The body's ability to maintain a stable and constant internal condition. The state of balanced function in the body.
Large and complex molecule consisting of amino acids ( which contain nitrogen) that are essential for living cells.
Tissues composed of cellular levels that protect outer surfaces of the human body such as skin, mucosa, and intestinal lining.
Supportive tissue, such as ligaments, tendons, and fascia, formed from a fibrous matrix.
Tissue capable of conducting impulses that help to connect and communicate signals to other parts of the body.
Organic compound the body requires in very small amounts ( i.e. vitamins and minerals)
Chemical substance obtained from plants that is biologically active but non-nutritive.
Non-protein compound that interacts with another substance to facilitate a transformation.
Specific, inherited DNA of an organism, which influences what they become, although environment also plays a key role in the expression of an organism's genetic code.
A particular sequence in DNA or RNA that controls the expression of a protein, and by extension influences the characteristics of an organism.
Organic compound that is insoluble in water, provides structure, storage, and messenger functions in the body.
Lipid/sterol contained in the body's cells and fluids that act as a precursor to hormones and bodily structures.
A type of lipid with a hydrophilic phosphate group "head" and a hydrophobic fatty acid "tail" that forms cell membranes.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Adenosine molecule with three phosphate groups that supplies energy for the cell.
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)
Various substances formed as a byproduct of metabolism that are highly reactive due to the unpaired electron shell.
Organelle containing hydrolytic enzymes. "Cellular garbage disposals" that help in the process of cellular renewal and/or protection.
Cytoplasmic organelle with enzymes that help with the breakdown of fatty acids and other macronutrients. Detoxify harmful substances that enter cells.
A complex formed between a receptor and a substance to allow for further cellular activity.
Substance that mediates intercellular activity by relaying a signal from an extracellular molecule.
Any substance that binds specifically and reversibly to another chemical entity to form a larger complex.
Transport that requires a carrier molecule; occurs when diffusion of a substance on its own is not possible.
Movements of particles from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration; requires energy and enzymes.
Model that explains enzyme specificity. The enzyme and chemical substrate fit together tightly and carry out their reaction.
Induced Fit Model
Model that suggests enzymes are rather flexible structures. The enzyme and chemical substrate undergo structural changes when close to one another.
Non-protein compound that that forms the active portion of an enzyme system. Operates alongside enzymes.
Internal compartments of the mitochondria. Folds in which the enzymes and structures responsible for making ATP are located., An in folding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
Various nucleic acids on a single strand containing ribose and uracil, necessary for the control of cell activities.