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  1. Implicit emotional learning
  2. Dimensions of emotions
  3. James Lange theory
  4. Ekman hypothesis of basic emotions
  5. The insular cortex
  6. Appraisal theory
  7. Working memory and other brain regions
  8. Cannon-Bard theory
  9. Failures of task switching
  10. Response to aversive events
  11. Medial Frontal Lobe
  12. Deep dyslexia
  13. Stage 1: single word statements
  14. Transcortical aphasia
  15. Right hemisphere and language
  16. Singer-Schacter theory
  17. Normative theories of decision making
  18. paraphasia
  19. Stimulus response decision
  20. Evolutionary psychology
  21. Attentional dyslexia
  22. Anomia
  23. Dopaminergic system in reward processing
  24. Anomic aphasia
  25. McCelland and Rumelhart model of reading
  26. Phonemes
  27. Broca's aphasia
  28. PFC regulates the brain
  29. LeDoux's high road low road
  30. Complex emotions
  31. Lateral to medial axis
  32. Tonal language
  33. Dorsolateral PFC
  34. Papez circuit
  35. Constructivist theory
  36. Wernike's aphasia
  37. Receptive language
  38. Letter by letter reading (pure alexia)
  39. Suppression
  40. Stage 2: multi word statements
  41. Descriptive theories of decision making
  42. Stress and memory
  43. Evolution and Comparative language
  44. Aphasia
  45. Basic emotions
  46. How do we learn language?
  47. Pre verbal period in infants
  48. PFC and inhibition
  49. Working memory and object permanence
  50. Surface dyslexia
  51. Role of amygdala in fear
  52. Posterior to anterier axis of PFC
  53. Action-outcome decision
  54. Stage 4: late grammar
  55. Localizationalist
  56. Geschwind's model
  57. Global aphasia
  58. Deep orthography
  59. Pandemonium model of reading
  60. Conduction aphasia
  61. Category specificity in anomia
  62. Kulver-Bucy syndrome
  63. Gesture and speech
  64. PFC and working memory
  65. PFC and switching tasks
  66. Word finding difficulties
  67. Cognitive strategies for emotion: reappraisal
  68. Ventrolateral PFC
  69. Amygdala and memory
  70. Emotion and decision making
  71. Stage 3: early emerging grammar
  72. Explicit emotional learning
  73. Limbic system
  74. 3 components to emotion
  75. Shallow orthography
  76. Patient SM
  77. Deep acquired dyslexia
  78. Ventral to dorsal axis
  79. Two route reading theories
  80. Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis
  81. Transcortical motor aphasia
  1. a Not necessarily learned from direct experience
    ex: loud noise
    Amygdala involved in physiological response based on explicit instruction (ex told you'll receive a shock)
  2. b Connections with amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, ACC
    correlation between insult activation and perception of internal body states
    Larger right insula: more aware of body states
  3. c problems understanding speech, not problem with production, produces fluent speech but unaware it doesn't make sense
  4. d develops earlier and faster than spoken language
    respond to familiar voices by 3 months
    watches mouth movements of speaker 3-6 months
    responds to name 6-9 months
    9-12 months understands no, recognizes voices
    understands most of what they hear by 2 years old
  5. e emotions coordinate cognitive programs, instructs entire system
  6. f right inferior prefrontal cortex, motor inhibition via basal ganglia
    fMRI studies, stop signal task, go/no go task
  7. g How people really do make decisions
  8. h disorder of language that is neurogenic and not due to deafness, IQ, paralysis
  9. i strategy that reassesses emotional laden events in non emotional terms, actually changes emotional reaction
    PFC modulates amygdala response
  10. j dopamine reflects wanting, neuron activity tied to unexpectedness
    represent prediction error: difference between expected and actual reward
    dopamine is associated with learning
    encode reinforcement
  11. k semantic errors, trouble assigning semantic meaning to written words, can read non words
  12. l difficulty with speech output non fluent
    auditory comprehension problems
    often has compulsion to repeat back what is heard- cholalie
    lesion in transcortical area, supplementary motor areas
  13. m individual sound units
    infants learn by age 1
    words must be parsed: segmentation problem
  14. n more active in working memory when it involves manipulation
    backward n back test (maintenance and manipulation)
  15. o shares neural substrates in humans
    deaf signers with brain damage to left temporal and frontal lobe lose ability to sign
  16. p delayed response task with faces
    during delay after stimulus, PFC maintains info, up regulates
    both high during retrieval
  17. q damage to posterior and anterior language regions
    no speech comprehension or production
  18. r complexity and abstraction, more anterior is more complex
  19. s Emotion emerges from cognition, language based
  20. t Acute stress can enhance memory
    Chronic stress can impair memory
  21. u grapheme to phoneme correspondence
    we memorize irregular words
    we sound out pseudo words
  22. v one to many mapping, english
    uses phonemes
    Japanese uses syllabus
    Chinese uses words/morphemes (logographic)
  23. w lateral PFC, correlated with language, academic skills, comprehension
    maintains information during delay
  24. x can only read by spelling words out, memorization depends on word length
  25. y Damage to medial temporal lobes of monkeys
    Causes psychic blindness: inability to recognize emotional importance in stimuli
    Don't fear people, snakes
    hyper sexual, don't learn from negative experience
  26. z birth- 8 months: non purposeful non verbal communication but often interpreted as purposeful
    8-12 months: purposeful communication, gestures and vocalizations to try to communicate
  27. aa Emotions processed by specific brain regions, different emotions processed by different regions
    orbitofrontal cortex= anger
    anterior cingulate gyrus= sadness
    insula= disgust
    amygdala= fear
  28. ab word finding difficulty, paraphasias, can't repeat words
    damage to Arcuate faciculus, temporal parietal junction, or supra marginal gyrus
  29. ac automatic association, no model of the world needed
  30. ad emotions only varied on valence scale, meaning of facial expressions varied across cultures
    later found basic emotions are cross cultured
    anger, fear, disgust, sadness, happiness, and surprise
  31. ae Neutral stimulus becomes aversive when paired with an aversive event, classical conditioning
  32. af More active the amygdala, the stronger the memory
    Enhances emotional memory
    enhance consolidation
    Amygdala can drive emotions to enhance information when attentional resources are weak, relay station
  33. ag Emotion is result from feedback from body response
    Afraid because we run
  34. ah Orbito frontal cortex involved in associating complex situations, uses current emotional state and expected outcome emotion
  35. ai bilateral amygdala damage in both hemispheres
    Does not get scared, but could label fearful situations or detect it
    Can't express the emotion of fear
    Could only detect fear if told what to focus on, abnormal eye patterns tracking faces
  36. aj dynamic filtering mechanism
    upregulates relevant info
    down regulates irrelevant info
  37. ak not through correction of errors
    is it innate?
