Precision Nutrition - Chapter 1 Cell Structure and Function flashcards |

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  • Metabolism

    Sum of reactions that take place to build up and break down the body.


    The body's ability to maintain a stable and constant internal condition. The state of balanced function in the body.


    Large and complex molecule consisting of amino acids ( which contain nitrogen) that are essential for living cells.


    Disease causing agent, usually bacteria, virus or fungi.

    Epithelial Tissues

    Tissues composed of cellular levels that protect outer surfaces of the human body such as skin, mucosa, and intestinal lining.

    Connective Tissue

    Supportive tissue, such as ligaments, tendons, and fascia, formed from a fibrous matrix.

    Muscle Tissues

    Tissues consisting of bundles of cells that contract when stimulated.

    Nervous Tissue

    Tissue capable of conducting impulses that help to connect and communicate signals to other parts of the body.


    Component of the cell that is responsible for a specific task.


    Fluid medium inside of the cell, but outside the nucleus, that surrounds the organelles.


    Nutrient the body requires in large amounts ( i.e. protein, fat, carbohydrate)


    Organic compound the body requires in very small amounts ( i.e. vitamins and minerals)

    Potential Energy

    Energy stored within a physical system.


    Chemical substance obtained from plants that is biologically active but non-nutritive.


    Non-protein compound that interacts with another substance to facilitate a transformation.


    Compound created by one cell that travels to and stimulates another cell.


    Specific, inherited DNA of an organism, which influences what they become, although environment also plays a key role in the expression of an organism's genetic code.


    Nucleic acids that contain instructions for heredity.


    Organelle where genetic material is housed.


    A particular sequence in DNA or RNA that controls the expression of a protein, and by extension influences the characteristics of an organism.

    Genetic Polymorphism

    Variation in the form of one or a sequence of genes.


    Study of how genes respond to nutritional intake.


    Daily cycle, e.g.,
    of hormone release.


    Protein hormone released from the pancreas; necessary for the metabolism of nutrients.

    Plasma Membrane

    Lipid bylayer that is permeable to certain compounds that contains the cell.


    Organic compound that is insoluble in water, provides structure, storage, and messenger functions in the body.


    Lipid/sterol contained in the body's cells and fluids that act as a precursor to hormones and bodily structures.


    A type of lipid with a hydrophilic phosphate group "head" and a hydrophobic fatty acid "tail" that forms cell membranes.


    Strong affinity for water.


    Lack of affinity for water.


    Internal fluid portion of the cell.


    Organelles that supply the cells' energy/ATP


    To combine with oxygen.

    Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

    Adenosine molecule with three phosphate groups that supplies energy for the cell.

    Mitochondrial Density

    Quantity of mitochondria per unit volume.

    Mitochondrial Quality

    Specific attributes of mitochondria.

    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)

    Various substances formed as a byproduct of metabolism that are highly reactive due to the unpaired electron shell.

    Free Radical

    Reactive atom with one or more electrons.


    Organized structure of DNA, found within cells, that contains the genes of an organism.


    Construction of mRNA from a DNA molecule.


    Forming a protein molecule based on the information contained in the mRNA.

    Endoplasmic Reticulum

    Cytoplasmic membrane that translates proteins.

    Golgi Apparatus

    Cytoplasmic organelle necessary for the modification and transport of proteins.


    A complex rich in RNA and protein found in cells.


    Protein that contains a carbohydrate group, involved in membrane integrity.


    Flattened membrane disc of Golgi apparatus


    Fluid filled pouch/sac that can transport and store compounds.


    Organelle containing hydrolytic enzymes. "Cellular garbage disposals" that help in the process of cellular renewal and/or protection.


    Cytoplasmic organelle with enzymes that help with the breakdown of fatty acids and other macronutrients. Detoxify harmful substances that enter cells.


    To remove a toxin or poison from the body.

    Receptor-Ligand-Binding Complex

    A complex formed between a receptor and a substance to allow for further cellular activity.

    Signal Transduction

    Conversion of one signal to another by a cell.

    Second Messenger

    Substance that mediates intercellular activity by relaying a signal from an extracellular molecule.


    Any substance that binds specifically and reversibly to another chemical entity to form a larger complex.

    Transport Protein

    Protein that moves compounds across a membrane.

    Facilitated Diffusion

    Transport that requires a carrier molecule; occurs when diffusion of a substance on its own is not possible.

    Active Transport

    Movements of particles from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration; requires energy and enzymes.


    Substance acted upon by an enzyme.

    Lock-And-Key Model

    Model that explains enzyme specificity. The enzyme and chemical substrate fit together tightly and carry out their reaction.

    Induced Fit Model

    Model that suggests enzymes are rather flexible structures. The enzyme and chemical substrate undergo structural changes when close to one another.


    Non-protein compound that that forms the active portion of an enzyme system. Operates alongside enzymes.


    Initiate or increase the rate of a chemical reaction.


    Internal compartments of the mitochondria. Folds in which the enzymes and structures responsible for making ATP are located., An in folding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.

    Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)

    Various nucleic acids on a single strand containing ribose and uracil, necessary for the control of cell activities.


    Organism of microscopic size.

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