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  1. Multiple pulses with rates up to 50hz.
  2. The summed or superimposed signal of the postsynaptic electrical fields of similarly aligned neuronal dendrites. Signals are recorded as a waveform with each potential having its own particular voltage (size) and frequency (oscillation rate).
  3. - Must always be used to compare two conditions
    -Cannot measure neuronal response directly, rather it indexes a hemodynamic response of the vascular system to the increased need for oxygen in neurons in the local area.
    -Provides only gross information on the location of these substances within the brain
    -The concentration of the biologically active substances must be relatively high.
  4. Activity in neuron A is consistently associated with the firing of neuron B, a change occurs such that the influence of neuron A on neuron B is increased.
  5. The use of magnetic fields to distort the behavior of protons. The length of time the protons take to recover from the distortion is used to create an image of the anatomy of the brain.
  6. The absence or suppression of alpha activity. The degree of suppression is used to determine how active the brain is under different conditions (depression, greater suppression of R hemi).
  7. Uses high energy ionizing radiation emitted by a substance introduced into the body. The radioactive substance emits positrons which collide with electrons and produce photons of light. Higher metabolic activity produces more light which can than be extrapolated to create an image of brain activity.
    It is the preferred technique for examining neurotransmitter function int he brain.
  8. The hemisphere receiving sensory information processes it.
  9. Hemispheres differ not so much in what type of information they process, but rather in how they process information. L hemi processes information in a piecemeal and analytic fashion (temporal emphasis), whereas the R hemi processes information in a gestalt and holistic fashion (spatial emphasis).
  10. Examining whether all the answers obtained from a set of interrelated experiments lead to the same conclusion.
  11. The measure of brain activity in reference to a specific event. Provides some idea of when processes occur in the brain. The common alignment and firing of dendrites creates a dipole which can then be detected by electrodes placed on the scalp.
    Useful because they provide information about the time course with which information is processed in the brain.
  12. Potentially provides information about the structural integrity of brain regions as well as about the anatomical connectivity between different brain regions. Could be used to investigate the effects of demyelinating disorders and examine changes in white matter tracts during childhood.
  13. Can be used to confirm findings from the lesion method and implicate a brain region as playing a critical role in a specific mental function. Can provide insights into how the brain reorganizes, and provide information about whether a behavior is critically dependent on a particular brain region or whether it results from the interaction between brain regions.
    Can also be used therapeutically.
  14. Reduced spatial resolution compared to the PET.
    The overall picture of brain activity is less precise because it is averaged over a much longer time interval than PET.
  15. They keep researchers honest and provide systematic ways of manipulating lesions that may not occur in real life which than provides researchers with novel predictions about the relationship between the brain and behavior.
  16. Records magnetic potentials produced by brain activity. The strength of the magnetic field recorded on the outside of the head can help provide some information about how deep within the brain the source is located.
  17. Using small sets of tests to generate hypotheses and then evaluating these hypotheses using more specific tests.
  18. Delta - Present during sleep, slow frequencies of 1-4hz.
    Alpha - Present when relaxed, frequencies of 9-12hz
    Beta - Present when awake and alert, frequencies >15hz
    Gamma - Synchronous oscillations between groups of neurons; may play an important role in perceptions and attention.
  19. Used to record electrical activity of the brain. Compared to brain imaging techniques, ERM's are relatively poor at pinpointing the location of electrical activity in the brain. However, it does provide an accurate measure of brain activity.
  20. Local changes in physiological functions can be used to infer the activity levels of different brain regions. The BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) method takes advantage of the fact that oxygenated and deoxygenated blood have different magnetic properties.
  21. The concept that one hemisphere dominates or leads mental function. Introduced by John Hughlings Jackson
  22. The stimulating coils only affect the region of the brain closest to the surface. It is also not possible to control what regions of the brain are affected by TMS.
  23. Different information is presented simultaneously to each ear so that each hemisphere receives two competing pieces of information.
  24. That is, a reasonable guess as to how well the person was performing before the inquiry.
  25. relies on both localization of function and on distributed processing.
  26. To localize the source of epileptic activity and to locate primary sensory cortices. Also used to understand a variety of cognitive processes, and the neurophysiology underlying psychiatric disorders.
  27. Takes advantage of the fast signal to record information locked to an event. In this way it helps provide information about he source of activity within millimeters while providing temporal information on the order of milliseconds. However it cannot be used to obtain information about the subcortical regions.
  28. The tools of cognitive neuroscience used to provide information about the integrity of brain structures and the electrical and metabolic activity of specific brain regions.
  29. -Number of scans an individual can undergo per year is limited, therefore studies requiring multiple scans to determine changes over time are difficult.
    -Temporal and spatial resolution is poorer than fMRI's.
    -Requires ongoing ability to create a radioactive isotope.
  30. Specific regions of brain tissue are responsible for specific functions. The site of brain damage, not just the extent of the damage, will predict the nature and degree of deficit observed.
  31. Put forth the idea that all pieces of brain contribute to all functions. The nature of cognitive deficits following brain damage hinged not on which region of the brain was destroyed but rather on the extent of the damage.
