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82 True/False questions

  1. Stage 4: late grammar3-5 years
    increase in sentence length and complexity
    90% of language is developed

          

  2. Anomic aphasiacan't find the right word, elaborate circumlocutions,
    semantic: can't find word because of semantic errors
    word selection: semantic seems intact, problem lies in phonological output
    damage to superior temporal lobe, temporal parietal junction

          

  3. Pre verbal period in infantsVentrolateral: maintenance in working memory, encodes preferences
    dorsolateral: manipulation of maintained info

          

  4. Patient SMbilateral amygdala damage in both hemispheres
    Does not get scared, but could label fearful situations or detect it
    Can't express the emotion of fear
    Could only detect fear if told what to focus on, abnormal eye patterns tracking faces

          

  5. Explicit emotional learningparental love, emotional love, jealousy
    not a universal facial expression
    long lasting
    culturally and individually defined

          

  6. Geschwind's modeltraditional view of language localization, found by brain damage and confirmed by electrical stimulation

          

  7. Implicit emotional learningNeutral stimulus becomes aversive when paired with an aversive event, classical conditioning

          

  8. Wernike's aphasiaproblems understanding speech, not problem with production, produces fluent speech but unaware it doesn't make sense

          

  9. Role of amygdala in fearMore active the amygdala, the stronger the memory
    Enhances emotional memory
    enhance consolidation
    Amygdala can drive emotions to enhance information when attentional resources are weak, relay station

          

  10. How do we learn language?not through correction of errors
    is it innate?
    internalizing rules? imitation?
    complex simplex is learned before tying shoes but no one teaches this
    There is a critical period: story of genie, couldn't learn language after isolation until age 8

          

  11. Working memory and other brain regionsdelayed response task with faces
    during delay after stimulus, PFC maintains info, up regulates
    both high during retrieval

          

  12. PFC and working memorylateral PFC, correlated with language, academic skills, comprehension
    maintains information during delay

          

  13. paraphasiadistortions in speech output
    semantic: say word that is semantically similar to what you want to say
    literal: say word phonologically different from what you want to say

          

  14. Cannon-Bard theoryInteraction between stimulus and interpretation

          

  15. Transcortical motor aphasiaimpaired auditory comprehension of speech, reading is fine and speech is fine

          

  16. Limbic systembilateral amygdala damage in both hemispheres
    Does not get scared, but could label fearful situations or detect it
    Can't express the emotion of fear
    Could only detect fear if told what to focus on, abnormal eye patterns tracking faces

          

  17. Kulver-Bucy syndromeHypothalamus, anterior thalamus, cingulate gyrus, hippocampus
    Also includes amygdala, subcortical structures, orbitofrontal cortex (old, outdated)

          

  18. Amygdala and memoryMore active the amygdala, the stronger the memory
    Enhances emotional memory
    enhance consolidation
    Amygdala can drive emotions to enhance information when attentional resources are weak, relay station

          

  19. Response to aversive eventsVentrolateral: maintenance in working memory, encodes preferences
    dorsolateral: manipulation of maintained info

          

  20. Working memory and object permanenceshares neural substrates in humans
    deaf signers with brain damage to left temporal and frontal lobe lose ability to sign

          

  21. Appraisal theoryInteraction between stimulus and interpretation

          

  22. Singer-Schacter theoryEmotion is result from feedback from body response
    Afraid because we run

          

  23. Dimensions of emotionsEmotions that are the same but differ along a dimension, valence (positive or negative), and arousal (degree or intensity)
    Approach or withdraw: the goal they motivate

          

  24. Gesture and speechbilateral amygdala damage in both hemispheres
    Does not get scared, but could label fearful situations or detect it
    Can't express the emotion of fear
    Could only detect fear if told what to focus on, abnormal eye patterns tracking faces

          

  25. LocalizationalistEmotions processed by specific brain regions, different emotions processed by different regions
    orbitofrontal cortex= anger
    anterior cingulate gyrus= sadness
    insula= disgust
    amygdala= fear

          

  26. Evolution and Comparative languagedevelops earlier and faster than spoken language
    respond to familiar voices by 3 months
    watches mouth movements of speaker 3-6 months
    responds to name 6-9 months
    9-12 months understands no, recognizes voices
    understands most of what they hear by 2 years old

          

  27. Surface dyslexiacan read by sounding out, but generalize sounds

          

  28. Anomiadistortions in speech output
    semantic: say word that is semantically similar to what you want to say
    literal: say word phonologically different from what you want to say

          

  29. Deep acquired dyslexiacannot red pseudo words, rely on memory in order to read

          

  30. Damasio's somatic marker hypothesisproblems understanding speech, not problem with production, produces fluent speech but unaware it doesn't make sense

          

  31. The insular cortexConnections with amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, ACC
    correlation between insult activation and perception of internal body states
    Larger right insula: more aware of body states

          

  32. Cognitive strategies for emotion: reappraisalstrategy that reassesses emotional laden events in non emotional terms, actually changes emotional reaction
    PFC modulates amygdala response

          

  33. Papez circuitdisorder of language that is neurogenic and not due to deafness, IQ, paralysis

          

  34. McCelland and Rumelhart model of readingtwo way model with top down and bottom up processing
    parallel processing of both features, letters, words

          

  35. Letter by letter reading (pure alexia)can only read by spelling words out, memorization depends on word length

          

  36. Lateral to medial axisLateral: people and things related to achieving goal
    Medial: motivation, values, feelings

          

  37. Word finding difficultiesdifficulty finding the particular word you're looking for

          

