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82 Multiple choice questions

  1. Combinations of basic emotions, may be learned, specific to culture
  2. Carved through evolution, reflected by facial expressions, universal
  3. Connections with amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, ACC
    correlation between insult activation and perception of internal body states
    Larger right insula: more aware of body states
  4. emotions only varied on valence scale, meaning of facial expressions varied across cultures
    later found basic emotions are cross cultured
    anger, fear, disgust, sadness, happiness, and surprise
  5. Emotions processed by specific brain regions, different emotions processed by different regions
    orbitofrontal cortex= anger
    anterior cingulate gyrus= sadness
    insula= disgust
    amygdala= fear
  6. Change or hide emotional response to the situation, actually increases arousal and stress
  7. Orbito frontal cortex involved in associating complex situations, uses current emotional state and expected outcome emotion
  8. inability to name things
  9. right inferior prefrontal cortex, motor inhibition via basal ganglia
    fMRI studies, stop signal task, go/no go task
  10. difficulty with speech output non fluent
    auditory comprehension problems
    often has compulsion to repeat back what is heard- cholalie
    lesion in transcortical area, supplementary motor areas
  11. Lateral: people and things related to achieving goal
    Medial: motivation, values, feelings
  12. impaired auditory comprehension of speech, reading is fine and speech is fine
  13. Inferior, dorsolateral PFC
    only 2% of people have no dual task costs
    possibilities: when switching tasks become so automatic the interior PFC is no longer needed, the inferior PFC gets better at the switch,
    evidence supports second possibility
  14. from 6-12 months, may involve development of manipulating information after delay
  15. Interaction between stimulus and interpretation
  16. word finding difficulty, paraphasias, can't repeat words
    damage to Arcuate faciculus, temporal parietal junction, or supra marginal gyrus
  17. emotions coordinate cognitive programs, instructs entire system
  18. Thalamus, habenula receives input from limbic system and inhibits substantia nigra, activates for worst possible outcomes
  19. physiological reaction, behavioral response, feeling
  20. bilateral amygdala damage in both hemispheres
    Does not get scared, but could label fearful situations or detect it
    Can't express the emotion of fear
    Could only detect fear if told what to focus on, abnormal eye patterns tracking faces
  21. delayed response task with faces
    during delay after stimulus, PFC maintains info, up regulates
    both high during retrieval
  22. requires choice, model of the world needed
  23. two way model with top down and bottom up processing
    parallel processing of both features, letters, words
  24. we have a feeling and then a reaction, body reactions not specific enough to produce subjective experience
  25. little or no speech, good auditory comprehension
    some reading, no syntax
    vocab, prosody comprehension
  26. traditional view of language localization, found by brain damage and confirmed by electrical stimulation
  27. can only read by spelling words out, memorization depends on word length
  28. shares neural substrates in humans
    deaf signers with brain damage to left temporal and frontal lobe lose ability to sign
  29. Neutral stimulus becomes aversive when paired with an aversive event, classical conditioning
  30. Emotion is result from feedback from body response
    Afraid because we run
  31. 3-5 years
    increase in sentence length and complexity
    90% of language is developed
  32. Facial expression of fear and the experience of fear
  33. Ventrolateral: maintenance in working memory, encodes preferences
    dorsolateral: manipulation of maintained info
  34. broken speech , frontal and motor aphasia, speech output, causes telegraphic speech, can comprehend language
  35. develops earlier and faster than spoken language
    respond to familiar voices by 3 months
    watches mouth movements of speaker 3-6 months
    responds to name 6-9 months
    9-12 months understands no, recognizes voices
    understands most of what they hear by 2 years old
  36. disorder of language that is neurogenic and not due to deafness, IQ, paralysis
  37. Emotion emerges from cognition, language based
  38. more active in working memory when it involves manipulation
    backward n back test (maintenance and manipulation)
  39. distortions in speech output
    semantic: say word that is semantically similar to what you want to say
    literal: say word phonologically different from what you want to say
  40. how people should make decisions
  41. can read by sounding out, but generalize sounds
  42. Chomsky: language is so different from animals it cannot be natural selection
    Pinker: only natural selection could make such a complex system
    Vocalizations in other animals are to influence others, may not even be intentional
    Gestures by animals are more intentional and resemble human language
  43. individual sound units
    infants learn by age 1
