme and chemical substrate fit together tightly and carry out their reaction.

    Induced Fit Model

    Model that suggests enzymes are rather flexible structures. The enzyme and chemical substrate undergo structural changes when close to one another.

    Co-Enzyme

    Non-protein compound that that forms the active portion of an enzyme system. Operates alongside enzymes.

    Catalyze

    Initiate or increase the rate of a chemical reaction.

    Cristae

    Internal compartments of the mitochondria. Folds in which the enzymes and structures responsible for making ATP are located., An in folding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.

    Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)

    Various nucleic acids on a single strand containing ribose and uracil, necessary for the control of cell activities.

    Microorganism

    Organism of microscopic size.

    Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

    Having trouble? Click here for help.

    We can’t access your microphone!

    Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

    Example:

    Reload the page to try again!

    Reload

    Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

    Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

    It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

    Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
    to use Voice Recording.

    For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

    Your microphone is muted

    For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

    Star this term

    You can study starred terms together

    ! Voice Recording

    This is a Plus feature

    Create Study Set