    internalizing rules? imitation?
    complex simplex is learned before tying shoes but no one teaches this
    There is a critical period: story of genie, couldn't learn language after isolation until age 8
  38. al same symbol many meanings dependent on inflection
  39. am emotional response based on physiological arousal, needed to guide decision making
  40. an Arousal causes cognition which labels the emotion
  41. ao from 6-12 months, may involve development of manipulating information after delay
  42. ap coordinates attention, detecting errors, resolving response conflicts
    highest when attending to one feature
    when dividing attention, greatest activity in anterior cingulate
    MFC higher in tasks that require attention like novel or harder tasks
    role in error detection (percuneus activity increases during error)
    MFC increases when cue doesn't correspond with target
  43. aq Ventrolateral: maintenance in working memory, encodes preferences
    dorsolateral: manipulation of maintained info
  44. ar Inferior, dorsolateral PFC
    only 2% of people have no dual task costs
    possibilities: when switching tasks become so automatic the interior PFC is no longer needed, the inferior PFC gets better at the switch,
    evidence supports second possibility
  45. as two way model with top down and bottom up processing
    parallel processing of both features, letters, words
  46. at one to one mapping, spanish
  47. au Carved through evolution, reflected by facial expressions, universal
  48. av Lateral: people and things related to achieving goal
    Medial: motivation, values, feelings
  49. aw 3-5 years
    increase in sentence length and complexity
    90% of language is developed
  50. ax equally active in working memory whether manipulating info or not
    forward n back test (maintenance only)
  51. ay physiological reaction, behavioral response, feeling
  52. az Combinations of basic emotions, may be learned, specific to culture
  53. ba Change or hide emotional response to the situation, actually increases arousal and stress
  54. bb Two systems working in parallel
    Emotional response (immediate) and conscious feeling
    High road goes through cortex, slower
    Low road goes from thalamus to amygdala, immediate (flight or fight)
  55. bc all stimulus driven, bottom up
    "demons" match sensory input to features
  56. bd Interaction between stimulus and interpretation
  57. be difficult in letter reading only when it is not in isolation, could be attentional problems of letters stringing together
  58. bf traditional view of language localization, found by brain damage and confirmed by electrical stimulation
  59. bg difficulty finding the particular word you're looking for
  60. bh Thalamus, habenula receives input from limbic system and inhibits substantia nigra, activates for worst possible outcomes
  61. bi can't find the right word, elaborate circumlocutions,
    semantic: can't find word because of semantic errors
    word selection: semantic seems intact, problem lies in phonological output
    damage to superior temporal lobe, temporal parietal junction
  62. bj impaired auditory comprehension of speech, reading is fine and speech is fine
  63. bk 18-26 months
    declarative statements (subject+verb+object)
    verb phrases
    200-300 words
    development of early grammar at the end
  64. bl Perseveration, getting stuck on one goal
    frontal lobe damage, schizophrenia, autism spectrum
    elicited by Wisconsin card sort task
  65. bm 2-3 years
    noun phrases, linking verbs, helping verbs added to the declarative statements
  66. bn Hypothalamus, anterior thalamus, cingulate gyrus, hippocampus
    Also includes amygdala, subcortical structures, orbitofrontal cortex (old, outdated)
  67. bo we have a feeling and then a reaction, body reactions not specific enough to produce subjective experience
  68. bp 12-18 months
    has at least 50 words by 18 months, begin combining, mostly nouns
  69. bq distortions in speech output
    semantic: say word that is semantically similar to what you want to say
    literal: say word phonologically different from what you want to say
  70. br broken speech , frontal and motor aphasia, speech output, causes telegraphic speech, can comprehend language
  71. bs Facial expression of fear and the experience of fear
  72. bt can read by sounding out, but generalize sounds
  73. bu Hypothalamus, anterior thalamus, cingulate gyrus, hippocampus
    Emotional stimuli processed via two routes
    1) stream of feeling: subcortical pathway
    2) stream of thought: cortical pathway
  74. bv inability to name things
  75. bw cannot red pseudo words, rely on memory in order to read
  76. bx how people should make decisions
  77. by requires choice, model of the world needed
  78. bz little or no speech, good auditory comprehension
    some reading, no syntax
    vocab, prosody comprehension
  79. ca Chomsky: language is so different from animals it cannot be natural selection
    Pinker: only natural selection could make such a complex system
    Vocalizations in other animals are to influence others, may not even be intentional
    Gestures by animals are more intentional and resemble human language
  80. cb Emotions that are the same but differ along a dimension, valence (positive or negative), and arousal (degree or intensity)
    Approach or withdraw: the goal they motivate
  81. cc herpes encephalitis, both temporal lobes affected, can't identify animate objects