  32. Does not involve transmitting high energy ionizing radiation through the body.
    Spatial resolution of the image is superior
  33. Hemispheres differ in their ability to process a particular attribute of visual information (spatial frequency). R hemi more adept at low spatial frequency, L hemi more adept at high spatial frequency.
  34. Simultaneously obtain information about the source of neural activity as well as its time course. Measures the absorption of light through the slow signal, which is thought to reflect increased blood flow to areas engaged by task demands.
    Measures the scattering of light which is related to the swelling of glia and neurons that are associated with neuronal firing (fast signal).
  35. The main nerve fiber tract that transfers information between the cerebral hemispheres. Different types of information are transferred across different parts of the callosum.
    It is the major conduit for higher-order information.
  36. Simulates the action of the brain and its processes (computational models)
  37. Combines aspects of the approaches used in ERP's and EEG's. The activity is examined over time, but the signals are not summed, instead the strength of activity in different EEG frequencies is computed.
  38. Hemispheres of the brain are equipotential at birth. Lateralization increases until puberty after which it remains constant.
  39. Made up of components which are characteristic portions of the wave. Components are usually given names that have two parts (P,N) (number of milliseconds after stimulus to presentation of component).
    ~100ms -linked to sensory processing
    ~N200 - mismatch negativity → individual presented with an item that is physically deviant from that of the prevailing context.
    ~P300 - related to attention and memory, oddball paradigm
    ~N400 - occurs when individuals detect semantic anomalies. Increases with the deviance of the word.
  40. A portion of a processing system that is dedicated to a single function not performed elsewhere within that system (localization of function).
  41. Stimulation is delivered at a precise time during performance of a task.
  42. When an individual engages in a particular type of process, a greater activation occurs in the hemisphere best suited to the task.
  43. The basic component of most computational models which exhibits behavior like a neuron. Units are wired together in layers. These layers consist of an input layer that simulates the receipt of information from the outside world, an output layer that simulates the response of the system and a "hidden" layer that is involved in the transformation necessary to perform the computation under investigation.
  44. In the L hemisphere, important for language comprehension.
  45. Information carried by the fibers of passage cannot be transmitted from one brain region to another because of damage to the fibers. Not the result of damage to neurons responsible for the behavior itself.
  46. A tool used to record and amplify the electrical signals of the brain. Electrodes are placed on the scalp with one being placed on an electrically inactive site such as the mastoid bone to provide a baseline.
  47. Static - A constant magnetic field
    Pulse Sequence - Oscillating magnetic field
    Gradient Field - Variates intensity over the area being imaged
  48. Used to determine the degree to which damage to the CNS may have compromised a person's cognitive, behavioral, and emotional functioning.
  49. Used to determine which hemisphere is responsible for speech output.
  50. The information received by the hemisphere less adept at a given task is transferred to the opposite hemisphere.
  51. Implemented by placing an electrode into the brain region of interest. The electrical output of the cell is then recorded. Researchers determine a baseline of cell firing, and then find the properties of a stimulus that causes the cell to fire maximally above that baseline.
    Helpful in providing information about the organization of many brain regions, but studies in humans are limited.
  52. Works opposite of the MEG. Imposes a pulsed magnetic field over the scalp which induces an electrical field that alters the pattern of brain activity in the underlying tissue. Causes a reversible lesion by scrambling neuronal activity (making neurons fire in a random pattern rather than coherent). Can facilitate or disrupt brain activity.
  53. -Detects the increase in the signal due to decreased presence of deoxygenated blood.
    -A widely available method.
    -Noninvasive technique with no high energy radiation involved.
    -Allows scientists to examine changes in the brain over time and has high temporal resolution
  54. An amino acid with the second highest concentration in the nervous system.
  55. Determining specific brain functions by looking at or damaging a particular area which results in the loss of specific brain functions.Emphasizes neural substrates by asking "what functions are supported by a particular piece of brain tissue?" Can test this by either looking at individuals with similar brain damage or individuals with similar observed deficits.
  56. Cannot be used on everyone because of magnetic fields interfere with pacemakers and can be harmful to individuals with metal in their body not connected to hard tissue.
  57. Determine whether two cognitive functions are independent of one another (i.e. disruptions on speech output are independent of disruptions in speech comprehension).
  58. Allow us to see the internal structure of the brain which is useful for identifying damaged structures and also for assessing the size and shape of neural structures in neurologically intact people.
  59. Occurs not because of changes in the activation function of the units themselves, but rather because of the changes in the interrelationships between and among units.
  60. Scaled down version of the PET scan which allows researchers to examine how the brain uses specific molecules and also provides information on the absolute levels of brain metabolism.
  61. The degree of influence that a unit in one level has on a unit in another level (-1 to 1).
  62. The use of x-rays to determine the density of brain structures. Higher density areas are white (bone) and lower density areas are dark (CSF). Old trauma is dark because of the CSF. These scans are relatively inexpensive and have no restrictions on who can receive them.
  63. Unable to specify with certainty the location of the dipole. Any given pattern of activity on the scalp could mathematically be produced by a variety of generators within the brain (inverse problem).
  64. Multiple tests used to detect any typed of brain dysfunction.