    words must be parsed: segmentation problem
  44. grapheme to phoneme correspondence
    we memorize irregular words
    we sound out pseudo words
  45. dynamic filtering mechanism
    upregulates relevant info
    down regulates irrelevant info
  46. dopamine reflects wanting, neuron activity tied to unexpectedness
    represent prediction error: difference between expected and actual reward
    dopamine is associated with learning
    encode reinforcement
  47. 12-18 months
    has at least 50 words by 18 months, begin combining, mostly nouns
  48. complexity and abstraction, more anterior is more complex
  49. cannot red pseudo words, rely on memory in order to read
  50. parental love, emotional love, jealousy
    not a universal facial expression
    long lasting
    culturally and individually defined
  51. 18-26 months
    declarative statements (subject+verb+object)
    verb phrases
    200-300 words
    development of early grammar at the end
  52. Damage to medial temporal lobes of monkeys
    Causes psychic blindness: inability to recognize emotional importance in stimuli
    Don't fear people, snakes
    hyper sexual, don't learn from negative experience
  53. strategy that reassesses emotional laden events in non emotional terms, actually changes emotional reaction
    PFC modulates amygdala response
  54. difficulty finding the particular word you're looking for
  55. 2-3 years
    noun phrases, linking verbs, helping verbs added to the declarative statements
  56. coordinates attention, detecting errors, resolving response conflicts
    highest when attending to one feature
    when dividing attention, greatest activity in anterior cingulate
    MFC higher in tasks that require attention like novel or harder tasks
    role in error detection (percuneus activity increases during error)
    MFC increases when cue doesn't correspond with target
  57. semantic errors, trouble assigning semantic meaning to written words, can read non words
  58. Acute stress can enhance memory
    Chronic stress can impair memory
  59. Hypothalamus, anterior thalamus, cingulate gyrus, hippocampus
    Also includes amygdala, subcortical structures, orbitofrontal cortex (old, outdated)
  60. Perseveration, getting stuck on one goal
    frontal lobe damage, schizophrenia, autism spectrum
    elicited by Wisconsin card sort task
  61. Emotions that are the same but differ along a dimension, valence (positive or negative), and arousal (degree or intensity)
    Approach or withdraw: the goal they motivate
  62. can't find the right word, elaborate circumlocutions,
    semantic: can't find word because of semantic errors
    word selection: semantic seems intact, problem lies in phonological output
    damage to superior temporal lobe, temporal parietal junction
  63. Arousal causes cognition which labels the emotion
  64. lateral PFC, correlated with language, academic skills, comprehension
    maintains information during delay
  65. emotional response based on physiological arousal, needed to guide decision making
  66. one to many mapping, english
    uses phonemes
    Japanese uses syllabus
    Chinese uses words/morphemes (logographic)
  67. Two systems working in parallel
    Emotional response (immediate) and conscious feeling
    High road goes through cortex, slower
    Low road goes from thalamus to amygdala, immediate (flight or fight)
  68. equally active in working memory whether manipulating info or not
    forward n back test (maintenance only)
  69. How people really do make decisions
  70. Hypothalamus, anterior thalamus, cingulate gyrus, hippocampus
    Emotional stimuli processed via two routes
    1) stream of feeling: subcortical pathway
    2) stream of thought: cortical pathway
  71. birth- 8 months: non purposeful non verbal communication but often interpreted as purposeful
    8-12 months: purposeful communication, gestures and vocalizations to try to communicate
  72. all stimulus driven, bottom up
    "demons" match sensory input to features
  73. same symbol many meanings dependent on inflection
  74. Not necessarily learned from direct experience
    ex: loud noise
    Amygdala involved in physiological response based on explicit instruction (ex told you'll receive a shock)
  75. difficult in letter reading only when it is not in isolation, could be attentional problems of letters stringing together
  76. problems understanding speech, not problem with production, produces fluent speech but unaware it doesn't make sense
  77. one to one mapping, spanish
  78. More active the amygdala, the stronger the memory
    Enhances emotional memory
    enhance consolidation
    Amygdala can drive emotions to enhance information when attentional resources are weak, relay station
  79. not through correction of errors
    is it innate?
    internalizing rules? imitation?
    complex simplex is learned before tying shoes but no one teaches this
    There is a critical period: story of genie, couldn't learn language after isolation until age 8
  80. damage to posterior and anterior language regions
    no speech comprehension or production
  81. herpes encephalitis, both temporal lobes affected, can't identify animate objects
  82. automatic association, no model of the world needed