  38. PFC and switching tasksright inferior prefrontal cortex, motor inhibition via basal ganglia
    fMRI studies, stop signal task, go/no go task

          

  39. Shallow orthographyone to one mapping, spanish

          

  40. Failures of task switchingshares neural substrates in humans
    deaf signers with brain damage to left temporal and frontal lobe lose ability to sign

          

  41. Right hemisphere and languagedevelops earlier and faster than spoken language
    respond to familiar voices by 3 months
    watches mouth movements of speaker 3-6 months
    responds to name 6-9 months
    9-12 months understands no, recognizes voices
    understands most of what they hear by 2 years old

          

  42. Ventrolateral PFCequally active in working memory whether manipulating info or not
    forward n back test (maintenance only)

          

  43. Ventral to dorsal axisVentrolateral: maintenance in working memory, encodes preferences
    dorsolateral: manipulation of maintained info

          

  44. Constructivist theoryEmotion emerges from cognition, language based

          

  45. Pandemonium model of readingall stimulus driven, bottom up
    "demons" match sensory input to features

          

  46. Tonal languagedamage to posterior and anterior language regions
    no speech comprehension or production

          

  47. Deep orthographyone to many mapping, english
    uses phonemes
    Japanese uses syllabus
    Chinese uses words/morphemes (logographic)

          

  48. PFC and inhibitionright inferior prefrontal cortex, motor inhibition via basal ganglia
    fMRI studies, stop signal task, go/no go task

          

  49. Complex emotionsparental love, emotional love, jealousy
    not a universal facial expression
    long lasting
    culturally and individually defined

          

  50. Category specificity in anomiaherpes encephalitis, both temporal lobes affected, can't identify animate objects

          

  51. Descriptive theories of decision makingHow people really do make decisions

          

  52. Suppressiondisorder of language that is neurogenic and not due to deafness, IQ, paralysis

          

  53. Stage 2: multi word statements12-18 months
    has at least 50 words by 18 months, begin combining, mostly nouns

          

  54. Deep dyslexiadifficult in letter reading only when it is not in isolation, could be attentional problems of letters stringing together

          

  55. Global aphasiacan't find the right word, elaborate circumlocutions,
    semantic: can't find word because of semantic errors
    word selection: semantic seems intact, problem lies in phonological output
    damage to superior temporal lobe, temporal parietal junction

          

  56. Aphasiadisorder of language that is neurogenic and not due to deafness, IQ, paralysis

          

  57. Complex emotionsCombinations of basic emotions, may be learned, specific to culture

          

  58. Stage 1: single word statements12-18 months
    has at least 50 words by 18 months, begin combining, mostly nouns

          

  59. PFC regulates the braindynamic filtering mechanism
    upregulates relevant info
    down regulates irrelevant info

          

  60. Ekman hypothesis of basic emotionsemotions only varied on valence scale, meaning of facial expressions varied across cultures
    later found basic emotions are cross cultured
    anger, fear, disgust, sadness, happiness, and surprise

          

  61. Stimulus response decisionChange or hide emotional response to the situation, actually increases arousal and stress

          

  62. Posterior to anterier axis of PFCcomplexity and abstraction, more anterior is more complex

          

  63. Basic emotionsCarved through evolution, reflected by facial expressions, universal

          

  64. Dorsolateral PFCmore active in working memory when it involves manipulation
    backward n back test (maintenance and manipulation)

          

  65. Receptive languageone to many mapping, english
    uses phonemes
    Japanese uses syllabus
    Chinese uses words/morphemes (logographic)

          

  66. Broca's aphasiaproblems understanding speech, not problem with production, produces fluent speech but unaware it doesn't make sense

          

  67. Dopaminergic system in reward processingdopamine reflects wanting, neuron activity tied to unexpectedness
    represent prediction error: difference between expected and actual reward
    dopamine is associated with learning
    encode reinforcement

          

  68. Emotion and decision makingOrbito frontal cortex involved in associating complex situations, uses current emotional state and expected outcome emotion

          

  69. Attentional dyslexiacan read by sounding out, but generalize sounds

          

  70. Evolutionary psychologywe have a feeling and then a reaction, body reactions not specific enough to produce subjective experience

          

  71. James Lange theoryEmotion is result from feedback from body response
    Afraid because we run

          

  72. Action-outcome decisioncan't find the right word, elaborate circumlocutions,
    semantic: can't find word because of semantic errors
    word selection: semantic seems intact, problem lies in phonological output
    damage to superior temporal lobe, temporal parietal junction

          

  73. Conduction aphasiaword finding difficulty, paraphasias, can't repeat words
    damage to Arcuate faciculus, temporal parietal junction, or supra marginal gyrus

          

  74. 3 components to emotionparental love, emotional love, jealousy
    not a universal facial expression
    long lasting
    culturally and individually defined

          

  75. Two route reading theorieswe have a feeling and then a reaction, body reactions not specific enough to produce subjective experience

          

  76. LeDoux's high road low roadbroken speech , frontal and motor aphasia, speech output, causes telegraphic speech, can comprehend language

          

  77. Medial Frontal LobeCarved through evolution, reflected by facial expressions, universal

          

  78. Stress and memoryEmotion is result from feedback from body response
    Afraid because we run

          

  79. Stage 3: early emerging grammar3-5 years
    increase in sentence length and complexity
    90% of language is developed

          

  80. Transcortical aphasiaimpaired auditory comprehension of speech, reading is fine and speech is fine

          

  81. Phonemesindividual sound units
    infants learn by age 1
    words must be parsed: segmentation problem

          

  82. Normative theories of decision makingHow people really do make decisions